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Jan. 7, 1947.
C. DOBELL
2,413,911
FABRICATION OF CONCRETE ELEMENTS 0R STRUCTURES
Filed Oct. 13, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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INVENTOR
CURZON
ATTORNEYS 7 '
c, DOB-ELL
FABRICATION 0F CONCRETE ELEMENTS 0R STRUCTURES
Filed oé'tl 13, 1943
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INVENTOR
cunzcn ooBELL
'
DY
.
‘I'TORNEYS
A.
Jan. 7, 1947.
2,413,911
C. DOBELL
FABRICATION 0F CONCRETE ELEI'IENTS OR STRUCTURES
Filed Oct. 13. 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Patented 1....‘1. V1941.
2,413,911
‘PATENT orn‘ca * _’
v UNITED .s'rArEs
0R STRUCTURES‘
Curzon Dobell, NewYork, N. Y. '
_
Application October 13, 1943, Serial No.- 506,074
1
v,
(or. 25-11)
19 Claims.
This invention relates‘ to the fabrication ‘of 111811‘
.8. To provide for the fabrication of a high
strength concrete elements or structures by a‘
strength concrete structure upon or against a
' preformed structure by a continuous process
continuous process which has a wide range of use_'
which. simpli?es the development of continuity
'
'
.
"
The more important, objects of the invention to between the two structures. '
9. To provide for the ‘fabrication of high
may be summarized as follows:
1. To provide a continuous fabricating process‘ ' ' strength concrete elements or structures by a con
tinuous process, which lends itself to the fabrics.
whereby high strength concrete, elements or
tion of solid, hollow, or cellular elements or struc
structures of great length'or-height may be rap- ,
idly and economically fabricated. in situ or other 10 tures oi'ianv desired height, length, shape or cross
wise, with the aid of relatively short moulds of
10. To provide for the fabrication of high
comparatively simple and inexpensive design.
2. To provide for the building of high-strength ' strength concrete elements or structuresby an
extrusion process in which pretensione'd and/or
.concrete elements or structures in situ upon or
ful application.
section.
-
i
against a preformed structure by a continuous 16 passive reinforcement members are progressively *
process of fabrication which enables said me;1
formed structure to be economically used as part -_
of the construction apparatus.
3. To provide for the. fabrication of high
strength concrete elements or structures by a. 20
continuousprocess which enables the strength of
the concrete in successively formed sections of
such elements ‘or structures to be selectively con
' trolled without changing the thickness or size of
said sections.
-
'
embedded in the concrete during fabrication ‘
thereof.
,
.
-
.
11. To provide for the fabrication, in situ, of
high strength concrete elements or structures of
considerable height by a continuous process which
may be carried out with the aid of relatively short‘ '
moulds or forms and with little or no scaffolding
and in which provision'is made for incorporating‘
passive and/or pretensioned reinforcement mem
28 hers in the concrete during its passagethrough
.
the mould or moulds.
12. To provide for . the fabrication of high‘
strength concrete elements or structures by a
continuous process in 'which the concrete is sub
continuous process in which the concrete is forced
jected to high pressure which is utilized toeifect
rapid‘ removal of excess water from the concrete 30 through a mould vuncler‘a pressure which is de
V 4. To provide for the fabrication of high
strength'concrete elements or. structures by, a
termined, at least in part, by controllable ten
and thereby speed up the transformation of the‘
concrete from aplastic to a granular condition
during passage of the concrete through a rela
tively short mould or form.
siOn produced in reinforcing members embedded 1‘
v in the concrete during its passage through the
'
mould.
-
'
-
.5. To provide for the fabrication of ‘high 35 " 13. To provide for the fabrication of high'
‘strength vconcrete elements or structures by a
continuous process in which the concrete is forced
under pressure through a mould and in which
. water is‘qulckly expelled from the interior as _
the pressure of the concrete is utilized to stretch
well as from outer portions of the mass in such
manner as to ensure the rapid development of 40 and tension reinforcement members embedded in
strength concrete elements or structures of great
mass by a‘ continuous process in which excess
uniform strength characteristics throughout the
the,. concrete during its passage through said
entire mass.
mould.
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-
.
.
>
>
‘
6. To provide forthe fabrication, in situ, of
14. To provide for the fabrication of high
high strength concrete elements or structures of - .
strength concrete elements or structures by a '
considerable height by a continuous process 45 continuous process in which the concrete is forced
which requires little or no scaffolding.
7. To provide for therapid, economical and '
convenient fabrication of concrete structures by
under pressure through a mould and in which re
inforcement members. pretensloned to a predeter
'mlned degree, are embedded in the concrete dur
ing its passage through the mould, the maximum
a process which enables ?oors. beams‘. roofs or
other elements of a structure to be ‘first fabricated 60 extent to which the reinforcement members are
- at ground or other convenient low level and then
pretensioned being controllable independently of
'. progressively raised to their ?nal positions by
continuous and progressive fabrication of their
supporting walls,’ columns or other supporting
the tensioning pressure of the concrete.
