y .im 7, 1947. v 2,413,932 G. C. SZIKLAI ` REGULATED HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SOURCE Filed Feb. 28, 1944 L_zzz “d w-vßr-à--äzi A#m’la.n"’p ¿40,90 wif/ME `.`_ ¿Lona/Mí W550/gewaar@ i; Yi? Í 2 4 l 5 â INVEN ’ TOR. ¿amo car/Pm/n/LL/nnnmsj 86W y. HTW ° 7?? lität? i 2,6%,932 REGULATED ' HEGFÈVÜLTÄGE SÜURGE George E. Sziirlai, Princeton, N. il., to 'itadio Corporation ot’ America, a corporation or? liiieiavlare . lli @latinso “i This invention relates generally to high-volte age, low-power sources for operating electronic apparatus and more particularly to a regulated high-voltage, relatively low-current power source providing either direct or alternating currents to load devices. i ' Brieñy, a preferred embodiment of the inven ` tion comprises a multivibrator pulse generator including a pair of thermionic discharge tubes tively ‘removed when the load current exceeds a critical predetermined value. The invention will be described in greater de tail by reference to the accompanying drawing of which Figure l is a, schematic circuit diagram ’ of a preferred embodiment thereof and Figures 2 and 3 are graphs explaining the operation of the circuit of Figure i. Referring to Figure i, a conventional multi A for generating relatively narrow current pulses 10 vibrator i includes, for example, a pair of triode - which are applied to the primary winding of a step-up transformer. High voltage alternating potentials derivedxfrom a secondary winding of said transformer are rectiñed, filtered, and ap ,plied to a load device1 A portion oi’ the rectified voltage is applied to the contrai electrode of a third thermionic tube to control. its mutual con ductance in direct proportion to the load voltage. The third thermionic tube is connected in a man ner to vary >the loading oi’ the multivibrator, thereby _compensating for load voltage variations. if desired. an additional secondary winding may be provided on the‘transformer to provide con trol oi alternating potentials for a second load device. - vide an improved method of and means for gen- ' erating and regulating electrical energy supplied An additional object oí the „ invention is to provide an improved method of and means for controlling and regulating a volt age source. A further object of the invention is to provide a regulated direct voitage source com pris-ing a multivibrator pulse generator. means for deriving alternating vpmtentials from said pulses, means for rectifying said alternating po tentials, means for applyingfsaid rectified poten tials to a load device, and means including a loading tube for varying said generating pulses in inverse proportion to the rectified voltage ap plied to said load. „ an anode resistor l5. The cathode of said second triode 5 is connected directly to ground, and the control electrode ` Among the objects oi the invention are to pro to a load device. thermionic discharge tubes 3, ii. 'livlie control electrode of the ñrst triade 3 is connected _through a coupling capacitor i to theanode of the second triode ä. Similarly, the control electrode of the second triode 5 is connected through a second coupling capacitor Q tothe anode oí the ñi’st triode 3. The cathode of the nrst triode Ii is grounded through a cathode resistor it. The control electrode of said ñrst triode 3 is grounded through a nrst grid resistor i3. Anode potential from an anode voltage source, not shown, isl applied to the anode of said ilrst triode t through s An additional object of the 'invention is to pro vide an improved regulated voltage source em ploying a multivibrator puise generator, means for deriving relatively high direct voltages from said' generator, means including a thermionic tube cormected to vary the loading of said gen thereof is connected to ground through a second grid resistor il. The source of anode potential is connected to the anode of the second triode 5 through the primary winding iii of a high voltage step-up transformer 2 i. The operation of a multivibrator of the type described is so well known that it is unnecessary to include herein any detailed description thereof. f It is su?ñcient to state that the primary wind~ ing iii of the transformer 2l, being effectively connected across the anode~cathocle circuit of the second trlode 5 of the multivibrator i , will be sub jected to rapidly recurring, relatively narrow cur rent pulses which will provide relatively high ' alternating potentials across a high voltage sec ondary winding 23 of said transformer. As is well understood, the induced voltage across the transformer windings is proportional to the rate of- change ofthe pulsed currents/through the . primary winding thereof. The anode of a diode rectifier discharge tube 25 is connected to one terminal of the high voltage secondary winding it of the transformer 2l. The remaining ter erator and means including a source of reference potential and a portion oí’ said derived high volt 50 minal of the high voltage secondary winding- 23 is connected to the negative terminal of a, nrst age for varying said loading of said pulse gen load device 2l. The cathode oí’ the half-wave erator in inverse proportion to said derived high rectifier tube 25 is connected, through a iirst voltage. Another object is to provide an im f load switch 2t, to the positive terminal of the proved voltage regulated power source wherein load device 2l. Effective filtering of the _ the regulated voltage applied to a load is effec» 55 ñrst rectified high alternating voltages is provided by i aeraeee . ,y 3 . 