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w. c. TRAUTMAN Erm.
Filed April 2s, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Ar ron/vx `
“i”, i947
Walter C. Trautman, Los Angeles, and Alvin A.
_ Meddock, North Hollywood, Calif., assignors to
Bendix Aviation Corporation, South Bend,
Ind., a oorporationot Delaware
Application April 23, 1945, Serial No. 589,772
7 Claims. (Cl. IS7-»165)
_ This invention relates to equalizer valves for
Fig. l is an exterior view of a valve in accord
equalizing ñuid ñowin a pair of branch lines, and
ance with the invention.
more particularly to a reversible equalizer valve
of the ltype disclosed in application of Walter C.
Trautman, Serial No. 502,877, illed September 18,
Fig. 1.
1943, which equalizes the flow in a pair of branch
lines irrespective of whether the ñow is from the
of Fig. 2.
common line into the branch lines, or from the
branch lines into the common line.
An object of the invention is to provide a re
of Fig. 1: and
Fig. 3 is a section taken in the plane III-III
Fig. 4 is a section taken in the plane IV-IV
Fig. 5 is a vsection taken in the plane V-V of
Fig. 2, which is at right angles to the section of
Fig. 4.A
The valvedisclosed comprises a housing or cas
ing consisting ot a body ID and a pair of end plates
Il and I2, respectively, which are secured to op
posite ends of the body by 4cap screws I3. The
body defines a main cylinder I4, the opposite ends
versible ñow equalizer valve that is particularly
simple in construction and easily assembled and
Fig. 2 is a section taken in theplane lI-II of
Another object is to provide a reversible flow
equalizer valve oi such construction that it` can
be readily and inexpensively manufactured.'
Other more speciñc objects and features of the
of which are closed by the end plates II and I2
invention will become apparent from the de
and which contains a main piston I5 which has
tailed description to follow of a preferred embodi
four check valves therein, to be described later.
ment of the invention.
The `main cylinder I4 contains two annular
The present invention is'an improvement of the
grooves> I8 and I'I which are in constant commu
valve disclosed in the aforementioned application
nication with a pair o! outlet ports I8 and i9 "
adapted to be connected to branch lines 20 and 2|
Serial No. 502,877, which contains a shuttle valve
consisting oi a short, pressure-responsive piston
respectively. The piston I5 has a pair of an
oi substantial diameter working in a relatively 25 nular grooves 22 and 23 cooperating with the cyl
short cylinder and having a pair of piston valves
Inder groove I6 to variably control now therein
oi substantially smaller diameter extending from
and also a pair of annular grooves 24 and 2li co
its opposite sides into valve cylinders of corre
operating with the cylinder groove I1 to control l
sponding diameter. A reversible ñow equalizer
flow therein.
valve also incorporates check valves for directing 30 The piston I5 contains four check valves for
ñow to one set of ports controlled by the piston
selectively communicating the different piston
grooves 22, 23, 24, and 25 with opposite ends oi
‘ valves when .the flow is from the common line to
the branch lines and for directing the fluid to
the main cylinder.
other ports controlled by the piston valves when
the dow is from the branch lines into the common
end 26 of the piston through a cylindrical pas
line, and in the earlier application these check
valves were positioned in the body of the valve
sage 30.
exterior of the piston.-
Thus. the groove 23 communicates with thelei't
This passage 30 has a seat at its inner ’ "
end which is normally closed by a check valve
2l, which is slidable inthe passage 30 and is urged
into closed position by a helical compression
spring 28 compressed between the left end ci'
the valve 21 and a split retaining ring y2! in
a groove provided therefor in the passage 30.
