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Filed Jan. 18, 1943
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Filed Jan. 18,- 1943
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' Laurel/2s Ham/Worm!
Patented Jan. 7, 1947
Laurens Hammond, Chicago, 111.
Application January 18, 1943, Serial No. 472,735
19 Claims. (Cl. 250-415)
My invention relates generally to radiant
energy controlled apparatus, and more particu
larly to improved scanning apparatus for detect
ing objects radiating or re?ecting energy at an
inteinsity di?’ering from that of the surrounding
Figure 2 is a diagram indicating the manner in
which Figs. la to 1e are to be Joined to form a
complete circuit diagram;
Figure 3 is a plan view, with portions shown in
fragmentary section, of the scanning head;
Figure 4 is a side elevational view of the scan
In many types of apparatus, particularly those
used by the armed forces, it is desirable to be able
ning head;
(whether an original source or a source by re
ing the portion of the frictional retarding mech
Figure 5 is a front elevational view of the scan
to detect a source of radiation and to provide
ning head with portions shown in section;
means for indicating the direction of the source. 10 Figure 6 is a horizontal sectional view taken on
the line 6-8 of Fig. 5;
In addition, it is frequently desirable to steer a
Figure 7 is a fragmentary sectional view show
vehicle toward a selected radiation source
?ection) such, for example, as steering a marine
torpedo toward a hostile vessel. As disclosed l5 Figure 8 is a diagram illustrating the shape
herein, the invention is utilized for automatically
steering an explosive carrying glider toward a
target ingspnnse-toughtreceived-fromthe'tarv
and dimensions of the scanned ?eld;
Figure 9 is a fragmentary plan view showing
the resilient electrical connectors between the
oscillating telescope tubes and the gimbal;
"It'is' thus an object of the invention to provide 20 Fig. 10 is a diagram showing the wave form
of the electrical signal produced when the ap
an improved automatic target seeking apparatus.
paratus scans a single discontinuity:
A further object is to provide an improved
Figure 11 is a diagram illustrating the opera
photoelectric detection and amplifying system in
tion of the signal amplitude limiting electron dis
which the sensitivity of the amplifying system de
creases as the apparatus receives signals of in- 25 charge device;
Figure 12-is a diagram showing a representa
tive wave constituting the input of the limiting
electron discharge device;
Figure 13 is a diagram illustrating a represen
radiation detection system in which means are
provided for selecting a desired portion of a rel- 30 tative wave form of the output of the limiting
electron discharge device:
atively large radiation source as providing the
‘Figure 14 is a diagram illustrating the ?eld of
signi?cant and controlling signal.
view of the apparatus which might be productive
A furtherobiect is to provide an improved
of the waves shown in Figs. 12 and 13 in which
scanning apparatus which may be conditioned
selectively to scan from right to left (R-L) or to 35 the target is remote from the apparatus;
Figure 15 is a diagram illustrating the ?eld of
scan from left to right (L-R), or to scan both
view of the apparatus as it approaches more close
R-L and L-R.
ly to the target;
A further object is to provide an‘ improved
Figure 16 is a diagram showing the wave form
scanning system and apparatus controlled there
by to steer a vehicle toward a selected source of 40 of the output of the upper ampli?er when the
apparatus is scanning the ?eld represented in
radiation within the ?eld scanned.
.Fig. 15;
A further object is to provide an improved sys
Figure 17 is a diagram illustrating the ?eld of
tem and apparatus for controlling the ?ight of a
view of the apparatus as it approaches very close
pilotless glider.
Other objects will appear from the following 45 to the target;
description, reference being had to the accom
Figure 18 is a diagram showing the wave form
panying drawings in which:
of the output of the upper ampli?er while scan
Figures 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d and 1e together constitute
ning the ?eld of view illustrated in Fig. 1'7;
a wiring diagram of the apparatus, the circuits
Figure 19 is a diagram illustrating the path of
of Fig. in forming part of the scanning head, the 50 an airplane or glider approaching a moving tar
diagram of Figs. 1b and 1c constituting the am
get on a chaser course;
pli?er, the diagram of Fig. 1d constituting the
Figure 20 is a diagram to illustrate the prin
relay box. and the diagram of Fig. 1e constitut
ciple of a collision course:
Figure 21 is a diagram illustrating the path of
ing the automatic gyro-pilot control and the
manual switch control box:
55 movement of an airplane or glider following a
creasing amplitude, for example, as the appara
tus approaches a target.
A further object is to provide an improved
chaser course with precalculated windage allow
ance; and,
Figure 22 is a diagram illustrating the path of
The phototubes supply signals to an amplify
ing system. The amplifying system constitutes
movement of an airplane or glider when its move~
ment is controlled to follow a navigational course.
phototubes. The ampli?ers include novel auto
matic volume controls, each such control being
common to corresponding stages of the two am
pli?ers, the arrangement being such that upon
two cascaded ampli?ers, one for each pair of
In order that the detailed description of the
apparatus may be more readily understood, ,it is
preceded by this brief general description of ti:
starting the apparatus all stages provide maxi
mum gain, but that as the signals from the photo
tube increase in amplitude (as the glider ap
proaches the target) the gain of the stages is pro
gressively reduced so that signals of lesser ampli
tude than ,those due to the target will he sup~
apparatus as a whole.
As previously indicated, the invention is dis
closed herein as embodied in an apparatus for au
tomatically steering a pilotless glider to a source
of radiation which differs in intensity or other -
characteristic from that of the ?eld or objects sur
means for preventing transmission through the
rounding it.
The apparatus may include, and is disclosed
herein as including selectively operable controls
whereby the glider (or other vehicle) will follow
ampli?er of any but the highest intensity signal
provided by the pairs of phototubes during each
scanning cycle, so that it is only the signal repre
a “chaser course” or a “navigational course.”
By “chaser course” is meant a course of travel
wherein the target seeking vehicle is made to
point and travel toward the ‘target at every in
stant during its travel, within the limits of ac 2
curacy cf the apparatus. With changes in direc
tion of travel made at ?nite intervals and at finite
rates, a chaser course does not result in the ,ve
hicle meeting the target with geometrical accu
senting the target that is transmitted through the
amplifier, and thus signals of lower amplitude, re
sulting from variations in intensity of radiation
from portions of the ?eld other than the target,
and which are of no signi?cance, are not trans
mitted through the ampli?ers.
The output signals of the ampli?ers are
switched in synchronism with the scanning oscil~
lation of the head to four control circuits so that
these circuits may provide, by their energization,
racy, but under many conditions a vehicle travel
ing on a chaser course toward a moving target
will strike the target, especially if the latter is of
reasonable size.