X
Other objects, advantages and characteristic
features of my invention will be apparent from
structures. . '
65 the ‘following description of the several. preferred
embodiments illustrated in the
provided with packing glands Ii through which
vaohtimhallying . ‘
reinforcing wires i2 and, i3 are passed into the
drawings, in which
mouldwhere the inner ends of said wires are
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal sectional 'view of one .
fastened to a movable starting head H by suit
able wire clamps l5. Thewires l2 are passed
' inwardly through the packing glands II from
. form of apparatus which may be used in fabri
eating concrete elements or structures by a con
tinuous process embodying the principles or my
_
invention.
-
suitable supply reels 16 which may be arranged
-
in any suitable manner. .In the present instance
' Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken sub-I ‘,
stantially along the line 2-2 of Fig.- 1.‘
_
the _'reels i6 are-"shown .carried by supporting
Fig. 3 is anenlarged fragmentary transverse‘ '10 strutsnl'l. extending from one end of mould l.
‘The reels l6 are preferably tension. regulating
sectional view‘ot the mould?shown in Fig. 1.
9‘ reels from which the wires l2 are paid out only
. ' ‘Fig. 4 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view
of the starting head employed iniconjunction . qafter these wires have been stretched and ten
.with'the mould shown in the preceding figures. :i' ;_sioned-to‘a predetermined degree by the pulling ,
and stretching action to which the wires are sub- _ .
jected as1 hereinafter described. This ensures '
Fig. 5‘ is a view similar to Fig. 1, but showingv 15
themould
means for controlling
equipped with
the movement
pulling and'retarding
oi'the 8350;! _
that the wires, i2 will be embedded in the concrete
in a 'pretensi‘oned’ condition during passage of
ciated starting head.
the concrete through the mould. The wires l3 are
passed
to the starting head I4 from free-running
the ,mould equipped with retarding means for 2.0
reels (not shQWIJ) or item some other paying
I retarding_therate of movement of the starting
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 1, but’sl’iowingi " ~
out meansqwhich does not impose any appreciable
tension thereon. The ‘wires iii are thus embedded
head and the concreteas' these‘element's-emergev
from the discharge end of the mould.
in the concrete passing through the mould to
Fig. '7, isa'view illustrating one application or‘ .
my invention whereby a mould; such as'shown in 25 serve as a passive reinforcement as‘ ‘distinguished
- from the Dretensioned
Fig.1, maybeutiiized for iab'ricating- a concrete
thewiresl2.,
element’ or structure'insitu upon a previously
be employed‘ vas ' part of r the construction appa
ratus.
,
‘
'
'
>
>
a‘
-
out maybejequipped with any conventional fric
30 tional, hydraulic, or other restraining device to
~resist;,turni_ngl. movement of the reels until the
'
wiresrilhave been stretched and tensioned to a
Fig. 7a is a transverse sectional view ‘taken sub!
predeterminedvdegree.
stantially‘along thelineld-la'ot Fig.
.
‘The reelsJG from, which the wires I2 are paid
fabricated concrete structure'in‘ such manner as r
to fenable'the previouslyYfabricated structure to
reinforcement a?orded by
“y
‘
'
1
.
’
'
.
V ; ‘
- The-startingheadjll is initially positioned close
illustrating a further application of my invention 35 to-theinnerend of dome 9 and is ‘guided, during
Figs. _8.' 9 and‘ 10 are'vertical'sectional views
part of’ its-travel. bythe surrounding ‘staves 6.
whereby parts‘ofa structure may be fabricated
' The end of the starting head-‘nearest the dome
" at ground or other convenientlow level and then
‘is covered by a compressible gasket 19 and a metal
raised .to their final‘ position by'prog'ressive fab
plate 20 securedin place by screws or nails 2|.
rication" of their supporting walls." ‘columns; or
The,:plate,20 is free to move against the gasket
v40
other supporting structures.
a "
' Y -' v
a
viiito compress the latter against- the adjacent
' Fig,#_11 is] a sectional-view of a1;modi?ed type
endoi'the starting head.‘ The gasket I9 is made
of rubber'or, other resiliently compressible mate
'rial'which is- capableroi substantial lateral ex
water vfrom'the interior a's'well as from the ‘outer
45 pansion when subjected to compression between
ofjdomejwhich?may'beused in connection with
the apparatus shown" in- Figil to‘ drain surplus
the plate 20 and the starting head M. A leather .
packing ring 22 is secured to the starting head
portions
. .Fig'. 12 of’the
is a sectional‘view
mass. _“' -' taken
~ ‘- .-along
. A‘ the
~
line
.|2.—=-l2'.0f Fig.
11.
‘
‘
>
‘
"
'
so that'it ‘surrounds, and projects beyond the
‘gasket l9 andthe plate 20. This packing ring is
, Figs. 1 to .4 inclusive’illustrate'_one_-'form;of
apparatus which may be‘ used in" accordance with
my. invention for‘ the ‘manufacture of .
strength, reinforced concrete by a continuous fab‘- " '
.
.
,
.
.