Fluid can, therefore, flow from the piston groove
23 to the left end face 26 of the piston, but re
45 verse ñow is prevented.
in accordance with‘the present invention, the
structure oi the earlier application has been slm
plii'ied, while preserving the same general mode
of operation, by employing a single piston of sub
stantial diameter and length as the piston valve,
and utilizing the opposite ends of this piston as
the pressure faces against which the controlling
pressures are applied. Further simplification is
effected by locating the check valves within the
piston itself. This not only makes possible the ~
A passage 3| aligned with passage 30 extends '
into the piston from the right end face 32 .there
of, but this is a blind passage provided primarily
use of a much simpler and less expensive valve
to lighten the piston, although it also saves an ad
body, but facilitates the assembly of the check 50 ditional purpose to be described later.
valves and reduces the weight oi the piston. A
The piston groove 22 (Fig. 5) is also connected
light piston is desirable because it has less iner
to the left end 26 of the piston through cylin
tia and responds more quickly to correct any
drical passages 33 and 3| in the piston. The '
tendency toward inequality in the rates of flow.
passage 33 extends into the piston from the right
ln the drawings:
55 end 32 thereof, but it is closed at its right end
by a plug 35 having a groove containing a seal
ing ring 31, the plug 35 being retained in posi~
tion by a split retaining ring 38. A check valve
common line 55, and the rear end of the piston
is exposed to the pressure existing in the passage
1 I, which is transmitted through a small passage
3S urged to the left by a helical compression
16 to the rear end of the piston. The result is
spring flo compressed between the rear end of
that when the pressure in the common line 55
the valve 39 and the plug 36 prevents ilow of
exceeds the pressure in passage 1I by an amount
fluid from the groove 22 to the left end of the
suñicient to overcome the force of spring 65, the
piston while permitting ñow in the reverse di
piston 53 is moved to y:the right" to uncover the
ports 14 and 15 and permit ilow therethrough to
The groove 2A in the piston is connected to
the passages 10 and 1I. Since the differential
the'rlght end of the piston through a cylindrical
pressure must overcome the force of the spring
passage ill containing a check valve 42 similar to
64 before the piston 63 is moved to uncover the
the check valve 21, so that ñuid can flow from
ports 14 and 15, the spring-actuated piston func
the groove 24 to the right end 32 of the piston
tions to produce pressure drops between the
but cannot flow in the reverse direction. A hole 15 common line and the passages 10 and 1I when
44 entering the piston from the left end is pro
the flow is from the common line 55 into the
vided in alignment with the passage 4I to lighten
the piston, and provide a connection to be de
When the ñow is from the valve into the com
scribed later.
mon line 55, the pressure in the passage 1I ex
The groove 25 is communicated with the right 20 ceeds the pressure in the common line and this
end 32 of the piston through a'passage 45 and
. differential pressure acting against the right end
a passage 135 similar to the pasages 33 and 34
of the sleeve 58 overcomes the force of the spring
59 and moves the sleeve to the left until the ports
14 and 15 are uncovered.
respectively. A closure plug 41 having a sealing
ring 68 prevents fluid flow between the passage
55 and the left end of the piston, and a check 25
The spring-controlled piston and sleeve, there
valve 49 urged to the right by a spring 50, pre
fore, function to introduce a desired pressure
vents fiuid ñow from groove 25 to the right end
drop at the ports 14 and 15, irrespective of the
of the piston, while permitting reverse flow.
direction of flow.
The main piston I5 controls flow between the
The valve functions as follows when the direc
branch lines 20 and 2I and the opposite ends of 30 tion of flow is from the common line 55 into the
the main cylinder I4, and the opposite ends of
branch lines 20 and 2 I:
the cylinder are connected to a. common line 55.
Fluid entering the passage 56 from the com
Thus, referring to Fig. 2, the common line 55
mon line 55 moves the piston 53 to uncover the
communicates with one end of a> cylindrical
ports 14 and 15 and permit fluid ñow through the
passage 55 which extends through the body 35 passages 10 and 1I to the end chambers 12 and
transversely with respect to the main cylinder
13 of the valve. If the flow through both pas
it. The mid-portion of the passage is slightly
sages 10 and 1I is equal, then the pressure drops
reduced to form a cylinder 51 which slidably
through the ports 14 and 15 are equal, and equal
receives a sleeve 58 which is urged to the right
pressures exist in the chambers 12 and 13, the
by a helical compression spring 59 compressed 40 pressures being slightly less than that in the
between the left end of the sleeve and a retainer
common line 55 because of the pressure drops at
ring 65, the latter being held by a split ring 6I.
the ports 14 and 15, '
The sleeve 58 has a shoulder 62 at its left end,
Pressure fluid in chamber 12 functions to seat
which shoulder seats against the shoulder at the
the check valve 21 so that no ñow occurs there
left end of the cylinder 51 to limit movement 45 past. However, the pressure opens check valve
of the sleeve by the spring 59..