4 ' ' ~ a storage capacitor 23 connected across the load voltages under conditions of relatively high load terminals. 4If desired, a second transformer sec- ' impedance. - , An advantage of the voltage regulated power ondary winding 3| may be connected, through 'a second load switch 32, to provide alternating potentials to a second load >device 33.. source thus described is that as the load imped ance is-reduced below, or the load current in A voltage divider, comprising the serially-con nected bleedervresistors 35, 31, is connected in creased to, some critical value, Aas illustrated in graphs of Figure 3, the loading upon the multi vibrator I becomes so great that it ceases to os» parallel with the storage capacitor 29. The com ~ cillate, lthereby removing all load potential and mon terminal of the bleeder resistors,v 35, 3i is connected to the positive terminal of asource of 10 providing an important safety feature when the circuit is employed to supply relatively high op reference potential such, for example, as a bat erating voltages to electronic apparatus. Graph tery 33. -The negative terminal of the reference ' potential source 39 is connected to the control 33 illustrates typical load voltage with respect to electrode of a third triode thermionic discharge load current in the circuit of Fig. 1, with the load- ' loading tube QI. The anode of’the third thermi 15 ing triode 4I disconnected by opening its anode circuit at the point zc. Graph 5| illustrates the onic discharge tube 4I is connected to the anode improved regulation and critical load current of the first triode 3 of the multivibrator I., The characteristics of the circuit including the load cathode ofthe third thermionic discharge tube 4I ing tube as described heretofore. ' is connected to the grounded terminal of the cathode resistor I I in the circuit of the first triode 20 `Thus the invention described comprises an im provedl voltage-regulated low power source com 3 of the multivibrator I. Thus the third triode prising a multivibrator _for generating voltage 4| provides variable loading of the anode-cathode pulses which are converted to rectified, relatively circuit of the'first triode 3 of the multivibrator. . high, direct voltages at relatively low current A decrease in the rectified and filtered potentials applied to the first load 21 therefore increases 25 values for use with electronic apparatus. Regula tion of load voita e is provided by means of a the negative bias applied tothe control electrode loading »thermi'yft/iâtube connected across the of the third triode 4I, to reduce the mutual con' ductance of the tube,- and hencc to reduce the anode-cathodeßcircuit of one of the multivibrator thermionic discharge tubes. If desired, regulated effective loading provided thereby upon the mul tivibrator |. As the loading of the multivibrator 30 alternating potentials may be applied to a second I by the third triode dl is reduced, the charac teristics of the pulses generated by the multi . loading device. ' I'claim as my invention: . Y. 1. A regulated high voltage power source includ potentials generated in the secondary windings ' ing a multivibrator pulse generator having a pair 23, 3| of the transformer 2|, thereby~ tending to 35 of thermionic discharge tubes, means loading one - of said pair of tubes for converting voltage pulses compensate for the load voltage variations. derived from said one‘tube to high alternating Referring to Figure 2, it will be seen that the potentials, means for rectifying said alternating loading tube M has a damping action upon the potentials, means for loading the other of said . voltage pulses generated by the multivibrator I, whereby an increase in the anode-to-cathode im 40 pairof tubes, and means responsive to at least a portion 'of said rectified potentials for varying pedance of the loading tube lil due to a decrease >said loading of said other of said pair of tubes in the rectified output voltage applied to the first - load 21, provides s, narrowing of the Vvoltage . n to compensate for variations in said rectified po vibrator are changed to increase the alternating pulses generated by the multivibrator resulting in afhigher induced alternating potential across the secondary winding 23 of the transformer 2|, due to the more rapid rate of change of the pri mary current thereof, compensate 4for the varia- A tions in said rectified load voltages. 'It will be tentials. „ ~ ` „ y 2. Apparatus of the type described in claim l including a load responsive to said rectified po tentials. . . ' 3. Apparatus of the type described in claim 1 including a load responsive to said alternating po seenthat the alternating potentials derived from 50 tentials. 