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y .im 7, 1947.
v
2,413,932
G. C. SZIKLAI
` REGULATED HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SOURCE
Filed Feb. 28, 1944
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REGULATED
'
HEGFÈVÜLTÄGE
SÜURGE
George E. Sziirlai, Princeton, N. il.,
to
'itadio Corporation ot’ America, a corporation
or? liiieiavlare
.
lli @latinso
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This invention relates generally to high-volte
age, low-power sources for operating electronic
apparatus and more particularly to a regulated
high-voltage, relatively low-current power source
providing either direct or alternating currents to
load devices.
i
'
Brieñy, a preferred embodiment of the inven
` tion comprises a multivibrator pulse generator
including a pair of thermionic discharge tubes
tively ‘removed when the load current exceeds a
critical predetermined value.
The invention will be described in greater de
tail by reference to the accompanying drawing
of which Figure l is a, schematic circuit diagram
’ of a preferred embodiment thereof and Figures
2 and 3 are graphs explaining the operation of
the circuit of Figure i.
Referring to Figure i, a conventional multi
A for generating relatively narrow current pulses 10 vibrator i includes, for example, a pair of triode
- which are applied to the primary winding of a
step-up transformer. High voltage alternating
potentials derivedxfrom a secondary winding of
said transformer are rectiñed, filtered, and ap
,plied to a load device1 A portion oi’ the rectified
voltage is applied to the contrai electrode of a
third thermionic tube to control. its mutual con
ductance in direct proportion to the load voltage.
The third thermionic tube is connected in a man
ner to vary >the loading oi’ the multivibrator,
thereby _compensating for load voltage variations.
if desired. an additional secondary winding may
be provided on the‘transformer to provide con
trol oi alternating potentials for a second load
device.
-
vide an improved method of and means for gen- '
erating and regulating electrical energy supplied
An additional object oí the
„ invention is to provide an improved method of
and means for controlling and regulating a volt
age source. A further object of the invention is
to provide a regulated direct voitage source com
pris-ing a multivibrator pulse generator. means
for deriving alternating vpmtentials from said
pulses, means for rectifying said alternating po
tentials, means for applyingfsaid rectified poten
tials to a load device, and means including a
loading tube for varying said generating pulses
in inverse proportion to the rectified voltage ap
plied to said load.
„
an anode resistor l5.
The cathode of said second triode 5 is connected
directly to ground, and the control electrode
`
Among the objects oi the invention are to pro
to a load device.
thermionic discharge tubes 3, ii. 'livlie control
electrode of the ñrst triade 3 is connected _through
a coupling capacitor i to theanode of the second
triode ä. Similarly, the control electrode of the
second triode 5 is connected through a second
coupling capacitor Q tothe anode oí the ñi’st
triode 3. The cathode of the nrst triode Ii is grounded through a cathode resistor it. The
control electrode of said ñrst triode 3 is grounded
through a nrst grid resistor i3. Anode potential
from an anode voltage source, not shown, isl applied to the anode of said ilrst triode t through
s
An additional object of the 'invention is to pro
vide an improved regulated voltage source em
ploying a multivibrator puise generator, means
for deriving relatively high direct voltages from
said' generator, means including a thermionic
tube cormected to vary the loading of said gen
thereof is connected to ground through a second
grid resistor il. The source of anode potential
is connected to the anode of the second triode 5
through the primary winding iii of a high voltage
step-up transformer 2 i.
The operation of a multivibrator of the type
described is so well known that it is unnecessary
to include herein any detailed description thereof. f
It is su?ñcient to state that the primary wind~
ing iii of the transformer 2l, being effectively
connected across the anode~cathocle circuit of the
second trlode 5 of the multivibrator i , will be sub
jected to rapidly recurring, relatively narrow cur
rent pulses which will provide relatively high '
alternating potentials across a high voltage sec
ondary winding 23 of said transformer. As is
well understood, the induced voltage across the
transformer windings is proportional to the rate
of- change ofthe pulsed currents/through the .
primary winding thereof. The anode of a diode
rectifier discharge tube 25 is connected to one
terminal of the high voltage secondary winding
it of the transformer 2l. The remaining ter
erator and means including a source of reference
potential and a portion oí’ said derived high volt 50 minal of the high voltage secondary winding- 23
is connected to the negative terminal of a, nrst
age for varying said loading of said pulse gen
load
device 2l. The cathode oí’ the half-wave
erator in inverse proportion to said derived high
rectifier tube 25 is connected, through a iirst
voltage. Another object is to provide an im
f load switch 2t, to the positive terminal of the
proved voltage regulated power source wherein
load device 2l. Effective filtering of the
_
the regulated voltage applied to a load is effec» 55 ñrst
rectified high alternating voltages is provided by
i
aeraeee . ,y
3
.
