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Jan- 7, ‘1947'
' I
Filed June 6, 1944
' 3 Sheets-Sheet 1v
Jlm- 7, 1947-
Filed June 6. 1944 ,
a Sheets-Sheet 2
Zr dMuMi'uen
Jan. 7, 1947.
Filed June 6. 1944
3 Shouts-Sheet :5
Patented Jan. 7, 1947
} Fred M. Miller, Bala-Cynwyd, Pa., assignor to
General Refractories Company, Philadelphia,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application June 6, 1944, Serial No. 538,907
9 Claims. (Cl. 266-25)
The object of the invention is to provide im
provements in the composition of blast furnace
bottoms and the method of constructing same.
Another and more speci?c object is to provide
in a blast furnace bottom a greater concentra
tion or mass of refractory material within any
given furnace dimensions, and to insure a more
unitary resulting structure than has heretofore
been possible,
Accepted practice heretofore has been to as-_
semble in closest possible juxtaposition multiple
ume stability and resultinglylongerlife under A
given conditions.
' Still another object, therefore, is to‘provide an
improved method of assembly, whereby such
high-?red and resultingly dense bottom blocks or
brick, even though considerably distorted, may be
incorporated into a matrix of specially prepared
ramming mixes to form a solid mass of high over
all density.
While refractory ramming mixes
10 are not new, and it is well known that if proper
ly prepared a high degree of density can be at
courses or layers of- accurately formed brick
tained, as by ramming with pneumatic tools,
(usually 18" x 9" x 41/2"), each brick being
such refractory ramming mixes have not here
carefully molded, handled and ?red, so as to pro
tofore been employed to overcome the di?icul
duce and preserve its desired dimensions and the 15 ties and problems which characterize blast fur
accuracy of its corners and edges, even to the ex
nace bottom construction. Also, instead of con
tent that they are frequently ground, in order to
insure strictly planularsurfaces and resulting
structing a furnace bottom of bricks and fefrac»
tory ramming mixes of the same materials
intimate and uniform contact when assembled.
throughout, they may be varied in accordance
However, with all of these precautions it is a 20 with their position or elevation in said bottom,
practical impossibility to secure such a perma
and therefore with relation to the service to
nently tight fit and solidarity of the mass, that
which they are subjected during operation of the
slight shrinkage therein will not cause joints to
furnace. For example, one or more of the ?rst- a
open up and metal to eventually escape.
laid lower courses might comprise intermediate
in line with this effort to obtain exactness and 25 heat duty brick separatedby Lumnite or Port
superior workmanship in the manufacture of
land cement, the next courses composed of high
blast furnace bottom blocks, emphasis is stressed
heat duty brick separated by an intervening
upon insuring these essential characteristics,
with the result that ?ring temperatures have to
ramming mix comprising predominantly calcined
clayv materials, the next course or courses being
be regulated to‘a point where the density of the 30 composed of high?red refractory bricks and in
?red blocks usually runs to .a maximum of ap
tervening ramming mix consisting of high tem
proximately 1.22 ounces per cubic inch, since
perature-resisting materials such as sillimanite,
higher ?ring temperatures tend to cause kiln
magnesite, or the like, and the one Or more up
marking and a prohibitive degree of distortion, - permost courses comprising carbon blocks sepa
making them unfit for assembly in accordance 35 rated by a carbon base ramming mix,
with present day practices;
The ramming mixes herein referred to com
A further object, therefore, is to provide a
prise calcined materials in granular form, to
means or method wherebv the mass or density of
gether with a small proportion of suitable bond
blast furnace bottoms may be economically in
ing material, and of such analysis that they in- ‘
creased, by permitting the practical manufacture 40 timately adhere to the adjacent brick surfaces,
of denser bricks or blocks, which can be assem
and produce a resultingly homogeneous unitary
bled into a solid mass subject to reduced shrink
bottom structure having such a high degree of
age in service, when and as subjected to furnace
cohesion as to resist the escape of molten metal
operating conditions. Thus, with exactness of
therethrough, as sometimes occurs.