By a “navigational course” is meant a course of
These volume control stages comprise limiting
an indication of the location of the target in the
over-all ?eld of view being scanned. For purposes
of description hereinafter, the four quadrants of
the generally rectangular ?eld scanned by the
apparatus will be designated: UR, upper right or
the vehicle which is,_in e?ect, the result of com
?rst quadrant; UL, upper left, or second quadrant;
putation based upon previous successive observa
DR, lower (down) right or fourth quadrant; and
tions of the position of the target relative to the
DL, lower (down) left or third quadrant.
vehicle. By this method the vehicle is steered not
Thus, signi?cant signals from the ampli?ers
directly toward the target, but instead is steered
energize one or more of these control circuits
toward a point at which the target will be when 40 which, through relays, control the operation of
the vehicle reaches the same point. In utilizing
means for steering the glider. As shown herein,
the navigational course method of steering the
these means comprise motors operating upon the
vehicle, the apparatus must repeatedly make “ob
manual control button shafts of a well known
servations” of the position of the target and re
automatic gyro-pilot.
peatedly modify its “prediction” of the location 45
Selective means are provided to determine
of the point at which the vehicle will strike the
whether a signi?cant signal from the ampli?er
target, and must operate the steering controls of
during R-L, or L-R, or both Pt-L and Ir-R strokes
the vehicle accordingly.
of the oscillatory head shall be effective to ener
In using the apparatus on a vehicle maneuver
gize the control circuits. When the apparatus is
able in three dimensions, such as an airplane or 50 set for a “chaser course” the control circuits are
glider, the “observations,” the steering, and the
‘fpredictions” must of course be made not only
with reference to the azimuthal directions, but
also with ‘reference to directions in a vertical
The apparatus herein disclosed may be condi
tioned to operate on the chaser course or the navi
gational course principle in both azimuth and ver
arranged to cause steering of the glider toward
the target, that is, the glider is maintained pointed
at the target, or is kept pointed a predetermined
angle oil‘ the target to allow for windage. As—
55 suming that the speed of the glider is very high
with respect to the speed of the target, the glider
will eventually strike the target. In the case of a
glider to be used against vessels at sea, the glider
tical plane, or it may be conditioned either to
will preferably be provided with a hydrostatic
travel a chaser course in azimuth and ,a naviga 60 pressure-controlled detonator so that the ex
tional course in the vertical plane or vice versa,
plosion will not take place until after the glider
depending upon the circumstances under which
has struck the side of the vessel and dropped into
the apparatus is to be used.
the water adjacent thereto, thus securing maxi
The means for detection of the target comprises
e?ectiveness of the explosive against the
two pairs of radiation responsive devices shown as 65 mum
hull of the vessel.
phototubes which, through an oscillating tele
Various manual control circuits are provided
s’qopiciheedrreceive light from the ?eld scanned.
for initially testing the apparatus as a whole, for
One pair of tubes receives light from adjacent
aiding in picking out the target, and for predeter
rectangular areas, which rectangular areas, due
mining the character of the operation of the ap
to the oscillation of the head, laterally traverse 70 ,_ paratus.
‘is-rectangular ?eld, while the other pair of photo
tubes receives light from similar adjacent rectan
gular areas which traverse a rectangular ?eld be
head, as shown in Figs. 3 to _6, is
low that of the ?rst rectangular ?eld and prefer
ably over-lapping it slightly.
mounted on a base I00 which is adapted to ‘be
75 rigidly secured to the glider or other vehicle. A
U-shaped frame, comprising joined vertical chan
of the heavy leaf spring I60 is riveted. The
outer end of the leaf spring I60 is secured to the
end of a second relatively short leaf spring I62
nels I02, I04 and a horizontal channel I06, is
mounted for limited rotational movement about a
central pivot I08, the frame having a plurality of
pedestal brackets IIO secured to the channel I06,
these brackets having foot portions II2 resting
by means of an angle I64 riveted to the springs.
The other end of the leaf spring I62 is secured
to a bracket I68 which is riveted to the plate I20.
The leaf spring I60 is best shown in Fig. 6
in its normal unstressed position, and will thus
be capable of applying a force tending to return
the telescope tubes to this center position when
ever the tubes are displaced from this position.
upon the upper surface of the base I00.
A rectangular gimbal II4 has pivot studs II8
projecting horizontally into suitable bearings ?xed
near the upper ends of the channels I02 and I04.
A pair of telescope tubes H8 and H8 are secured
to each other by plates I20. I2I which may be
The oscillation is e?ected by alternate energize
tion of the coils I62, I83 which operate on solenoid
welded or otherwise secured to the tubes H8, H9
A central pivot shaft I24 is rigidly secured to the
plates I20, I2I, and is mounted in bearing bush~
plungers I68 and I69 respectively, these plungers
being partly of magnetic and partly non-mag
netic material and each having one end pivotally
ings I28 and I21 ?xed in the gimbal II4, the ar—
secured respectively to studs I10 riveted to the
rangernent being such that the telescope tubes
plate I28. The other ends of the plungers I88,
I I8 and H8 are supported by the shaft I24, and
I59 are pivotally secured to the ends of a lever
thus may oscillate with respect to the gimbal I I4.
20 I12 which is mounted for pivotal movement about
Optical system
a central pivot I14 carried by the gimbal H4.
Each of the tubes I I8, I I8 contains a condensing
The plungers I68, I68 and the lever I12 and
lens system illustrated as comprising a pair of
plate I20 thus form a parallelogram linkage with
lenses I26. A light shade I28 is secured over the
the result that the plungers I68 will retain paral
ends of the tubes H8, H8 and contains a plu
lelism throughout their movement. In order to
rality of peripherally ?anged ba?le supports I38
oscillate the telescopes I I8, II8 the coils I62, I63
having progressively decreasing circular openings
are alternately energized by means hereinafter
therein, the ?anges of these baille supports form
to be described. These solenoids operate against
ing accurate positioning spacers.
the resiliency of the spring I60, and as will here
Light ba?les I32, which may be of thin dull black 30 inafter appear, are energized alternately, each
throughout substantially the complete stroke of
paper or other similar suitable material, are ce
mented to the baille supports I30 and have circular
the telescope tubes in one direction, and the spring
openings of progressively decreasing diameter
I60 supplies the force to cause commencement of
formed therein, these openings being co-axial with
the stroke in the opposite direction.
the optical axes of the lens systems, and each of 35
A stud I16 is riveted to the plate I2I and thus
slightly less diameter than the openings in the
oscillates with the telescope tubes. The upper
supports to which they are attached. The baffle
end of this stud I16 has ?ats formed thereon
and projects through an arcuate slot I18 formed
supports I30 are finished in dull black so as to
minimize the possibility of a re?ection of light
therefrom into the. lens system.
in the end of an arm I80.