39, permitting fluid to flow into the piston groove
There is positioned within the sleeve 58 a
22 and past the shoulder 22a of this groove into
piston 53 which is urged into the right end of
the body groove I6 and thence into the branch
the sleeve by a helical compression spring 64
line 20. At the same time, the pressure fluid in
compressed between the piston and a closure 50 the chamber 13 holds the check valve 42 on its
plug 65 which is screwed into the right end of
seat, but opens the check valve 49 permitting
the passage 55 and has a sealing ring 65 for ' fluid to now into the piston groove 25 and past
effecting a fluid seal. The piston 53 has a Shoul
the shoulder 25a thereon into the cylinder groove
der 61 on its right end which abutts against
I1 and thence to the branch line 2i.
the shoulder at the right end of the cylinder 55
S0 long as the pressures are equal in chambers
51 to limit movement of the piston by the
12 and 13, the piston I5 will be centrally located
spring S5.
and the resistance to ñow from piston groove 22
Referring now to Figs. 3 and 5, the cylinder 51
past shoulder 22a into cylinder groove I6 will be
is intersected by a pair of aligned passages 10 ~
equal to the resistance to flow from piston groove
and 1I which extend to thel opposite ends of the 60 25 past shoulder 25a into the cylinder groove I1.
body I ti (Fig. 5) and communicate with cham
»Howeven if the fluid tends to ñow faster into
bers ‘i2 and 13 deñned by the body member I5
branch 2i than into branch 20, the pressure drop
and the end closure members II and I2, respec
through port 15 (Fig. 3) will be greater than the
tively'.V Suitable seais III and I2I are provided
pressure drop through port 145, and the pressure
to effect a fluid-tight closure between the cover 65 in chamber 13 will become less than that in
plates il and I2 and the body. As is apparent,
chamber 12, moving the piston I5 t0 the right
the chamber 12 communicates with the left end
and causing shoulder 25a to increasingly throttle
of the piston I5 and the chamber ‘E3 communi
into the branch line 2I and causing shoulder
cates with the right end.
22a to decreasingly throttle flow into the branch
Referring again to Fig. 3, the sleeve S8 has a 70 line 2û. The result is that the iiows are again
pair of ports 1li and 15 in its wall, which ports
substantially equalized by the movement of the
are in constant communication with the passages
since the movement will be of whatever
1G end ’îI respectively, but are normally blocked
extent is necessary to bring the pressures in the
by the piston 63, The front end of the piston
chambers 12 and 13 back to equality.
53 is exposed to the pressure of fluid in the 75
Of course, if the increased fiow occurs in the
branch 2li rather than 2l, the pressures are re
versed and the piston moves in the opposite di
is connected to the left end of the piston through
rection to increasingly throttle flow from piston
connected to the right end of the piston through
groove 22 into the cylinder groove I6 and de
creasingly throttle flow from the piston groove
25 into the cylinder groove I1.