workmanship no longer the chief criterion in 45
With the objects thus brie?y stated, the inven-'
tion comprises further details of construction,
judging bottom bricks or blocks, and thefact
which are hereinafter fully brought ‘out in the
that they may be more economically produced to
following‘ description, when read in conjunction
securemaximum density with a given raw ma
> with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1
teriaL'followed by assembly or installation in ac
cordance with the present invention, it is accord to. is a vertical, diametrical section through the bash
and hearth or cupola sections of a representative
ingly possible to increase the mass of blast fur-‘
type of blast furnace having a bottom of the im
nace bottoms by as much as 9% to 10%. Like
proved coristruction; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sec
wise, since ’a furnace bottom of average size re
approximately on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1,
quires in the neighborhood of 1,250,000 pounds of
successive courses of brick and intervening
refractories, it is readily appreciated that the 65. with
layers of ramming mix uncovered to varying de
present invention makes it possible to incorpo
grees; Fig. 3 shows one method of assembling
rate an additional 110,000 to 125,000 pounds‘
consecutive rows of brick in a given course, and
within the same space, thereby imparting to the
‘the application of the ramming mix therebe
unit structure of refractory material greater vol 60 tween; Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary portion
of a given crurse, showing a modi?ed method of
spaced relation with one another and Preferably
assembling bricks and intervening ramming mix:
in alignment. ~ Such row may be at the center of
Fig. 5 is an extended section on the line 5-5 of
Fig. 4; and Fig, 6 is a perspective view of a frag- .
the hearth bottom coincident with a diameter, or
may be adjacent to one side and coincident with
a cord, as for instance the row of three brick l4.
mentary portion of the matrix structure of the
ramming mix per se, to show among other things
the impenetrability of the‘ improved bottom con
struction to molten metal.
Referring to Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the major part of
the lower portion of a representative type of blast 10
Between the adjacent wall surface and said bricks
while backed by a short beam and between adja
cent bricks in the same row ramming mix is com
pressed into place, it being noted that with the
improved construction the bricks do not haveto
?t the surrounding hearth jacket closely, but in
furnace is shown as comprising the customary
stead may leave relatively large spaces l5 that are
also ?lled with the mix alone, or with a combina
tion of mix and broken or odd pieces of brick. A
extent through eight, ten or even more brick 15 larger beam is then used to back up a second row,
of spaced bricks I 6, after which the mix is rammed
courses, supported in turn by still lower bodies of
between the ?rst row and the new row and be
brick, concrete, or the, like, but as neither the
tween the bricks of said second row, as well as in
ultimate foundation nor the depth of the bottom
the newly formed end spaces l5. This operation is
enters into the invention, and the'upper ?ve or
six brick courses alone will suffice to illustrate 20 repeated until the point illustrated by Fig. 3 is
reached, wherein a much longer beam I1 is em‘ one embodiment of the invention, the full height
ployed to back up the thirteenth row of bricks l8,
of said bottom and its foundation are not shown.
circular bosh and hearth sections I and 2, re- v -
spectively. superimposed upon a bottom 3, said
bottom being usually of considerable downward
as they are laid in spaced relation with each other
Primarily the furnace bottom is constructed
within a cylindrical metallic casing 4 and a con
and with the last previous, Or twelfth, row l9.
centric cast iron hearth jacket 5, spaced apart by 25 The succession of beams of gradually increasing
length, in one or more sections, is used in reverse
intervening grouting material 6 of any suitable
order as the operation progresses through the
character, and surrounded by concrete (and/or
second half.
brick) reinforcement ‘I, that also serves to sup
The varying lengths of consecutive beams may
port the usual plurality of circumferentially
spaced column 8, which support the weight of the 30 be secured in ?xed position by any suitable means,
which merely for purposes of illustration is shown
lnwall and top sections of the furnace proper
in Fig. 3 as comprising a.plurality of blocks 20,
above the mantel Be, as well as the bustle air and
which spread the force exerted upon them by
water ducts, ore-handling machinery and other
jack bars 2| to spaced regions of the said beam.
super-structure associated therewith.