A light slit member I34 is secured within each
of the tubes II8, II9 at. a point adjacent the focus
of the lens system, this member having an elon
gated vertical slit I88 formed therein. Directly
behind the slit I36 of each of the telescopes is a -1 5
re?ecting prism I38, extending at least the full
length of the slit, and mounted on vertical pivots
I39. Each of the pivots I39 extends through the
top of the telescope tube and has an arm I40 rig
idly secured thereto. The arm I40 is held against 50
the end of an adjusting ‘screw I42 by a strong ten
sion spring I44. It will be apparent that by turn
ing the adjusting screw I42 the prism I88 may be
rotated about the axis of its pivots I39 so as to
have its edge vaccurately centered behind the slit 55
The prisms I88 are preferably made of metal.
such as steel, plated with a. metal providing good
re?ecting surfs cev such as chromium.
Light reflected from the surfaces of the prism
I38 in the tube II8 enters phototubes I48, I41,
while light entering the telescope tube H8 ‘is re
?ected by its prism to photctubes I48 and I48
(Fig. la). A shielding box I50 is mounted within
each of the tubes H8, H8 and contains a pre
ampli?er later to be described.
Telescope oscillating mechanism
As best shown in bottom plan section in Fig. 6,
The effective ends of
40 the slot I18 are determined by adjustable bu?’ers
I82 of felt, or similar material, which are secured
in adjusted position by bolts I84. The arm I80
is pivotally mounted on the bushing I26 (Fig. 7)
and rests upon a shoulder I86 formed on this
bushing. A relatively stiff spring washer I88
presses the arm I80 against the shoulder I86, the
degree of pressure being determined by adjust
ment of a nut I90 held in adjusted position by
a lock nut I82. Thus. as the oscillating head ap
proaches the ends of its oscillatory stroke, the
stud I16 abuts against one of the stops I82 and
the motion of the head is quickly retarded to a
stop by virtue of the friction between the arm
Ian and the shoulder I86. _
It will be noted (Fig. 5) that the telescope tube
I I9 is not exactly parallel to the tube I I8. The
optical axis of the tube H9 is elevated with re
spect to the optical axis of the tube II8. This
elevation. in the embodiment illustrated, is 4".
60 .As a result. the phototubes are capable of scan
nine: a field diagrammatically shown in Fig. 8.
Referring to this ?gure, when the oscillating head
is ir. 1 central position, the phototube I46 will
receive light from the area “Ga, and the photo
65 tubes I41. I48 and I46 will receive light from the
areas designated respectively I41a, “8:! and “811.
The angular dimensions of each of these areas are
41/’? in the vertical direction and ‘A?’ in the hori
zontal direction. The head oscillates through a
total angle of 18° represented by the dotted line
a pair of solenoid coils I 52, I58 are rigidly secured
to the gimbal II 4 by being clamped in a pair of
rectangle in Fig. 8, but because of mechanism
bolted bracket members I84 which are rigidly se
later to be described, the signals from the photo
cured to the gimbal II4. A bracket I68 is also
tubes received during the first 1%‘ of each oscil
rigidly secured to the gimbal H4 and has a
lation are not e?ectively utilized. and the total
downwardly extending lug I69 to which one end 76 ?eld e?ectively scanned is therefore represented
by the large ‘full line rectangle I94 which has
angular dimensions of ill/2° by 15°. Itwill be
and 229 being mechanically secured to but insu
lated from the plate I20.
noted that the areas I46a and “la respectively
Each of the contacts 226 to 229 has one end of
a thin ?exible resilient metal band 230 connected
> thereto, the other ends of these bands being an
chored in an insulating terminal block 232 which
is suitably secured to the gimbal II4. It will be
noted that the ?exible bands 230 are formed
symmetrically in bights so that the resilient forces
over-lap the areas 140a and I49a by 1/2°. The
rotary moment of inertia of the telescope tube
assembly is of such value relative to the resil
iency of the spring I60 and the pull of the sole
noids. and relative to the friction applied by the
arm I80, that the oscillation of this assembly is
smooth and at a uniform speed, in the order of 10 exerted thereby between the oscillating telescopes
and thegimbal H4 are balanced. The bands are
2' cycles per second.
spaced sumciently in a vertical plane so as not to
Stops, such as rubber covered pins I93, I95
make contact with one another. At their ends
(Figs. 3 and 5) adapted to engage the gimbal
adjacent the terminal block 232 the bands 230
I I4. maybe provided to limit the extent of oscil
latory movement of the telescope tubes.
15 are formed with soldering lugs for attachment
with suitable conductors, which are combined to
form a ?exible cable 233. The switch arms 222,
Head indexing mechanism
223 are likewise connected by bands 230 leading
to the terminal block 232. In general, the mount
ing of the switch arms 222, 223 may be similar
the scanning head relative to the base I00, either 20 to that shown in the patent to David Hancock,
as an initial adjustment, or as steps in following
In some uses of the apparatus, it is desirable
to provide means for changing the elevation of
Jr., No. 2,301,870.
a navigational course. This is accomplished by
It will be seen that as the telescope tubes I8, I 9
means of a reversible electric motor I96 suitably
swing in one direction relative to the gimbal I I4,
secured in the vertical channel I04 and including
contact 228 will engage contact 224, and contact
a reduction gearing terminating in a pinion I98. 26 229 will engage contact 225. At the beginning of
This pinion meshes with a gear segment 200
the reverse stroke of the telescope tubes, the
rigidly secured to the gimbal pivot pin H6. The
driving action of the pinion is limited by re
aforementioned contacts will be broken, and
shortly thereafter (about l1/2° of movement) the
cesses 20I formed in the segment 200. The mo
contact 226 will engage contact 224, and contact
tnr I96 may be manually or automatically con 30 221 will engage contact 225. These contacts will
trolled, as will hereinafter appear, and thus will
remain closed throughout the return stroke and
operate to swing the gimbal H4 and all parts
carried thereby for the purpose of changing the
elevation of the telescope tubes H8, H9.
In some uses of the apparatus it may be con
will be broken only upon the commencement of
another forward stroke.