4
'
'
~
a storage capacitor 23 connected across the load
voltages under conditions of relatively high load
terminals. 4If desired, a second transformer sec- '
impedance.
-
,
An advantage of the voltage regulated power
ondary winding 3| may be connected, through 'a
second load switch 32, to provide alternating
potentials to a second load >device 33..
source thus described is that as the load imped
ance is-reduced below, or the load current in
A voltage divider, comprising the serially-con
nected bleedervresistors 35, 31, is connected in
creased to, some critical value, Aas illustrated in
graphs of Figure 3, the loading upon the multi
vibrator I becomes so great that it ceases to os»
parallel with the storage capacitor 29. The com
~ cillate, lthereby removing all load potential and
mon terminal of the bleeder resistors,v 35, 3i is
connected to the positive terminal of asource of 10 providing an important safety feature when the
circuit is employed to supply relatively high op
reference potential such, for example, as a bat
erating voltages to electronic apparatus. Graph
tery 33. -The negative terminal of the reference
' potential source 39 is connected to the control
33 illustrates typical load voltage with respect to
electrode of a third triode thermionic discharge
load current in the circuit of Fig. 1, with the load- '
loading tube QI. The anode of’the third thermi
15 ing triode 4I disconnected by opening its anode
circuit at the point zc. Graph 5| illustrates the
onic discharge tube 4I is connected to the anode
improved regulation and critical load current
of the first triode 3 of the multivibrator I., The
characteristics of the circuit including the load
cathode ofthe third thermionic discharge tube 4I
ing tube as described heretofore.
'
is connected to the grounded terminal of the
cathode resistor I I in the circuit of the first triode 20 `Thus the invention described comprises an im
provedl voltage-regulated low power source com
3 of the multivibrator I. Thus the third triode
prising a multivibrator _for generating voltage
4| provides variable loading of the anode-cathode
pulses which are converted to rectified, relatively
circuit of the'first triode 3 of the multivibrator. .
high, direct voltages at relatively low current
A decrease in the rectified and filtered potentials
applied to the first load 21 therefore increases 25 values for use with electronic apparatus. Regula
tion of load voita e is provided by means of a
the negative bias applied tothe control electrode
loading »thermi'yft/iâtube connected across the
of the third triode 4I, to reduce the mutual con'
ductance of the tube,- and hencc to reduce the
anode-cathodeßcircuit of one of the multivibrator
thermionic discharge tubes. If desired, regulated
effective loading provided thereby upon the mul
tivibrator |. As the loading of the multivibrator 30 alternating potentials may be applied to a second
I by the third triode dl is reduced, the charac
teristics of the pulses generated by the multi
. loading device.
'
I'claim as my invention:
.
Y.
1. A regulated high voltage power source includ
potentials generated in the secondary windings ' ing a multivibrator pulse generator having a pair
23, 3| of the transformer 2|, thereby~ tending to 35 of thermionic discharge tubes, means loading one
- of said pair of tubes for converting voltage pulses
compensate for the load voltage variations.
derived from said one‘tube to high alternating
Referring to Figure 2, it will be seen that the
potentials, means for rectifying said alternating
loading tube M has a damping action upon the
potentials, means for loading the other of said
. voltage pulses generated by the multivibrator I,
whereby an increase in the anode-to-cathode im 40 pairof tubes, and means responsive to at least a
portion 'of said rectified potentials for varying
pedance of the loading tube lil due to a decrease
>said loading of said other of said pair of tubes
in the rectified output voltage applied to the first
- load 21, provides s, narrowing of the Vvoltage . n to compensate for variations in said rectified po
vibrator are changed to increase the alternating
pulses generated by the multivibrator resulting
in afhigher induced alternating potential across
the secondary winding 23 of the transformer 2|,
due to the more rapid rate of change of the pri
mary current thereof, compensate 4for the varia- A
tions in said rectified load voltages. 'It will be
tentials.
„
~
`
„
y
2. Apparatus of the type described in claim l
including a load responsive to said rectified po
tentials.
.
.
'
3. Apparatus of the type described in claim 1
including a load responsive to said alternating po
seenthat the alternating potentials derived from 50 tentials.