4. A' regulated highvoltage power source in- ` the second secondary winding 3| of the trans former 2| will be controlled in a similar manner ' _ cluding a-multivibrator pulse generator having a pair of thermionic discharge tubes, transformer . by variations in the first load voltage. means loading one of said pair 'of tubes for con In Figure 2, graph a typiiies the transformer primary current Ie with respect to time for two 55 verting voltage pulses derived from said one tube different values of load voltage, represented by ' the dash line 43. It will be seen that for rela-- to high alternating potentials, means for rectify ing said alternating potentials, means for loading the other of said pair of tubes, and means respon ìtively Ahigh values of load voltages, correspond sive to at least a _portion of said rectified poten ing to a high load impedance, the current pulses '45 are relatively broad whereby the` rate of 60 tials for varying said loading of said‘other of said pair of tubes to compensate for variations in said change of primary current has a relatively low rectified potentials. , value. rIt further will be seen that for reduced 5. A- regulated high voltage power source in load voltage, due to reduced load impedance, the cluding a-multivibratorpulse generator having a current pulses 4l will be relatively narrower than pair of thermionic discharge tubes, means load ' the current pulses 45, thereby providing a higher ing one of said pair of tubes for converting volt rate of\_ change of current through the trans age pulses derived from said one tube to high al former primary winding I9. ternating potentials, means for rectifying said al ’ Graph b typiiies the »corresponding induced ternating potentials, thirdtube means for loading voltages Et, with respect to time, induced in the transformer windings by the current pulses 45, 70 the other of said pair of tubes, and means' respon 41 of graph a. It will be seen that for condi tions of reduced load voltage, due to reduced load impedance, that the voltage pulses induced in the transformer windings will be relatively nar rower and of greater amplitude than the induced 76 sive to at least ya portion of said rectified poten- - tials for controlling the mutual conductance of said third tube for varying said loading of said other of said pair of tubes to compensate for vari ations in said rectiñed potentials. ' . 2,413,932 6. A regulated high voltage power source in cluding a multivibrator pulse generator having a pair of thermionìc dischargetubes, shunt-con nected transformer means loading one of said pair of tubes for converting voltage pulses derived from said one tube lto high alternating potentials, means for rectifying said alternating potentials, third tube means for loading the other of said pair 6 cathode electrodes and responsive to at least a portion of said potentials for varying the shunt anode-cathode loading of said generator to com pensate for variations in said potentials. „ 10. A regulated high voltage power source in cluding a pulse generator including a thermionic tube having at least anode and cathode electrodes, ñrst means shunt-loading said pulse generator for converting pulses derived from said generator of tubes, means responsive to at least a portion of said rectiñed potentials for controlling the mu 10 to high alternating potentials, means for rectify tual conductance of said third tube for varying ing said alternating potentials, and second degen said loading of said other of said pair of tubes to erative shunt-loading means connected between ` compensate for variations in said rectiñed poten said anode and cathode electrodes and responsive tials, means for flltering said rectified potentials -to at least a portion of said »rectified potentials for and a. load device responsive to said rectified po 15 varying the shunt-anode-cathode loading of said tentials. generator to compensate for variations in said 7. Apparatus of the type described in claim 6 rectiñed potentials. including a source 'of reference potential and 11. A regulated high voltage power source 1n means for applying said reference potential to cluding a pulse generator including a thermionic bias said third tube. 20 tube having at least anode and cathode electrodes, 8. Apparatus of the type described in claim 6 ñrst means shunt-loading said pulse generator for including- load connecting> means, means for' ap converting pulses derived from said generator to plying said rectiñed potentials to said load con high alternating potentials, and second degenera necting means, and wherein said loading of said shunt-loading means connected between said generator by said third tube effectively prevents 25 tive anode and cathode electrodes and responsive to at generation of said pulses for load currents exceed least a> portion of said potentials for varying the l ing a. critical value. shunt-anode-cathode loading of said generator to 9. A regulated high voltage power source in compensate for variations in said potentials, said cluding an A.-C; generator _including a ther second loading means effectively blocking the gen mionic tube having at least anode and cathode 30 eration Vof said pulses for loading of said genera electrodes, first means shunt loading said genera tor by said ñrst loading means exceeding a critical tor for deriving from said generator high alter value. I hating potentials, and second degenerative shunt loading means connected between said anode and _ GEORGE C. SZIKLAI.