A switch A comprises an arm 234 (Figs. 3 and
4) which is secured to the gimbal I I4 but suitably
venient to have available remotely controlled
insulated therefrom, and has a contact point en
means to adjust the orientation of the frame
gageable with a conducting plate 236 embedded
with respect to the base I03, and hence with re
flush in an insulating block 238 which is rigidly
spect to the vehicle upon which the apparatus is
secured to the frame channel I04. Thus, when
mounted. Such adjustment is essential when 40 the telescope tubes are elevated slightly above
the apparatus is used to cause the vehicle to
their normal positions (swung clockwise, Fig. 4),
follow a navigational course as herein described.
the switch arm 234 will make contact with the
For this purpose a motor controlled means, is
plate 235, and this contact will be broken when
provided to rotate the frame I02, I04 and I06 '
ever the telescope tubes are depressed (swung
about the pivot pin I08. This means comprises
counterclockwise, Fig. 4) slightly below their nor
mal horizontal position.
a motor and reducing gear train 202 having a
slow speed drive shaft 204. A bevel pinion 206,
A switch D comprises ?exible switch arm 240
secured to the shaft 204. drives a bevel gear 208
which has one end suitably secured to an insu
secured to a shaft 2 I 0. The shaft 2 I 0 is mounted 50 lating terminal block 242 attached to the top of
in a suitable bearing bushing 2I2 secured in the
the gimbal II4. Also secured to this terminal
channel I05, and has a pinion 2I4 secured to
block is a switch contact 244 adapted to be en
its lower end. The pinion 2I4 meshes with a
gaged by the switch arm 240.
ring gear 2 I6 secured to the base I00.
A switch contact member 246 is rigidly secured
An arcuate contact segment 2I8 is mounted 56 to the plate I2I but insulated therefrom and is
in the base I00 and insulated therefrom. A
adapted to engage the free end of the switch arm
switch arm 220 secured to the horizontal frame
channel I06, but insulated therefrom, is capable
240. Suitable contact points are secured to the
switch arm 240 or to the switch parts 244 and
of wiping over the contact segment 2 I8 and make
246, or both.
As the telescopes oscillate in a, counterclockwise
contact therewith when the frame is shifted from 60
direction from their central position shown in
its normal central position to the right with re
spect to the base I00. The motor 202 is a reversi~
Fig. 3, the end of the switch member 246 engages
ble motor and is controlled by means hereinafter
the end of the switch arm 240, completing a cir
to be described.
cuit between these switch parts and immediately
~ , Head operated switches
thereafter (practically instantaneously there
with) breaking the contact between the switch
arm 240 and the switch contact 244. Upon re
Switches I and S respectively comprise switch
arms 222, 223 (Fig. 6) which are frictionally se
cured to the gimbal H4 but insulated therefrom.
turn of the telescopes to their central position,
224 which moves relatively between contacts 226
and 228 which are secured to but insulated from
contact between switch member 246 and the
the plate I20. ‘Similarly, the switch arm 223 h'asv
switch ar'm 240 is broken, since further ?exure '
a contact 225 which may move relatively between
of the switch arm 240 is prevented by its engage
ment with- the rigidly mounted switch contact
the switch arm 240 again makes contact with the
The'switch arm 222 carries a contact element 70 switch contact 244, while immediately thereafter
a pair‘ofcontacts 221 and 229, the contacts 221
(substantially instantaneously therewith) the
244. This switch mechanism including the parts
240 to 246 is designated generally by the letter
The conductor 268 is connected through a con
denser C260 and spurious high frequency ?lter
ing series grid resistor R262 to the grid 264 of a
D. A switch U (Fig. 3), of construction identical
preampli?er pentode 266. The condenser C260
with that of switch D, is mounted on the gimbal
II4 directly beneath switch D, and operates in .- is also connected through a grid resistor R268 to
ground. In a similar manner a condenser C26I is
the same manner as switch D.
coupled to the grid 265 of a pentode preampli?er
A switch K (Fig. 5) constructed and operating
tube 261. The screen and suppressor grids of the
exactly like switches D and U is mounted on the
tubes 266 and 261 are connected with their plates
gimbal I I4 above the telescope tube I I9.
As best shown in Figs. 3 and 9, there is suitably 1» 210 and 2H respectively to conductors II and I5
respectively, so that these tubes will operate as
secured to each of the telescope tubes II6, I I9,
triodes and provide Class A ampli?cation. The
an insulating block 250, and there is secured to
the gimbal I I4 a long insulating block 252. A
cathodes 212 and 213 of these tubes are connected
plurality of thin resilient strips 254 of phosphor
respectively to conductors I3 and I4. Conductor
bronze or similar material are formed in semi
circular bights of successively smaller radius, and
I 5 I3 is connected to ground through a self bias re
sistor R214 and a jack switch 216, while the con
ductor I4 is similarly connected to ground
through resistor R215 and a jack switch 211.
Upon insertion of plugs in these jacks, these
of these strips 254 project through the insulating 2,, switches 216 and 211 are opened.
blocks and form soldering lugs for attachment
The jacks 210 and 219 are provided for plug
of wires leading from the phototubes and pream
ging in a milliammeter for adjustment and
checking purposes. For example, in order proper
pli?er to the ampli?er.
It will be noted that as the telescope tubes oscil
ly to adjust the re?ecting prisms I38, I39, using
late (approximately 9° to the right and 9° to the _ such milliammeter, the adjusting procedure
would be as follows: The optical system would
left of the central position shown), the strips 254
will ?ex, but substantially maintain their relative
be pointed toward a ?eld of uniform illumination
separation. One group of strips opposes the other
and the sight openings of the telescope tubes
group of strips so that they exert the least force
completely obscured by a black sheet. The meter
when the telescope tubes are in central position, 30 reading would then be noted and the sheet would
and the resiliency of these strips thus supple
then be quickly raised vertically and the meter
reading again noted. If during the time that the
ments the resiliency of the spring I60. Since
these strips 254 may ?ex freely and are not in
sheet is being raised the meter needle ?uctuates
contact with one another, and since they are ?rm
in either direction, it indicates that the prism is
1y anchored at their ends, they do not introduce z... not properly centered and correcting adjustment
each of these strips has one end anchored to one
of the insulating blocks 250 and its other end
anchored to the insulating block 252. The ends
any appreciable frictional forces nor absorb power
from the telescope oscillating motor means.v This
type of ?exible connection is therefore far su
perior to any ?exible pigtail or cable through
which the circuits to the phototubes and pre 4“
indicate that the proper plate current is ?owing
in the tubes 266,261.
In general, as the telescope and phototubes
ampli?er might otherwise be completed.
oscillate and "view” an object radiating more
may then be made. A meter inserted in these
jacks may also be used for testing purposes to
light than the surrounding uniform ?eld, the
THE Amurrmc Sxsrsu
phototube I46 will ?rst supply a positive signal
to the grid 264, and immediately thereafter as
By reference to Fig. 2, the relationship of Figs.