a port 8| (Fig. 4) and the hole 3|. Obviously, ‘
therefore, groove 18 always contains fluid at the
same pressure existing at the left end of the pis
ton, and the groove 19 always contains fluid at
a port 80 and the hole 44, and the groove '19 is
When the direction of flow isfrom the branch ,
lines into the common line, fluid entering the
branch passages I8 into the cylinder groove I1
cannot iloW through piston groove 22 to the left
end of the piston because check valve 3B is then
seated. Hence, fluid flow from cylinder groove
I6 can voccur only through the piston groove 23
and past the check valve 21 to chamber 12. Like
wise, .fluid flowing from the branch line 2| ,into
cylinder groove I1 cannot flow through piston
groove 25 to the right end of the piston because
l check valve 4Q is seated, and, hence, ñow can only
occur from groove l1 through the piston groove
2li and past check valve 42 to chamber 13. Fluid
howirfg through the chambers 12 and 'I3 passes
through the passages 10 and 1| and out through
the ports 14 and 15 to the common line 55, the
ports 14 and ‘l5 being maintained open by pres
sure transmitted from passage ‘II through pas
sage 16 to the right end of the sleeve 58. The
ports ‘lil and 15 introduce a pressure drop propor
tional to the flow, and as long as the flows from
the two branch lines 20 and 2| are the same,
equal pressures exist in the chambers 12 and 13
and the throttling eiîect of shoulder 24a from
cylinder groove Il to piston groove 24 is equal to
the pressure existing at the right end of the pis- ,
ton. Except while the piston is movingto com
10 pensate for changes in resistance to flow in the
twoy branch lines 20 and 2|, the pressures at the
opposite ends of the piston are substantially
equal. Whenever there is a substantial differ
ence in the resistance to flows in the two branch
15 lines 20 and 2|, the pressures in the grooves I6
and I1 will be substantially different, and with
out the grooves "I8 and 19, there would be a cross
ilow of leakage fluid through the clearance be
tween the piston and cylinder between the
20 grooves 23 and 24. However, the grooves 18. and
'I9 prevent such cross flow because the pressures
in grooves 18 and 19 are always substantially the
As an example, assume that as a' result of sub
25 stantial increase in the resistance to flow through
the branch line 20 as compared to the branch line
2|, ther piston I5 moves in such direction as to
permit relatively :tree now from the piston groove
22 into the groove IB while greatly throttling
30 flow rfrom the piston groove 25 into the groove
I1. ‘Under these» conditions, the pressure in
cylinder groove I6 will be high compared to the
the throttling effect of shoulder 23a to fluid flow ' pressure in cylinder groove I1, and withoutthe
from cylinder groove I6 to the piston groove 23.
grooves 18 and 19, there would be leakage of- fluid
However, if fluid tends to flow into the valve fas-_ 35 from cylinder groove I6 into piston groove 423,
ter from branch 2| than branch 20, the pressure
thence along the clearance between the piston
will become higher in chamber 13 than in cham
and cylinder into the piston groove 24 and thence
ber l2, moving the piston to the left to increas
into the cylinder groove I1 and the line 2|. 'Ob
ingly throttle iiuid flow at shoulder 24a and de
viously, therefore, the ñuid entering the line 2|
creasingly throttle fluid flow at shoulder 23a un-- 40 'would consist in part of ñuid ñowíng through
til equality of flow is again restored. If the 110W
the metering port 14 instead o1' consisting solely
into the valve from branch line 20 becomes 1 of fluid iìowingv through the metering port 15,
greater than the :dow from branch 2|, the re~
Vas it should be. However, such cross flow as
verse condition prevails, the pressure in cham
has been described is rendered impossible- by the
"ber 12 rising above that inV chamber 13, and mov 45 groove 18 and 19 because those grooves are al
`ing the piston to the right to increasingly throt
Ways ñlled with ñuid that is at higher pressure
tie How past shoulder 23a and decreasingly throt
tling iiow past shoulder 24a.
` It will be apparent Á‘that the placing of the
_ check valves in the main piston provides a sim
Aple ,structure that can be readily «manufactured» y
and serviced.
Furthermore, it provides a very
simple body structure, requiring lmuch less ma
than the pressure in either the cylinder groove
' I 6 or the cylinder groove I1 so that whatever
leakage there is, is from the groove 18 »to the
groove I6 and from the groove 19§to` the groove
I1. As a result, regardless of the"'unavoidable
leakage along the piston. all of the ñuid entering
the branch line 2U ñows through the metering
l , chine work than the valves of this type previous
port 14 and all of the fluid that enters the branch
55 line 2| ilows through the metering port 15. Ob
lit is important in a valve of this type, partic
viously, the grooves 18 and 18 could -be located in
ularly when the flow is from the common line 55
the cylinder wall instead of the piston, but it is
into the branch lines 2li and 2|, that all of the
easier to place them in the piston.
huid entering one branch line 2li pass through
If it is not necessary to control fluid now in
the metering port it and that allof the fluid 60 both directions, the valve can be simplified by
entering the other branch line 2l pass through
eliminating all the check valves in the piston and
the other metering port fi5„_._,_This means that
one set of grooves on the piston. Thus, if it is
there should be no lealragealongthe surface of
necessary only to handle :dow from the common
piston it from one body groove .i6 to the other
line 55 to the branch lines 20 and 2|, the piston
body groove il, or vice versa'.