.
high?“
ricating. process.~ , In v,this case the‘, mould '4,
through which the‘ concrete is pumped‘ under
pressure, comprises a cylindrical outer shelll'5
designed to withstand‘ internal pressures which
iorce'doutwardly into sealing engagement-[with
the inner ?anges 801 the staves 8‘ by the afore
said lateral expansionv of .the gasket I9. ,This
prevents any. possibility of the mortar in the con
crete being squeezed between the starting head
and the surrounding staves. The packing ring 22
:is secured to the'starting head by nails or screws
may be in excess of,“2‘,000 lbs; per square inch.
In mostcases, however,jthe internal pressures ' in. ?-The. starting head 14, gasket I9 and plate 20
provided with suitable holes 24 through which
to which ‘the-shell is subjected in service will be _ v-are
the wires l2 and I3 are passedto the clamps iii.
lower their 1000 lbs.vper_"square' inch. Theshell 7
may be made of any suitable material and-is pro
60
‘
The fabrication of prestressed, reinforced con-'
vided with a lining consisting of metal staves 6 '
crete by use. of the apparatus shown inFigs. 1
arrangedin circular series.‘ The cross sectional
shape of‘each' stave 6“ is'simiIar to vthat of an
I-beam, the outer ‘?ange 'l-‘b‘eing' somewhat‘fwider
manner: Plastic concrete is pumped, under suit
' able pressure (usually not substantially less than
than, the inner ?ange v8, to facilitate arrangement
or thestaves'in circul'ar'series with corresponding
?anges of adjacent staves butted togetherin edge
l0 into dome?jand against [plate 20 of starting
head “.1 The pressure of the concrete against
to edge relation.
"
"
"
"
'
'
"
'
to 4 inclusive is accomplished in the following
2001lbs. per square inch) through pipe connection
the starting head ' H stretches and tensions the .
reinforcement wires I2 andresults in the start
ing head ‘being forced, toward and through the
of thestaves is closed at one endgby ahollo'w
dome 9 which is open at'its inner end andiis weld- / open end ‘of the mould at a rate which is con
trolled, in part, by the effective pressure of the
.edvor otherwise secured to said‘?ange's‘. ‘ ‘The in
concrete and, in part, by the setting of the ten
terior'of dome 9 is connected, by‘ pipeconnection
, The mould space bounded bythe [inner ?anges
ill, to the delivery side of a conventional con
crete pressure pump (not shown) .' Dome 9 is also
- . sion regulating means governing the paying out
or the wires i2 from the reels I6. In this par
12,413,911 '
ticular instance’ the pressure of the concrete act- -'
crete products, such as bricks, tile, or pipe, the
incorporation of reinforcement. members in the
concrete during the. fabricating process is op
ing against the starting head I4 is utilized to
stretch and tension the wires l2 so that the latter
‘ - are embedded in the concrete in a‘ pretensioned ,
tional.
_ condition during passage of theconcrete through
the mould 4. At the same time successive lengths r
of the untensioned wires I 3 are drawn through. a
> the mould by the travelling movement of the
, starting head VM and embedded in theconcrete to
serve as passive reinforcement.
‘
'
In some instances thev desired concrete strength
may be obtained by a_ pressure greater or less than
that required to produce the desired tension in
the reinforcement members [2. To provide for
this‘ contingency auxiliary pulling or retarding
10 means may be provided to control the rate of
‘movement of the starting head independently of '
'
As the leather packing ring 22 of the starting
head moves away from the dome 9 the concrete
the pressure of the concrete in the mould.
A simple form of mechanism capable of being
’ comes in direct contact with the inner ?anges 8 -
r of the metal ‘staves and, owing to the pressure
I used either as a starting head pulling or retard
on the concrete, practically all of the water in ,-15 ‘mg means is illustrated in Fig. 5. This mecha
excess of the amount required for hydration is
nism comprises a feed screw 30 which is attached
expelled from the concrete through the Joints , to the starting head bya plate 3| and is slidable
’ formed by and between said ?anges, it being un
through a guide opening provided in a cross-head
derstood that thesejoints are of such a nature as
32 carried by supporting members 83 attached
to permit vwater to be forced through them under 20 to the mould 4. The feed screw carries nuts 34
a pressure‘ and into'the open-ended drain passages
£119.26 38 arranged at opposite sides of the cross
28 separating the web portions of the metal '
' staves.
e
'I'his pressure expulsion of excess water '
.
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'
a . When the pressure necessary to develop the
‘ from the concrete through the drainage system of
desired strength in the concrete exceeds that re
the mould 4v permits the concrete to set rapidly 25 quired to produce the desired tension in the rein~
and to develop exceptional strength in the short , forcement members 12, the nut 34 is positioned
time required for it to travel fromthe dome 9 to
against the adjacent side of cross-head 32 and
the opposite or discharge end of the mould. '
,
the nut 35 is backed oil a suitable distance from '
The starting ‘head I4 is needed only at .the'
the opposite side of the cross-head. During the
commencement of the fabricating process to en 30 fabricating process the nut 34 is rotated in con
sure the proper tensioning and feeding of the re- '
tact with the cross-head and in the direction
inforcement wires l2 and I3 and the development - ' necessary to permit the feed screw and the start
of the requisite back pressure on the concrete
initially supplied to the mould. .By the time the
concrete reaches the discharge end of the mould 35
it has set sufficiently to become bonded to the:
reinforcement members 12 and I3 and therefore,‘v
takes over the work of pulling these members
ing head to be forced toward the discharge end‘
of the mould'at' retarded rate of speed by the
pressure of the concrete acting against the start
ing' head. In this case the rate of'travel of the
starting head is determined by the speed of‘roé
tation of the nut 34. In practice the nut 34 will
preferably be operated by worm gearing or other
on the concrete travelling through the mould is 40 operating means capable of regulation to turn
also developed independently of the ‘starting head»
the nut at any speed necessary to produce the
soon after the commencement of the fabricating
tension desired in the reinforcement members l2.
through the mould, .The requisiteback pressure
. process.