_1a, 1b, 1c, 1d and 1e will be apparent. The cir
ul the tube I41 receives light from such object, the
grid 264 will receive a, negative impulse. Upon
cuits of Fig. 1b are connected to the circuits of
the return oscillation of the scanning head, the
Fig. in. by conductors I0 to I1 inclusive, while the
phototube I 41 will transmit a negative impulse to
circuits of Fig. 1d are connected to the circuits of
the grid 264, and immediately thereafter the
Fig. 1a by conductors 20 to 31 inclusive. The cir
cuits of Fig. 1e are connected to the circuits of 50 phototube I46 will provide a positive impulse on
the grid 264. The impulses supplied to the grid
Fig. 1d by conductors 25 to 29 inclusive and 38 to
under these assumed ideal conditions are repre~
66 inclusive.
sented by the wave shown in Fig. 10. The output
The amplifying‘system (except for the ?rst
of the ?rst preampli?er tube would be a similar
stage of preampli?'cation) is shown in Figs. 1b
and 1c, and the apparatus shown in these two 55 ampli?ed wave of opposite phase.
Plate current for the preampli?er tube 266 is
?gures is preferably contained in a separate
provided through a resistor R282 connected be
shielded box. Similarly, all of the parts shown
tween the +90 v. terminal and the conductor II,
in Fig. 1d may be mounted in a separate box,
and in a similar manner plate current is supplied
while the parts shown in Fig. 1e may be contained
in part in a box attached to the gyro-pilot con 60 for the tube 261 through a resistor R283. The
preampli?er tube 266 is coupled to a second stage
trol panel, and in part in a separate control
of preampli?cation, comprising a pentode 284,
through a blocking condenser C286, a high pass
?ltering mesh comprising condensers C290 and
is connected to e. +90 v. terminal of a battery 256
through a ?lter resistor R251. The conductor I0 65 C294, and resistors R268, R292 and R300, and
through a spurious high frequency ?ltering series
is' shunted to ground through a condenser C255
grid resistor R296.
and thus supplies a 90 volt potential to the anodes
The grid 298 of the tube 284 is biased through
of phototubes I46 and I48. The cathode of
the grid resistor R300 which is connected to a
phototube I46 is connected by a conductor 258
to the anode of phototube I41, while the cathode 70 terminal --1.5 v. of a biasing battery 302, the
positive terminal of which is connected to ground.
of phototube I41 is connected to ground. Simi
The cathode 304 of the pentode 284 is connected
larly, the cathode of phototube I48 is connected
to ground, while its screen and suppressor grids
by a conductor 259 to the anode of phototube I49,
are connected to its plate 306, plate current being
while the cathode of the latter is connected to
switch box.
Referring to Figs. la and 1b, the conductor I0
75 supplied from a +90 v. terminal through a load
resistor R388. The pentode 284 thus operates as
a triode providing Class A ampli?cation.
The output of the pentode 284 is coupled to the
input circuit of a signal amplitude limiting pen
tode 3“! through a blocking condenser C3 l2, and
a voltage divider comprising resistors R3l4 and
R316. The junction MB of resistors R3l4 and
R3I6 is connected through a series grid resistor
R326 to the grid 322 of the pentode 3"]. The
other terminal of the resistor R316 is connected 10
?cation takes place with the resultant automatic
biasing of this grid to a negative potential higher
than the normal grid bias.
The grid condenser C333 may have a value in
the order of .1 mid. with the result that it will
take an appreciable time interval after a de
cidedly positive impulse upon the grid 340 be
fore the grid returns to its normal value bias
of —1.5 v.
Assuming that the head oscillates at 2 cps, the
values of the condenser C338 and resistors R342
The suppressor grid of the pentode 3H1 (which
and R344 are such that it will take more than
may be of the 6W7G type) is externally connected
.5 second (and in actual practice may be in the
to the grounded cathode 324, while the screen
order of 5 to 10 seconds) for the grid to return
grid 326 is connected to a +45 v. terminal of 15 to substantially its normal -—l.5 v. potential after
battery 256. Plate current is supplied through a
a substantial amplitude positive signal has been
load resistor R328 from a +90 v. terminal.
impressed thereon. The result is that as a close
The pentode 3l8 operates in a manner to re
succession of positive impulses is impressed upon
to a -1.5 v. terminal.
duce the ampli?cation of the low value positive
the grid 346, appreciable changes in plate current
peaks of the wave, and to increase ampli?ca 20 will take place only upon the highest amplitude
positive impulse.
tion of the negative half of the wave as diagram
matically illustrated in Fig. 11. In this ?gure
The plate 346 of the triode 330 is supplied with
the curve Ha represents the grid voltage-plate
plate current through a load resistor R348 con
current characteristic, for negative grid poten
nected to a +90 v. terminal, and the signal com
tials, of a 6W7G pentode connected as is the tube
ponent of the plate current is transmitted
3 I0 shown in Fig. 1b.
through a blocking condenser C358, through a
Two input waves lib and He are indicated
voltage divider network comprising resistors
on the grid voltage axis lid. The resultant out
R352 and R354, and a grid resistor R356 to the
put waves of the tube are illustrated as He and
control grid 358 of a phase inverting triode 369.
II! respectively. From this diagram it, will be 30 The cathode 362 of this tube is connected to
noted that when the amplitude of the input wave,
ground through a biasing resistor R364. Plate
such as Ilb', (representing the signal due to a
current for the triode 360 is supplied through a
distant target) is not very great, the tube oper
load resistor R366.
ates substantially to cut o? the positive peaks
The triodes 330 and 368 and associated cir
of the input wave to the grid and to amplify
cuit elements comprise a single stage or am~
linearly the negative peaks. The positive por
plifying and volume control. The output of the
tions of the output wave lle are reduced in am
phase inverter triode 360 is transmitted through
plitude due to the effect of the series grid re
a band pass ?lter mesh 310 to the input of an
sistor R296. When the grid potential is positive
automatic volume control triode 316, and the
with respect to the cathode, the grid input im 40 output of the latter is transmitted through a
pedance falls to a ?nite value, small relative to
high pass ?lter and voltage dividing mesh 380
the value of R296, with the result that there is a
to a phase inverting triode 382.
voltage divider action, causing the signal on the
The output of the triode 382 is coupled to the
grid to be greatly reduced. When the input wave
input of an automatic volume control triode 386
on the grid is of much greater amplitude, such 7 through a band pass ?ltering mesh 390. The
as shown by the wave Ho, (representing the sig~
output of the triode 386 is coupled with a voltage
nal due to a close target) the tube operates not
divider and high pass ?ltering mesh 392 to the
only to cut oil the positive portion of this input
input of a phase inverting triode 396.
wave but also limits the output amplitude due to
The output of the phase inverting triode 396
the negative portion of the input wave.