However, in p. 65 grooves 23 and 24 can be omitted. On the other
hand, if now is only from the branch lines 20
tightly in' the cylinder that there is no leakage
and 2| to the common line 55, the piston grooves
whatsoever. We, therefore, maire provision that
22 and 25 can be omitted. - Hence, the same body
whatever leakage there is along the piston into
can be'used for both reversible and non-reversible _
grooves it ‘and l1 'will be from that end of` the
‘models of the valve. thereby reducing production
piston adjacent the groove. This is done by pro
cost, and enabling conversion of valves in the >
practical valve, the piston cannot be ilttediso
viding a pair of annular grooves i8> and 19 near
the middle of the piston and connecting each
groove to the end oi _the piston to which it is
held by merely changing the pistons.
We claim:
. i
1. A new proportioning valve comprising a
closest. rlFhus, referring to Fig. 5, the groove ‘I8 75 body having a common fluid connection and a
pair of branch connections and deñning a cylin
~der having a pair of longitudinally-spaced ports
in its cylindrical wall respectively connected to
said branch connections, said body also having
fluid passages respectively connecting said com
mon connection with the ends of said cylinder;
means for producing pressure drops in said pas
sages proportional to ñuid flow therein; a piston
in said cylinder movable in response to the djf~
ference in pressure acting on opposite ends of said
cylinder in either direction from a neutral posi
tion of flow is from said main connection to the
branch connection.
4. A valve as described in claim l in which said
fluid passages in said body connecting said com
mon connection with both ends of said cylinder
comprise: a first passage extendingr through said
body and connecting at its opposite ends to oppo
site ends of sai‘d cylinder, a second passage ex
tion, said piston having a pair of annular grooves
tending through said body at an angle to and
intersecting said first passage, one end of said
second passage constituting said common iiuid
connection, means closing the other end of said
cooperating respectively with said cylinder ports
second passage, a sleeve reciprocal in said second
and having passages therein communicating one
passage having a pair of diametrically opposite
ports communicating with opposite ends of said
groove with one end face and communicating
the other groove with the other end face of the
piston; each of said piston grooves and its as
first passage, a piston reciprocal in said sleeve
to cover and uncover the ports therein, spring
means urging said sleeve in one direction and
sociated cylinder port being so positioned relative
separate spring means urging said piston in the
to each other as to equally throttle fluid flow at said two ports when said piston is in said 20 opposite direction to normally cover the ports
in said sleeve, one end of said sleeve and one end
neutral position and to unequally throttle duid
of said piston being exposed to fluid pressure
ñow at said ports when the piston is displaced
in said one end of said second passage, and means
either way from said neutral position, the ar
for applying fluid pressure from one end oi’ said
rangement being such that movement of said pis- '
ton in response to departure of the pressures at 25 ñrst passage to said other end of said second pas
sage, the construction and arrangement of said
opposite ends of the piston from equality variably
sleeve, piston, and springs being such that said
throttles flow through said ports in such direction
piston is displaced to uncover said sleeve ports
as to nullify said departure and maintain the
in response to pressure in said one end of said
2_A valve as described in claim 1 in which 30 second passage exceeding the pressure in the
other end and said sleeve is moved to uncover said
said body comprises a main member having two
sleeve ports in response to pressure in the other
parallel passages extending longitudinally there
end of said passage exceeding the pressure in
through and a, pair of detachable end closure
pressures equal at the opposite ends of the piston.
said first end thereof.
members in sealing relation with said main mem
5. A valve for proportioning the ñow rates in
ber "for interconnecting adjacent ends of said 35
a pair of ducts connected in parallel relation to
parallel passages, one oi.' said parallel passages
constituting said cylinder and the other of said
parallel passages having connection intermediate
each other and in series with a common duct
containing means for circulating fluid in either
direction therethrough said valve comprising: a
its ends with said common connection through
40 body member deñning a, cylinder having a pair
said means for producing pressure drops.