It will be apparent that forward move
When the pressure necessary to develop the
I desired strength in the concrete is less than that
> ment of the concrete is resisted through resisting
of forward movement of the reinforcement mem
bers which are attached initially and indirectly
45 required to produce the desired tension in the
reinforcement member 12, the nut 35 is posi
tioned against the crossehead and the'nut 34 is
to the forward end of the concrete through the
starting head 14 and thereafter become directly
attached or bonded to said forward end as the
concrete sets, such action'serving the double func
backed an appropriate distance from the cross
head. The nut 35 is then rotated in contact with
the cross-head in‘ the proper direction and at
' tion of compressing the concrete to densify it and > ' su?lcientspeed to cause the feed screw 30 and
expell the surplus water and to place the rein
. the starting headv 4| to travel toward the die
forcement under tension.
I
charge end‘ of‘ the mould more rapidly than
The foregoing method of using the apparatus‘ ‘ would be the case if these parts were being moved
shown in Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive enables excep 65
by the pressure of the concrete in’ the
tionally high strength prestressed reinforced con
crete elements‘or structure of inde?nite length :
to be manufactured by a continuous fabrication
-
form.-
-
- In Fig. 6 I have‘ shown another form of mech
anism which may be used for regulating the
process with the aid of a mould of relatively short
tensionlng of the wires H by retarding the move
length. By regulating the pressure on the con. .60 ment of the starting head and the fabricated
crete during its passage through the mould itjis‘ ' concrete as: they emerge from the open or dis
' possible to control the strength developed 'by‘
charge end of the mould. In this case the emerg
the concrete in the short time required for it to .
ing starting head or concrete, as the case may
travel from the dome 9 to the discharge endof
.the mould. Insofar as certain features of the in a ‘be, is engaged by pressure applying retarding
‘shoes 31 which aremovably supported by suit
vention are concerned, the reinforcement mem
able supporting members 38 so as to be capable
bers may be omitted entirely or may be embedded
of
movement in a direction at right ‘angles'to
in the concrete in ‘either a passive or a preten
the axis of the mould. The shoes 8‘! are pressed
sioned condition. In some cases'all the reinforce
ment members may be embedded in the concrete .70 against the starting head or the concrete by
‘pressure applying springs 30 , the loading of
in a passive condition while, in other cases, all
the reinforcement members may be embedded in ' - which may be regulated by operation of suitable
adjusting screws 40 which are threaded through‘
the concrete in‘ a pretensioned condition'.. In
a supporting ring 4| and are provided, at their
certain cases where the main consideration is the
‘, continuous fabrication of high strength con
inner ends, with spring seats 4? bearing against
2,418,911
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7
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the outer ends of said ‘springs. The. supporting
ring 4i may be supported from the adjacent end
member movable between the inner and outer
series of staves. In all vother respects, however,
thelannular or ring-shaped mould willbe sub
stantially the same as the mould shown in Figs.
-1 and 7. As a matter of fact, the shape of the
vAnother application of the invention is illus
mould is not a- critical factor since it will nat
trated in Flgl' 7. ‘ In this instance the, extruded
.urally be varied according to the shape of the
concrete structure is built in place upon a pre
concrete element or structure to be produced in
viously formed structure which is used as part of e
with the principles of my invention.
the construction apparatus. The built-in-place' accordance
structure is indicated at 45 and lshere shown as 10 Figs. 8, 9 and 10 illustrate a further applica
tion of the invention whereby ?oors, beams, roofs
a simple column or pole erected ‘on a preformed
or other elements of a structure may be fabri
' base structure 45 which may represent either a
cated at ground or any other convenient ‘level
foundation or a precast base section of the. col
andthen raised to their final position by pro- .
umn or pole. The structure 45 is built in situ
of mould 4 by suitable supporting arms 43 or.
' inany other‘ desired manner.
'
by pumping concrete upwardly through a cavity 15 gressive fabrication of their supporting walls, _
41 of the base structure 45 and through a rela
tively short vertically disposed mould 4 which,
except for the omission of the Home 9, is exactly
columns or other supporting structure.