50 is transmitted through a blocking condenser
Brie?y, the operation of the non-linear pentode
C398 to a conductor I6. Triodes 316 and 382,
3“) is as follows: Below a critical threshold am
and the circuit elements associated therewith,
plitude of input signal the tube operates in such
are in substance identical with triodes 336 and
manner as to differentiate between negative
360 and the circuit elements associated there
swings of different amplitudes. Above this criti
with, and thus form a second cascaded stage of
cal threshold point the tube is unable to dis
ampli?cation and automatic volume control.
tinguish between negative pulses because every
Triodes 386 and 396 and the circuit elements as
such large amplitude pulse drives the ‘tube to
sociated therewith are likewise similar to the
plate current cutoff represented by the line Hg.
triodes 338 and 368 and their associated circuit
The particular purpose of this type of operation 60 elements, and thus constitute the third and ?nal
of the tube will appear from the description of
cascaded stage of ampli?cation and automatic
the operation of the system as a whole.
volume control.
The output of the pentode 310 is connected
The output of the preampli?er tube 261 (Fig.
to the input of an automatic volume control
1a) is coupled through conductor l5 to the input
triode 338 through a blocking condenser C332 65 of the second stage preampli?er Dentode 285
which also forms part of a high pass ?lter mesh
which, with its associated circuit elements, cor
including resistors R334 and R336. A grid con
responds to the pentode 284 above described.
denser C338 is connected between the junction
Likewise, tube 3H corresponds to tube 319 and
of resistors R334, R336 and the grid 340. The
is coupled to tube 285 in the same manner that
grid 34!‘! is connected to a —1.5 v. bias terminal 70 tube 3“! is coupled to tube 284. In a similar
through a resistor R342 of a value in the order of
way, the triodes 33!, 361, 311, 383, 381 and 391,
3 megohms and a resistor R344 of high value
together with their associated circuit elements,
in the order of 50 megohms.
When the signal to this grid is large, by com
parison with the negative grid bias, grid recti
correspond respectively to triodes 338, 360, 316,
382, 386 and 396 and their associated elements
75 respectively. The output of the triode 3911s
objects as F, are ignored. This is accomplished
because of the fact that the triode 386, due to the
regular reception of high amplitude signals, is
biased so far negatively that only the highest
resistors R400 and R40 l.
While the above described ampli?er elements 5 amplitude positive peak signal will be transmitted
by this tube. Since the signal is ampli?ed to the
having reference characters which are even num
greatest extent in this last stage represented by
bers may be identical with the corresponding parts
the triode 386, this will be the ?rst automatic
of the ampli?er whose elements bear reference
transmitted through a blocking condenser C399
to a conductor I1, the conductors I6 and I1
being respectively connected to ground through
volume control triode to be rendered insensitive
characters which are odd numbers, it will be noted
that the bias voltage for tubes 330 and 33I is 10 to any but the highest amplitude positive peaks
of the input signal. As the apparatus approaches
supplied through a common resistor R344 and in
dividual relatively low value resistors R342 and
closely to the boat T, the amplitudes of the sig
R343 respectively. As a result, the grid bias on
nals impressed upon the triode 316 will be such
as to increase negatively the bias on this triode
same at all times. From this it will be apparent 15 to make it transmit only the highest positive peak
of its input signals. Similarly, as the apparatus
that as one of the ampli?er triodes is made less
the triodes 330 and 33I will be substantially the
sensitive by having impressed thereon a high
amplitude signal, the sensitivity of the other
triode is correspondingly reduced.
In the same
arrives still closer to the boat T, the input signal
on the triode 33D becomes of such high amplitude
that this triode is also biased negatively to such '
way automatic gain control triodes 316 and 311 20 an extent that it is, in effect, cut off except for
the highest amplitude positive signal of its input.
are supplied with biasing voltage through a com
Thus, for example, as the apparatus approaches
mon resistor R314 of high value (in the order of
so closely that the boat T appears in the propor
50 megohms) which has one terminal connected
tion indicated in Fig. 15 the signals from the
to a -l.5 v. terminal, while the grids of triodes
316 and 311 are connected to the other terminal 25 phototubes, due to variations in intensity as a re
sult of scanning the objects F, are not of sui?~
ciently high amplitude to be transmitted by either
the triodes 386, 316 or 330, since the grids of these
R313. Thus, these corresponding stages of the
triodes are at plate current cutoff for signals of
two ampli?ers are likewise retained at substan
tially equal sensitivity. Similarly, the grid bias 30 these amplitudes.
of the resistor R314 through relatively low value
(in the order of 3 megohms) resistors R312 and
However, as the boat T appears larger in the
?eld of view of the apparatus, as shown in Fig. 1'1,
the differences in radiation from the various por
tions of the boat would, if means were not pro
terminal connected to the grids of the tubes 386
and 381 through relatively lower value resistors 35 vided to prevent it, have a signi?cant effect. For
example, as the phototubes I46, I41 scan the
R382 and R383 respectively, and these corre
superstructure (or cabin) Tc of the boat T they
sponding stages are likewise maintained at equal
produce the maximum signal, whereas it is de
sired to control the direction of travel of the ap-v
Operation of the amplifying system
40 paratus not to the point from which the radiation
is greatest, but from a selected point such as the
Let us assume that the apparatus is scanning a
bow Tb of the boat. The amplifying system will
?eld illustrated in Fig. '14 in which appears a
transmit substantially equivalent signals as the
boat T which is lighter than the background, 1. e.,
phototubes I46, I41 scan the bow Tb, cabin To
its radiation of light of a frequency to which the 45 and stem Ts, as shown in Fig. 18. Other elements
phototubes respond is more than that of the re
of the control apparatus, hereinafter to be de
mainder of the ?eld. At the initial great distance
scribed, are designed to accept for control pur
between the boat and the apparatus, large white
poses only the ?rst of such series of signals re
caps and other discolorations of the water, small
ceived during selected scanning strokes (i. e. L-R
for triodes 386 and 381 is supplied through a com
mon resistor R384 which has one terminal con
nected to a -l.5 v. terminal, and has its other
?oating objects, etc., provide such minor varia
tions in radiation that they are very small com 50 or R-L, or both L-R and R-L).