Each of said bars is adjustably positioned in any
The said bosh and hearth sections comprise
suitable manner, as for instance, by means of
brick walls la and ‘M, respectively, which are
jacks 22, backed or shored by any available tim
interspaced with water-cooled plates 9, while
circumferentially spaced hot-air nozzles l0 extend
' her or the like, such as the central shoring blocks
Y23 and the single or built-up blocks 24, having
through the upper portion of the hearth section
to convey to the ore therein air that has been 40 diagonal or curved surfaces 25 for engagement
with laterally spaced portions of the jazket 5,
preheated byv so-called stoves in well-known man
ner. The bosh section is probably always conical
as to its inner surface, which merges ?ush into. '
the corresponding surface of the vcylindrical
hearth section
Said hearth section rests directly upon the bot
tom 3, which as shown is composed of‘ any dc
sired-number of vertically arranged courses of
brick l I, These brick are preferably of substan
tially the same size for uniformity, regularity of
arrangement and easy handling, and are stood
on end in each course but are angularly related.
in adjacent courses. .Also, whereas it has hereto
fore been considered essential that broken joints
be maintained between bricks in adjacent courses, ,
in the present improved construction, broken
joints, though maintained as far as possible fol
lowing the usual practice, are not so essential,
since adjacent courses are separated by inter- ,
As will be seen from the drawings, which are
drawn fairly closely to scale, adjacent bricks in
the same course are spaced approximately two
ing which another course of brick is superim
posed thereon but preferably arranged at right
angles (or at least angularly) with respect to the
bricks of the last completed course. This process
,is repeated until the desired depth or thickness
of the furnace bottom is attained, whereupon
the cylindrical hearth wall 2a is laid thereon in
the usual manner, as shown in Fig. 1.
Referring to Figs. 4 and 5, a modi?ed method of
laying the brick in a given course is shown. By
this method all of the brick 21 of a given course
28 are laid in preferably (though not necessarily)
spacing blocks or spacers 30 of any suitable non
and one-half to three inches apart, ‘or a su?lcient
tion between them of any well known form of
and across the entire area like a blanket, follow
uniformly spaced upright position upon a layer
of mix l2 immediately therebelow. Between the
lowermost portions of said brick, both in longi
tudinal and transverse directions, are inserted
posed layers ll’ of the ramming mix.
distance to permit the ready insertion and opera
said central and lateral blocks being maintained
in spaced relation by compression beams 26, or
otherwise ‘as may be desired. Finally, after all
of the bricks of a given course have been laid by
this method, a layer 12 of the mix is tamped over
compressible material, such as metal, plastic,
ceramic, or otherwise. Upon the opposite sides
air-driven ramming or tamping tool, while com
pressing the ramming mix in the'vertically ex
of said blocks and between said bricks ramming
mix 3| is inserted and rammed or tamped into
tending sections l3. By contrast, the thickness
place by any suitable tool 3la, whereupon said
of the horizontal layers of the mix may be of any 70 blocks are lifted and the spaces left vacant by
their removal ?lled with the mix duly set by
desired depth, either the same as, or more or less
ramming. The blocks are then again inserted
than, that between the bricks of the same course.
between said bricks in the elevated positions 32,
Referring to Fig. 3, there is here shown one
and more of the mix 33 forced into position be
method of assembling the bricks in the improved
construction. An initial row of bricks is laid in 75 tween them, and the blocks again lifted, their
' 2,413,9es
vacated spaces ?lled with mix as before, and the
blocks repositioned at their third level d4. After
ramming additional mix between them, and then
into the spaces from which they are ?nally lifted,
the level of the mix is brought to the level of the
upper surfaces 35 of said brick, as indicated at
3B, and another blanket-like layer‘ H of the mix
added thereto and likewise rammed until the
?nal hearth lining 31 is laid and rammed in
place to ?nish the bottom. Obviously, however, 10
course, a fourth course of spaced carbon brick
upon said last-mentioned layer, and a rammed
mix having a carbon base extending across said
fourth course.