In describing the illustrated example of this
last mentioned application it will be assumed
that the structure to be fabricated is a circular
the same as the mould 4 described in connections
with Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive. In this case the 20 concrete tank. The foundation 80 is ?rst fabri~
cated as a precast structure'provided with an
mould 4_is tied to the base structure 46 by anchor
annular mold forming cavity 6| extending down
bolts 48 having their lower ends embedded in
wardly from the upper surface thereof and with
said structure,'said bolts extending upwardly be
any suitable number of curved passages 52 ex
tween the staves 5 of the mould‘ 4 and being
equipped at their upper ends with stave-engag 25 tending from the bottom of the cavity to the
outer side of the foundation, each passage 62
ing washers 45 and clamping nuts 55. The
concrete is-pumped into cavity 41 through a pipe
52 having an upwardly curved inner end 53 open
ing into the bottom'of said cavity. The outer
end of pipe 52 is provided with a. T-connection 30
54 having one branch connected, by pipe con-_
nection 55, to the delivery side of a concrete
pressure pump (not shown). . Another branch
being connected, by suitable pipe connections 63,
to the discharge side of a concrete pressure pump
(not shown) or to a header to which concrete is
pumped under pressure by said pump.
Each annular wall of mould cavity 6| is pro
vided with a drainage lining consisting of a cir—
cular series of staves 65 corresponding to the '
previously mentioned staves 8.
The staves 65
58 of ,T-eonnection 54 is ?tted with a packing
gland‘ 51 through which is passed a reinforcing 35 of each series are held in place by anchor bolts
66 and by packing sand 61, the latter being inter
wire l2 which is fastened tothe starting head
HpoSed between the outer ?anges of the staves and
7- H by a clamp IS in the same manner as de
the adjacent side wall of the mould cavity. The
scribed in connection with the reinforcement
anchor bolts 65 correspond to the previously men
wires i2 shownin Fig. 1.
e
As the starting head l4 (Fig. '7) is forced up 40 tioned anchor bolts 48 and have their lower por
paid out from a tension regulating reel such as
that indicated at IS in Fig. l. The starting head
and the concrete beneath it will continue to travel
tions embedded in-the foundation 60. The inner
?anges of each'series of staves 65 are initially
covered by thin liner plates 68 which are dis
placeable as hereinafter described. A vertically
pressure through the pipe connection 52 so that
suitable durable material, is initially arranged
, wardly it serves to tension the wire l2 which is
' upwardly as long as concrete is pumped under 45 displaceable pallet 10, made of metal or any other
a pole or column of any
desired height, within‘
practical limits, may be erected in situ .upon the '
at the bottom of the mould cavity Bl so that it
covers the upper ends of the passages 62. This
pallet is provided with openings through which
foundation structure 46, and will be tied to such
structure by the concrete ?lling left in the cavity 50 tensionable reinforcement members, here shown
’ 41 and also by the pretensioned reinforcement
as steel .wires ‘II, are passed upwardly into the
mold cavity Bl. The wires ‘Il may be led to the
member I! which, ‘in the completed structure, is
bonded to both the built-'in-place structure 45
and the preformed base structure 46.
mould cavity 6! through the pipe connections 63
cavity v4‘! through any desired arrangement of
ing glands ‘l2.
and passages 62 or in any other suitable manner,
I have shown only a single wire l2 attached to 55 said wires being paid out from tension regulat
ing reels such as those described in connection
the starting head l4 in Fig. ‘I but it’Will be un
with Fig. l or from any other tension controlling
derstood that any number of such wires may be
means. The opening in theepipe connections 63
passed into the. cavity 41 and attached to the
through which the'wires ‘II are passed to the
starting head to give any desired amount of re
inforcement. Such wires may be led into the 60 mould cavity 6| are provided with suitable pack
passages provided for this purposes so that they,
may be located in the completed structure in any
desired manner.-
‘
'
In the use of the construction apparatus shown
in Figs. 8, 9 and 10, concrete is first poured into
the mould spaces bounded by the inner and outer
In those cases in which it is desired to. pro 65 liner plates 68 to form an annular wall section
14 resting on the pallet 10, said wall section
duce a ring-shaped or annular concrete struc
being bonded to the portions of the reinforcement
ture such as an annular wall or pipe it is obvious
that the mould] shown in Figs. 1 and 7 maybe 4‘ wires 1| extending above said pallet. A concrete '
roof member 15 is then fabricated in place on
replaced by moulds of annular form; that is to.
say, moulds comprising‘ spaced inner and outer 70 top of the wall section 14. After these parts of
the tank structure have been completed plastic
' vannular walls having their inner surfaces lined
concrete is pumped under pressure through the
"by metal staves such as the‘previously described
pipe connections 63 and passages 82 and against
metal staves 6. When annular moulds of this
type are used it is necessary, of course, that'the - ‘the pallet ‘III. As this concrete rises in the mould
starting head be also constructed as an annular 75 space bounded by the liner plates 68 it causes the
r
9
2,418,911
10
pallet 10 and the wall section 14 to be progres
sively raised, as indicated in Figs. 9 and 10, to any
desired height. The liner plates 68 move up
wardly with the wall section 74 and the pallet
10 until they are raised clear of the mould and
when the principles 01' my invention are ap
plied to the continuous fabrication of concrete
elements or structures of great mass it is possible
that the time required for expelling excess water
from the concrete through the drainage openings
are free to drop away or to be removed from the
wall section 14. This progressive fabrication of '
the remaining portion of the tank wall by pump
ing concrete upwardly through the mould con
provided by the staves lining the inside of the
mould will be so great that the rate of manufac- '
ture may be seriously retarded. This can be
readily explained since the high pressure on large
tinues until a wall of the desired height is ob
masses of concrete creates so much friction on the
tained. The pressure on the pumped concrete
staves that if the moulds are made long enough
and the drainage of water therefrom during pas
to provide adequate drainage time, the friction on
sage of such concrete through the mould may be ‘ > the staves may be so high as to make it impos
so regulated in relation to the length of the mould
sible to maintain the required‘movement of the
as to ensure that the pumped concrete will set 15 concrete through the mould. This di?iculty,
and acquire the requisite strength by the time it
however, may be overcome in various ways by
reaches and commences to emerge from the top
providing‘suitable means for draining excess wa
of the mould.