Because of the use of the limiter tube and the
pared to the change in intensity of radiation as
successive stages of automatic volume control
the phototubes I 46, I41 scan the boat in the upper
whereby the sensitivity of the ampli?er as a whole
half portion of the ?eld. The signal produced
decreases successively as the amplitude of the
by the phototubes I46, I41 will therefore be some
signal received increases, the ampli?er
what similar to the wave shape illustrated in Fig. 55 maximum
is capable of supplying a series of signi?cant sig
12 as the head traverses a'complete cycle. This
nals which, by other means, may be selectively
utilized to provide indications of the positions of
the bow Tb and the stern Ts. The vehicle steer
pentodes 266 and 284 and will be impressed upon
the grid of the limiter tube 3"] which, due mainly 60 ing apparatus, as will hereinafter appear, will
tend always to point the apparatus in a direction
to the series grid resistor R320, responds only to
such that the boat or other target will appear at
the relatively high amplitude negative peaks of
the center of the ?eld scanned.
the received signal and will thus have an output,
signal from the phototubes I46, I41 will be faith
fully transmitted through the preampli?er
The phototubes I48 and I49 scan the lower
as previously mentioned, similar to the wave of
Fig. 13. Through means, hereinafter to be de 65 quadrants of the rectangular ?eld of view of the
apparatus in the same manner as the phototubes
scribed, the apparatus will be steered toward the
I46, I41 scan the upper quadrants, and the fore
target so that at some time later the target may
going description of the operation of the amplify
appear in the ?eld of view of the apparatus as
ing system for the upper quadrants will apply
indicated in Fig. 15. At this close range the ap
paratus would also be sensitive to variations in 70 equally to the ampli?er for the signals from the
lower quadrants.
radiation resulting from other objects such as
Due to the common bias voltage supply for the
white caps, clouds, etc., or other small ?oating
corresponding automatic volume control triodes
objects indicated generally as F.
of the successive stages of the two ampli?ers, the
The am li?er, however, operates in such man
ner that signals from the phototubes, due to such 75 degree of sensitivity of the two ampli?ers is kept
approximately the same. Thus, it is the highest
amplitude signal received from an object in any
one of the four quadrants which will be transmit
ted by its associated ampli?er, and which will pre
vent either of the ampli?ers from transmitting
any signals of lesser intensity.
If, for example, the apparatus has its ?eld of
these tubes. Plate current of tube 402 may also
flow through a relay winding UR (up-right)
which is connected between the plate and the con
ductor 24. Similarly, a relay winding UL (up
left) is connected in the plate circuit of the tube
404. A relay winding DR (down-right) is con
nected in the plate circuit of tube 403, and a re
lay winding DL (down-left) is connected in the
plate circuit of tube 405.
lower half of the ?eld, the false target objects F 10
The relay UR when energized is adapted to close
will, nevertheless, not be capable of producing a
switches URI, UR2 and UR3, and similarly, relay
signi?cant output signal from the ampli?ers be
UL when energized closes switches ULI, UL2 and
cause due to the common bias source for the cor
UL3. The relay DR when energized closes
responding automatic volume control triodes of
switches DRI, DB2 and DR3, and relay DL when
the two ampli?ers, the two ampli?ers will at each is energized closes switches DLi, BL! and DL3. A
instant be operating with the same gain, and be
condenser C424 is connected between the conduc
incapable of transmitting any but the highest am
tor 24 and ground and reduces arcing at switch
plitude signal.
contacts associated with conductor 24, and stores
The foregoing description of the operation of
energy to be supplied when plate current com
view violently shifted as by an air pocket or a
gust of wind so that the boat '1‘ appears in the
the ampli?er can be summarized in a general way 20 mences ?owing in any one of these tubes.
as follows: When the apparatus is a great dis
Since the cathodes of the four triodes 402 to
tance from the target and the signal is corre~
405 are connected to ground through the com
spondingly very small, the entire operation of the
mon resistor R420, the ignition of any one of the
ampli?er is linear, therefore the highest signal
tubes will swing the cathodes of the other tubes
produced will be the signi?cant signal. As the 25 so far positive that any subsequent positive sig
apparatus approaches closer to the target the au
nals on their grids are ineffective to cause igni
tomatic volume control tubes start to function,
and the highest signal is still the signi?cant sig
nal. When the apparatus has approached so
closely to the target that all portions of the tar 30
get cause the limiter tube to be completely over
These gaseous triodes thus form a means
to select for utilization, the ?rst only of the sig
nals which may be impressed on the grids of any
one of these triodes.
The signals from the upper ampli?er are trans~
driven, the signi?cant signal now becomes the
?rst one received during any cycle of scanning.
mitted through its output conductor I6 to the
switch U and thence to the conductor 20 during
For reference purposes the ampli?er as shown
the interval that the scanning head is swung
at the top of Figs. la, 1b and 1c, and which re 35 from its central position to its rightmost position
sponds to signals received from the upper half of
and during its return to its central position, while
the whole ?eld scanned, will be referred to as
conductor I8 is comiccted to the conductor 2!
the “up" ampli?er and as providing an “up” sig
as the head moves from its central position to its
nal. The amplifying system shown beneath the
leftmost position and as it returns to its central
upper ampli?er and which responds to signals 40 position. Thus, it will be seen that the output
signals of the upper ampli?er are impressed upon
from the phototubes I48, I49 will be referred to
as the “down” ampli?er. When the target pro
the grid of tube 402 while the UR quadrant is
duces a signal in the up ampli?er it generally
being scanned, and thus may energize relay UR. '
Similarly, signals resultant from scanning the
means that the direction of travel of the vehicle
must change in an upward direction, while when 4 Ll UL quadrant will be transmitted to the grid of
tube 404 and energize the relay UL; signals re
the target appears in the lower half of the scanned
sultant from scanning the DR quadrant will be
?eld and produces a signal in the phototubes I48
transmitted to the grid of triode 403 and may
and I49 and is transmitted through the down
energize the DR relay; and signals resultant from
ampl'?er, it usually means that the vehicle must
change its course downwardly in order to keep 5 0 scanning the DL- quadrant are impressed upon
directed toward the target.
the grid of triode 405 and may energize the DL
The control circuits
The switches operated upon energization of
As shown in Fig. 1d, there are four Thyratrons
the relay windings UR, UL, DR and DL determine
or gaseous triodes 402 and 404, 403 and 405, pref 5 5 the character of operation of the various steering
erably of the 884 type. The control grid 406 of
controls, among these controls being those of the
the tube 402 is connected through a protective
gyro-pilot shown in Fig. 1e. In a well known
resistor R408 and a blocking condenser C410 to
form of gyro-pilot mechanism (such as the Sperry
the conductor 20. In a similar way the grid 40'! of
A-3 automatic gyro-pilot) the manual adjust
the tube 404 is connected through a protective 60 ment of the direction of ?ight is controlled by
resistor R409 and blocking condenser OH I to the
three manually rotatable knobs including a knob,
conductor 2|. Conductors 20 and 2! are respec
such as the knob 425 (Fig. 1e) which adjusts the
tively connected to ground through shunt resis
control of the gyro-pilot upon the elevator.
tors R4|2 and R4l3, while the grids 406 and 401
Turning the knob 425 to the right will depress
are respectively connected to a —-1.5 v. terminal 6 5 the nose of the plane, while turning it to the left
of a biasing battery “4 through grid resistors
will elevate the nose of the plane relative to its
R4Ili and R4i‘l.
previous position.