of longitudinally-spaced ports in its cylindrical
3. A flow proportioning valve comprising a
wall adapted to be connected to said pair of ducts,
body having a main fluid connection and a pair
and having a common connection adapted to be
of branch connections connected by branch pas
connected to said common duct; means in said
sages to said main connection and having iiow
body connecting said common connection with
resistance means in each branch passage and
opposite ends of said cylinder and producing pres
throttling means in each branch passage re
sure drops proportional to flow in response to
sponsive to departure of the pressures ther‘ein
fluid iiow between the said common connection
between the flow resistance means and the
and opposite ends of said cylinder; a piston in said
throttling means from a given ratio for varying 50 cylinder reciprocal in either direction from a
said throttling means so as to nullify said de
neutral position, a iirst pair of annular grooves
parture and maintain the iiows in the two branch
on said piston associated with said respective
passages in constant ratio, in which: the '
cylinder ports and connected by passages through
throttling means comprises a cylinder having a
said piston to opposite ends thereof for inversely
pair of ports respectively connected to said branch 55 throttling fluid ilow from said respective cylinder
connections; a piston movable in said cylinder
ports to opposite ends of said cylinder in response
in either direction from a neutral position and
to movement of said piston, the arrangement of
having four annular grooves thereon, two on op
tbe grooves being such with respect to their asso
posite sides of one cylinder port, and two on
ciated cylinder ports that the flow in each port
opposite sides of the other cylinder port when 60
is increasingly throttled in response to an in
said piston is in neutral position, said piston hav
crease in the pressure in the end of said cylinder
ing separate passages therein connecting the two
connected to that port relative to the pressure
grooves of one pair to one end face of the piston
in the other end when the direction of flow is
and connecting the two grooves of the other pai!
from said ports to said common connection; check
to the other end face of the piston; check valve 65 valves in said piston passages preventing flow
means in said piston passages restricting ñow in
therethrough from the ends of said piston to said
the two passages communicating with each end
first pair of piston grooves; a second pair of
of the piston to opposite directions; the arrange
annular grooves on said piston associated _with
ment being such that the flow in either cylinder
said respective cylinder ports and passages in said
port is increasingly throttled in response to an 70 piston connecting said grooves to opposite ends
increase in the pressure in the end of said cylinder
of the piston, for inversely throttling fluid flow
connected to that port relative to the pressure in
from opposite ends of said cylinder to said respec
the other end of the cylinder when the direction
tive cylinder ports in response to movement of the
of flow is from the branch connections to said
piston, the arrangement of said second pair of
main connection and vice versa when the direc 75 grooves being such with respect to their asso~
- annesse
eyiinder :norte that the iiiovv in each port
piston when the piston moves in response to
diii’erences in the pressure drops through said
resistance means, said cylinder and piston hav
de easine'iy throttled in response to en in
crenae in the pressure in the end o1’ said cylinder
cenneeted to that port relative to the pressure
in, the other end when the direction of ?iovv is
from said common connection to said ports, and
cheer: valves in said last-mentioned piston pas
ing cooperating sliding surfaces separating said
ports and providing a leakage path between said
ports, a pair of annular grooves in one of said
surfaces interrupting said leakage path, and pas
ior ereventine9 tiow therethrough from said
sage means connecting each groove to the aci»
second ïoair ot grooves in the piston to the ends
" i
nive tor the distribution of üuids com'
nrieing: means for dividing a fluid ñovr along two
patire, means in each oi said paths adapted to
oder a resistance to ñuid ñow, a cylinder having
its ends communicating with said paths, a. piston
in the cylinder, and ports in the cylinder provid
ing a continuation of said paths, said ports being
throttled by said piston and being adapted tohave their tree creas inversely varied by the
i’ .
jacent end of said cylinder.
7. A valve as described in claim i having a
second pair of annular grooves interrupting the `
leakage path through the piston cylinder clear
ance between said cylinder ports, and means pro
viding fiuid connection between each groove of
said second pair and the end or said cylinder ad
jacent that groove.
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