'
ter from the interior of the concrete mass. For
In connection with Figs. 8 to 10 inclusive, it
example, in the case of an apparatus such as
will be understood that a floor, horizontal beams 20 shown in Fig. 1, the dome 9 may be provided
or girders, or any other'type of superstructure,
with suitable bleeders ‘I1 (Figs. 11 and 12)
may be superimposed on and Joined to the 'wall
through which excess water is drained from the
section 14 before the latter is raised by the pres
interior portion of the mass of concrete supplied
sure of the concrete which is pumped to the
to the mould. As here shown each of these
mould through the passages 62' provided, of 25 bleeders consists of four segments 18 ?tted to-,
gether to form, in effect, a. cylindrical bar, the
course, that the weight of the superstructure is
inner corners of the segments being champered
within the lifting capacity of the apparatus as
off to provide a central drain bore 19. Inv this
measured by the pressure of the pumped con
case excess water is forced from the concrete
crete on the pallet 10 less the friction of the
mould and the tension in the pretensioned re
inforcement members ‘II.
It will also be understood that ‘the principles
of construction exemplified by the showing in
30 mass into the drain bores of the bleeders through
the inner ends of‘ said bores and through the
joints formed by and‘ between the segments 18
which are suitably fastened to the dome 9., If ‘
it is desired to pass the reinforcing wires 12 and
Figs. 8 to 10 inclusive may be applied in a variety
of ways dependent upon the type of concrete 35 I3 into the mould through the bleeders. this may
be accomplished as shown in Fig. 11, it being ‘
structure to be erected in accordance therewith.‘
noted that the wires are passed through packing
It is possible, for example, to provide a series of
moulds in which the upper sections of support
ing members, such as posts or columns, are ?rst
glands 80 located at the inner ends of the
bleeders.
In this case most of the water drain
ing into the bores 19 of the bleeders is forced
precast and then raised to their ?nal position by
through the joints formed by and between the
forcing concrete upwardly through the mould ‘to
segments 18 of each bleeder. If it is desired to
progressively form the remaining portions of the
have the bleeders open at both ends the wires
length of said columns, posts, or other supporting
may be carried through the dome 9 by means of
members. Obviously, the number, shape and de
tails of the moulds used for fabricating different 45 separate packing glands as shown in‘Fig. 1.
Having thus described my invention, what I
types of concrete structures in accordance with
claim is:
the principles'of my invention will vary accord—
1. The fabrication of vertical concrete ele
ing to the design of the structure to be erected
ments or structures of considerable height by a
and other conditions which must be taken into
50 continuous process comprising extruding concrete
consideration.
upwardly through a short vertical mould asso
When fabricating vertical structures such as
ciated with a preformed concrete structure to
those illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8 it is feasible and,
thereby fabricate an extruded concrete element
in some cases, may be necessary or desirable to
extending a substantial distance above said mould
progressively increase the pressure on the con
and having its base portion bonded to and sup
crete in the mould as the structure rises vertically. 55 ported by said preformed supporting structure.
Thus, the pressure to which the concrete is sub
2. Apparatus for use in making high strength
jected in forming the ?rst section of 'the struc
concrete elements or structures by a continuous
ture .in the mould may be progressively increased
fabricating process comprising a, mould, means
so that each succeeding section will have greater
for forcing concrete under pressure through said
density and strength than the preceding section. 60 mould, a travelling starting head initially ar
In this connection it will be understood that the
ranged in said mould in the path of movement of
progressive increase of pressure here referred to
the concrete from its point of entry to its point
may be greater than that which is necessary to
of discharge from said mould, said starting head
carry the increasing load due to the increasing
comprising a body portion, a movable pressure
height and. weight of the structure which is being 55 plate carried by said body portion and against
fabricatedand raised. In this way it is possible‘
which the concrete‘is extruded, a gasket inter
to increase the strength of the concrete in suc
posed between said body portion and said plate
ceed’ng sections of the structure which is formed
and made of resiliently compressible material ca
in the mold without increasing‘ the size and
pable of substantial lateral expansion when sub
thickness of the sections. In other words, the 70 jected to compression between said plate and said
density and strength of the concrete may be pro
body portion, said plate being movably connected
gressively increased from the top to the bottom
to the body portion so that it is moved toward
of the structure so that the strength of each
and relatively to the body portion by the pressure
section may be made suflicient to carry the cal
of the concrete extruded thereagainst and thus
culated load imposed thereon.