4. A' regulated highvoltage power source in- `
the second secondary winding 3| of the trans
former 2| will be controlled in a similar manner ' _ cluding a-multivibrator pulse generator having a
pair of thermionic discharge tubes, transformer .
by variations in the first load voltage.
means loading one of said pair 'of tubes for con
In Figure 2, graph a typiiies the transformer
primary current Ie with respect to time for two 55 verting voltage pulses derived from said one tube
different values of load voltage, represented by
' the dash line 43.
It will be seen that for rela--
to high alternating potentials, means for rectify
ing said alternating potentials, means for loading
the other of said pair of tubes, and means respon
ìtively Ahigh values of load voltages, correspond
sive to at least a _portion of said rectified poten
ing to a high load impedance, the current pulses
'45 are relatively broad whereby the` rate of 60 tials for varying said loading of said‘other of said
pair of tubes to compensate for variations in said
change of primary current has a relatively low
rectified potentials.
,
value. rIt further will be seen that for reduced
5. A- regulated high voltage power source in
load voltage, due to reduced load impedance, the
cluding a-multivibratorpulse generator having a
current pulses 4l will be relatively narrower than
pair of thermionic discharge tubes, means load
' the current pulses 45, thereby providing a higher
ing one of said pair of tubes for converting volt
rate of\_ change of current through the trans
age pulses derived from said one tube to high al
former primary winding I9.
ternating potentials, means for rectifying said al
’ Graph b typiiies the »corresponding induced
ternating potentials, thirdtube means for loading
voltages Et, with respect to time, induced in the
transformer windings by the current pulses 45, 70 the other of said pair of tubes, and means' respon
41 of graph a. It will be seen that for condi
tions of reduced load voltage, due to reduced load
impedance, that the voltage pulses induced in
the transformer windings will be relatively nar
rower and of greater amplitude than the induced 76
sive to at least ya portion of said rectified poten- -
tials for controlling the mutual conductance of
said third tube for varying said loading of said
other of said pair of tubes to compensate for vari
ations in said rectiñed potentials.
'
.
2,413,932
6. A regulated high voltage power source in
cluding a multivibrator pulse generator having a
pair of thermionìc dischargetubes, shunt-con
nected transformer means loading one of said pair
of tubes for converting voltage pulses derived from
said one tube lto high alternating potentials,
means for rectifying said alternating potentials,
third tube means for loading the other of said pair
6
cathode electrodes and responsive to at least a
portion of said potentials for varying the shunt
anode-cathode loading of said generator to com
pensate for variations in said potentials.
„
10. A regulated high voltage power source in
cluding a pulse generator including a thermionic
tube having at least anode and cathode electrodes,
ñrst means shunt-loading said pulse generator
for converting pulses derived from said generator
of tubes, means responsive to at least a portion of
said rectiñed potentials for controlling the mu 10 to high alternating potentials, means for rectify
tual conductance of said third tube for varying
ing said alternating potentials, and second degen
said loading of said other of said pair of tubes to
erative
shunt-loading means connected between
` compensate for variations in said rectiñed poten
said anode and cathode electrodes and responsive
tials, means for flltering said rectified potentials
-to at least a portion of said »rectified potentials for
and a. load device responsive to said rectified po 15 varying the shunt-anode-cathode loading of said
tentials.
generator to compensate for variations in said
7. Apparatus of the type described in claim 6
rectiñed potentials.
including a source 'of reference potential and
11. A regulated high voltage power source 1n
means for applying said reference potential to
cluding
a pulse generator including a thermionic
bias said third tube.
20 tube having at least anode and cathode electrodes,
8. Apparatus of the type described in claim 6
ñrst means shunt-loading said pulse generator for
including- load connecting> means, means for' ap
converting pulses derived from said generator to
plying said rectiñed potentials to said load con
high alternating potentials, and second degenera
necting means, and wherein said loading of said
shunt-loading means connected between said
generator by said third tube effectively prevents 25 tive
anode and cathode electrodes and responsive to at
generation of said pulses for load currents exceed
least a> portion of said potentials for varying the
l ing a. critical value.
shunt-anode-cathode loading of said generator to
9. A regulated high voltage power source in
compensate for variations in said potentials, said
cluding an A.-C; generator _including a ther
second loading means effectively blocking the gen
mionic tube having at least anode and cathode 30 eration Vof said pulses for loading of said genera
electrodes, first means shunt loading said genera
tor by said ñrst loading means exceeding a critical
tor for deriving from said generator high alter
value.
I
hating potentials, and second degenerative shunt
loading means connected between said anode and _
GEORGE C. SZIKLAI.
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