The cathodes “8 of the four tubes 402 to 405
A similar knob 426 is used to adjust the control
of the gyro-pilot upon the rudder. Rotating the
resistor R420. Plate current. for the operation of 70 knob 426 to the right will cause the plane to turn
the tubes 402 to 405 is supplied through the con
to the right, while turning this knob to the left
ductor 24 (through a circuit hereinafter to be de
will cause the plane to turn to the left. A third
scribed), the conductor 24 being connected
control knob 42'! is usually provided on the con
through ignition maintaining protective resistors
trol panels of automatic gyro-pilots to adjust the
are connected to ground through a common bias
R422 to the plates 423 respectively of each of 75 effect of the gyro-pilot mechanism upon the
of the right hand quadrants; relays U' (up) and
’ ailerons. The control is such that when the knob
42'! is turned to the right the right aileron will
be elevated and the left aileron depressed caus
ing the plane to bank for a right turn, while
when the knob 42‘! is turned to the left the plane
tends to bank for a left turn.
For the purposes of the pilotless glider (and
possibly for other uses of the apparatus in steer
ing aircraft) it has been found that it is not
essential separately to control the ailerons, but 10
D’ (down) which are respectively energized when
the target appears in either of the upper or either
of the lower quadrants; relay ID (index down)
which, when energized, causes the vertical index
motor to index the head downwardly; relay IU
(index up) which, when energized; causes the
vertical index motor I96 to index the head up
wardly; relay IL (index left) which, when ener
gized, causes the horizontal index motor 202 to
that the ailerons may be adjusted as an incident
index the head to the left; and relay IR (index
to the movement of the rudder. It is therefore
right) which, when energized, causes the index
contemplated that the rudder and aileron con
motor 202 to index the head to the right.
trol-s will be interconnected in a suitable manner
All of the relays shown in Fig. 1d are arranged
(depending upon the design of the airplane or 15 to have their movable switch elements swung up
glider on which the apparatus is installed), so
wardly when energized. Thus, when a relay L
that the airplane will bank suitably for the de
is energized it closes associated switches Li, L2
gree of turn which should result from movement
and'L4 and opens switches L3 and L5; relay R,
of the rudder. Such interconnection between
when energized, closes switches RI, R2 and R4
the rudder and aileron controls is indicated by
and opens switches R3 and R5; relay U’, when
a chain or belt 428 which passes around suitable
energized, closes switches U1, _U2 and U4 and
sprockets or pulleys 429 and 430 secured to the
opens switches U3 and U5; relay D’, when ener
shafts of the control knobs 426 and 421 respec
gized closes switches DI, D2 and D4 and opens
tively. In some cases the apparatus may. be
switches D3 and D5; relay ID, when energized,
mounted on a glider not equipped with ailerons, 25 closes switch ID2 and opens switches IDI and
since it has been found that a well designed
ID3; relay IU, when energized, closes switch IU2
glider can be made to ?y in a stable manner when
and opens switch IU3; relay IL, when energized,
its azimuthal‘ course is controlled solely by the
closes switch IL2 and opens switches IL! and IL3;
rudder, provided that changes in the azimuthal
course are not made too rapidly.
and relay IR, when energized, closes switch 1R2
30 and opens switch 1R3.
In lieu of the customary gyro-pilot control
mechanism, a gyroscopic control apparatus of
the type disclosed in my co-pending applications
Serial Nos. 463.642 and 463,643, ?led October 28,
1942, may be utilized.
In the present apparatus means are provided
to adjust the position of the control knobs 425
and 426 automatically in order to steer the glider
Whenever it is desired to render the apparatus
operative to control the azimuthal course only
of the vehicle, a rudder switch 450 (Fig. 1e) is
closed, and when it is desired to have the appa
ratus control only the vertical direction of travel
of the vehicle an elevator switch 45l is closed.
In normal operation of the apparatus both
switches 450 and 45l will be closed and remain
or airplane. These means comprise a series motor
closed and thus connect a +6 v. terminal re
432 coupled to the shaft of control knob 426 by 40 spectively to the conductors 38 and 39. In fact,
a suitable drive, diagrammatically indicated as
when the apparatus is installed on a pilotless
a shaft 433, and a series motor 434 coupled to
glider, these switches may be omitted and the
the shaft of control knob 425 in a suitable man
conductors 38 and 39 combined in a single con
ner diagrammatically indicated as by a shaft 435.
ductor permanently connected to a +6 v. termi
The motor 432 has a ?eld winding 438, while the 45 nal.
motor 434 has a ?eld winding 440.- Anti-spark
For testing purposes it is sometimes desirable
resistors Rs are respectively connected in parallel
to be able to control the relays R, L, U’ and D'
with the windings 438 and 440 to reduce spark
manually, and for this purpose switches 452, 453,
.ing at the switch contacts when the circuits in
454 and 455 (Fig, 1e) are provided to connect
cluding these windings are opened or closed. 50 conductors 44, 56, 51 and 50 respectively to a
Throughout the apparatus such anti-spark re
+6 v. terminal. In normal operation of the ap
sistors Rs are employed in parallel with induc
paratus, the switches 452 to 455 are open. In
tive windings for the same purpose. All of such
an installation of the apparatus on a pilotless
resistors, serving this purpose of reducing the
glider, these switches may likewise be omitted.
sparking, are therefore designated by the same 55
Under some circumstances, it is desirable to
reference character, Rs. These resistors are of
control manually the vertical direction in which
appropriate values, depending upon the induct
the optical system is indexed, and this is accom
ance of the windings with which they are asso
plished by closing a switch 456 when it is desired
ciated, from 10 to 150 ohms.
to index the head downwardly, and closing a
The horizontal index motor 202 (previously de 60 switch 451 when it is desired to index the head
scribed with reference to Fig. 5) is shown in Fig.
upwardly. These switches 456 and 451 are pro
1a as having a series ?eld winding 442, while the
vided mainly for initial adjustment and testing
previously described motor I96, for effecting ver
purposes and are normally open.
tical indexing of the telescope head, is illustrated
Similarly, it is frequently desirable to control
in Fig. 1a as having a series ?eld Winding 444.
Associated with the gyro-pilot control panel are
” manually the right and left indexing of the head,
four signal lamps designated 446, 441, 448 and 449
switches 458 and 459. Switch 458 when closed
connects the conductor 62 to a +6 v. terminal,
while switch 459 when closed connects the con
ductor 6| to a +6 v. terminal, and thereby ener
which, as will hereinafter appear, are illuminated
whenever the relays UR, UL, DR and DL respec
tively are energized.
A plurality of relays are provided (Fig. 1d) to
control the various motors and effect other
switching purposes: Relays L (left) and R ,
(right) which are respectively energized when the
target appears in either of the left hand or either
and this is accomplished by the operation of
gize relays IR and IL respectively.
A pair of double-pole single-throw switches
450-46! and 462-463 are provided to deter
mine whether the apparatus should operate to
have the airplane or glider follow a chaser course
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