75 serves to effect compression and lateral expansion
L
11
~ ' 2,413,911
,
"
-
a travelling starting head adapted to be initially
of said gasket and a packing ring carried by said '
arranged in said mould in the path of movement
of the concrete from its point of entry to its point
‘of discharge from said mould, the apparatus
being adapted to have reinforcing elements ex
body portion and encircling said plate and gasket,
said packing ring being adapted to be forced out
wardly into ‘sealing engagement with the sur
rounding wall structure of the mould by the lat
eral extension of said gasket and reinforcing ele
' tending into said mould and anchored to the
starting head so that successive lengths of the re
inforcing elements are drawn by said starting
to the body portion of said starting head so that ,
head toward and through the concrete discharge
successive lengths of the reinforcing elements '
are drawn into and through said mould by-move 10 opening of the mould, tensioning means from
ments extending into said mould and anchored
which the reinforcing elements are passed to said
ment of said starting head toward and'through
the concrete discharge opening ‘of the ‘mould,
‘said reinforcing members being thereby em
starting head, and means for determining and
controlling the rate of travel of the starting head
independently of the pressure of the concrete
which is extruded against the starting head.
beddedin said concrete as it passes through the
mould.
I
'
'
,
'
,
8. Apparatus for use in making high strength ' ‘I
concrete elements or, structures by a continuous
8. The method of fabricating a concrete pole
or column which comprises forming the base sec
tion ‘of the pole or column with an internal
’
fabricating process, comprising a mould through
which concrete can be forced under pressure, a
through passage extending downwardly from the
top of said section and then completing said pole 20 travelling starting head adapted to be initially ar
ranged in said mould in the path of movement of
or_ column by extruding concrete upwardly
the concrete from its point of entry to its point of
through said passage.
,
discharge from said mould and‘adapted to co
4. The method of fabricating concrete build
operate with reinforcing elements extending into
ing structures or elements which comprises ini
tially fabricating a precast concrete section with 25 said mould and anchored to the starting head so
that successive lengths of the reinforcing ele
ments are drawn into and through said mould by
a through passage, arranging a relatively short
mould against a surface of said section so that
one end of said passage opens into said mould,
movement of said starting head toward and
throughthe concrete discharge opening of the
extruding concrete through said passage and said
mould to thereby fabricate a further extruded 30 mould, tensioning means from which the rein- .
forcing elements are passed to said starting head,
section of the concrete structure or element in
and means engageable with the starting head to
situ against the initially fabricated precast sec
retard the travelling movement thereof toward
tion, and draining water from the extruded con
the discharge end of the mould.
crete during its passage through the mould so
9; Apparatus for use in making high strength
that the extruded concrete is transformed from a
concrete elements or structures by a continuous
plastic to a high strength granular mass by the
fabricating process, comprising a mould through
3time it reaches and commences to emerge from
the mould.
which concrete can be forced under pressure, a
-
travelling starting head adapted to be initially ar
5. The method of fabricating concrete build
ing structures which comprises initially fabricat
40 ranged in said mould in the path of movement of
the concrete from its point of entry to its point of
discharge from said mould and adapted to coop
erate with reinforcing elements extending 'into
face thereof and with internal passages extending
said mould and anchored to the starting head so
from the bottom of the mould cavity. to an ex
ternal surface of the foundation, arranging a 45 that successive lengths of the reinforcing ele
ments are drawn into and through said mould by
movable pallet on the-bottom wall of the cavity
movement of said starting head toward and
so that it covers the ends of the passages opening '
through thev concrete discharge opening of the
into said cavity, introducing concrete into said
- ing a precast concrete foundation'with a mould
cavity extending downwardly from the upper sur- ‘
mould, tensioning means from which the rein- '
forcing elements are passed to said starting head,
60
by form a. moulded concrete section adapted to
cavity through the top opening thereof to there
and means operable to increase the speed of
travel of the starting head toward the discharge
occupy an elevated position in the finished struc
ture, arranging movable liner plates in said cav
ity prior to the aforesaid introduction of concrete
'_therein to thereby prevent bonding of the in
troduced concrete to the defining walls of the cav
ity and then extruding concrete through said
passages and cavity to raise said concrete section
to its ?nal position and to simultaneously form
end of the mould.
_
10. Apparatus for use in making high strength
55 concrete elements or structures by a continuous
, extrusion type fabricating process, comprising an
extrusion mould through which concrete can be
_ extruded under pressure, through said mould,- said
mould being provided with a drainage lining
6. The method set forth in claim 5 which in 60 through which excess water is drained from por
tions of the concrete adjacent said lining, and
'cludes the step of passing the leading ends of long
means extending into the interior of the mold
lengths of reinforcing members into said mould
an extruded supporting structure for said section. '
' and having a passage therethrough for draining
cavity prior to the initial ?lling of the cavity to
water from the interior of the concrete mass dur
form said concrete section whereby said leading,
'
end portions of the reinforcing members are 65 ing its passage through said mould.
bonded to said section so that, during subsequent »
raising of said section to its ?nal position, succes
sive lengths of the reinforcing members‘ are
drawn into said cavity and are bonded to the ex
truded concrete during its passage through said 70
cavity.
'
.
,
7. Apparatus for use in making high strength
concrete elements or structures by a continuous
11. A method of fabricating high strength con
crete structures, which consists in extruding con
crete under pressure through a mold, and simul
taneously therewith placing the moving concrete
in the mold under predetermined increased pres
sure forcing surplus water therefrom by resisting
at its forward portion normal passage of the con
crete through the mold, thereby facilitating the
setting of the concrete and increasing its strength.
fabricating process, comprising a mould through
12. A method of fabricating high strength con
which concrete can be extruded under pressure, 76
13
2,418,911
crete structures, which consists in extruding con
c'rete under pressure through a mold, and simul- .
' taneously therewith placing the concrete in the ,
mold under predetermined increased pressure
forcing surplus water therefrom by resisting for
14
mold, simultaneously therewith tensioning said
reinforcement and increasing the extruding pres
sure on the concrete by restraining movement of
the reinforcement at a point rearwardly of the
mold and utilizing the extruding action of the
concrete to draw the‘ reinforcement through the
‘ through the action of resisting forward movement "
mold against such restraint, modifying the ex
-of reinforcement attached to said forward end
truding pressure required and the resultant den
‘ of the concrete and extending rearwardly there
sity and strength of the extruded concrete by ap
from through the mold and said mixture, thereby 10' plying external force to said forward end of the
facilitating the setting of the concrete‘ and in
concrete in a direction longitudinally of the mold,
creasing its strength.
and bonding the concrete to the tensioned rein
13. .A method of fabricating high strength rein- ' ‘ forcement as they exit from .the mold, thereby
forced concrete structures, which consists in ex
facilitating the setting of the concrete and plac
truding concrete under pressure through a. mold, 15 ing the extruded concrete under permanent com
ward movement of the concrete at its forward end
simultaneously therewith placing the moving
pression.
.
concrete in the mold under predetermined in
16. The method defined in claim 15 in which
creased pressure forcing surplus‘ water therefrom
said external force is applied in a direction op
by resisting at its forward portion normal pas
posing forward movement of the concrete, there
sage of the concrete through the mold, passing 20 by increasingthe density and strength of the ex
steel reinforcement under tension through the
truded concrete.
.
mold simultaneously with the concrete, and bond
17. A method of fabricating a high strength
ing the tensioned reinforcement to the concrete
concrete structure in situ on. and against a pre
as they emerge from the mold, thereby facilitat
formed concrete structure, which consists in pre
ing the setting of the concrete and placing the 25 forming a concrete structure with a cavity therein
extruded concrete under permanent compression.
open to' the side thereof on ' which the high
1 14. A method of fabricating high strength re~
strength structure is to be fabricated, associating
inforced concrete structures, which consists in an extruding mold with the preformed structure
extruding wet plastic concrete together with steel
at said cavity, and forcing concrete under pres
reinforcement under pressure through- a mold, 30 sure into the cavity and outwardly through the
said reinforcement being attached to the forward
mold.
end of the concrete as it emerges from the mold
18. The-manufacture of concrete elements or _
and extending rearwardly therefrom through the
structures by a continuous process, comprising
mold, simultaneously therewith tensioning said
continuously extruding the concrete through a
reinforcement and increasing the extruding pres 35 mold under pressure forcing excess water from
sure on the concrete by placing a, predetermined
and densifying the concrete, and gradually vary
. restraint on the movement of the reinforcement
ing said pressure during passage of the concrete
at a point rearwardly of the mold and utilizing
through the mold to thereby modify the density
the extruding action of the concrete simultane
and strength of successively extruded portions
ously to tension and draw the reinforcement 40 of the concrete.
through the mold against such restraint, whereby
19. The manufacture of concrete elements or
forcing excess water from the concrete and out
structures by a continuous process, comprising
wardly of the mold, and bonding the concrete
continuously extruding concrete together with re
to the tensioned reinforcement as they exit from
inforcement through a mold under pressure forc
the mold, thereby facilitating the setting of the 45 ing excess water from and densifying the con
concrete and placing the extruded concrete under
crete, applying said pressure to a tensioning of
permanent compression.
the reinforcement as it passes through the mold,
' 15. A method of fabricating high strength re
gradually varying said pressure during passage of
inforced concrete structures, which consists in
the concrete through the mold to thereby modify
extruding concrete together with steel reinforce 60 the density and strength of successively extruded
ment under pressure through a mold, said rein
portions of the concrete, and bonding the ten
forcement being attached to the forward end of
sioned reinforcement to the concrete as they
the concrete as it emerges from the mold and
emerge from the mold.
extending rearwardly therefrom through the
CURZON DOBELL.
> Certi?cate of- Correction 1
Patent No. 2,413,911. . 4
_
.
Y
‘
January 7, ,1947.
OURZON’ DOBELL
It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Column 7, line 62, for the word
= “purposes” read pur ose; column 12, line 58, claim 10, strike out the words and comma.
“through said moul ,”; and that ‘the said Letters ‘Patent should be read with thcse
' ggirections therein that the same may conform to the record of the casein the Patent
.
0e.
.e
-
Signed'and sealed this 25th day of March, A. D. 1947.
LESLIE FRAZER,
First Assistant Commissioner of Patents.
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