5. A furnace construction, comprising superim
posed courses of refractory ‘brick, said courses and
the bricks of each course being initially spaced
apart, and a ramming mix composed principally
of the same material as that which principally
constitutes the material of said brick rammed
only one or possibly two elevations of the spacers '
into the spaces between adjacent courses and, be-_
may be used, if, preferred, instead of the three
tween, the bricks of each course, said ramming
mix uniting as an integral unit of itself and with
here described.
Fig. 6 has been included in order to showthe- .> the material of said brick to form a dense, mono
lithic mass of substantially uniform integral mix
, characteristics of the ramming mix per se after
being rammed in a complete bottom, that is, as
though the mix were formed in the absence of
the bricks, or the bricks removed from this frag
6. A monolithic furnace bottom, comprising su- '
perimposed courses of refractory brick having
substantially the same refractory characteristics,
mentary portion of the composite bottom struc--.
ture, thereby clearly indicating the relationship 20 said courses and the bricks of each course being _
initially spaced apart, and a mix composed of ma
of the numerous walls that cooperate to form the
terial having at least as high refractory charac
monolithic cellular or matrix structure, by which
any molten metal that may enter between a
teristics as that which constitutes the material ,
slightly'shrunken brick and *the adjacent mix
of said brick rammed into the spaces between ad
is trapped by the next lower. horizontal layer 25 jacent courses and vbetween the bricks of each
course, said mix coalescing with said bricks to
of such structure, and thereby prevented from
continuing further through and escaping from
form a substantially integral monolithic “struc
tureof substantially uniform density throughout
the furnace bottom as a unitary whole.
said bricks and the intervening mix.
What I claim and desire to protect by Letters
7. The method of constructing a furnace bot
Patent of the United States is:~
tom, which consists in laying a course of spaced
1. A furnace bottom, comprising a course of
bricks, ramming between them a, mix having sub
spaced intermediate heat duty brick, a hydraulic
stantially the same refractory characteristics as
cement mixture rammed between them, a layer '
that of said bricks to attain a density of sub
of mix upon said course, a second course of spaced
high heat duty brick upon said layer of mix, a 35 stantially the same order as that of said bricks,
mix of granular calcined clay materialsrammed
between the‘ bricks of said second course, a layer.
of mix upon said second course, a course of spaced
ramming a layer of similar mix upon said ?rst
course, in coalescing engagement with said‘?rst
mix, laying a second course of spaced bricks upon
said rammed layer, and ramming between the
high refractory brick upon said second layer, a
mix rammed between the bricks of said last-men 40 brick of the second course a similar mix in co
alescing engagement with the mix of said layer,
tioned course, and composed of high temperature
resisting materials selected from the group con
to form an integral monolithic structure of brick
and mix having substantially‘ uniform density
sisting of sillimanite ‘and magne'site, a layer of
the same mix material-upon said last-mentioned
course‘, a layer of spaced carbon brick-upon said
8. A monolithic furnace bottom, comprising
last-mentioned mix layer, and a carbon-base'mix
superimposed courses of refractory brick, the ‘
brick of the uppermost course being of higher
rammed between said carbon bricks.
2. A furnace bottom, comprising the combina
refractory characteristics than those of the low
tion of a course of intermediate heat duty brick,
ermost course, said courses and the bricks of each
course being initially spaced apart, and a mix
a course of high heat duty brick, a course of
composed of material having at least as high re
high refractory brick, a course of carbon brick,
and a layer of rammed mix between two adjacent
fractory characteristics ‘as that which constitutes '
the material of the brick of said uppermost course
3. A furnace bottom, comprising the combina
rammed into the spaces between adjacent courses
tion of superimposed courses of refractory brick,
and between the bricks of said uppermost course,
the joints between the bricks of each course be
said mix coalescing with said bricks to form a sub
ing ?lled with a mix composed of materials se
stantially integral monolithic structure in which
lected from the group consisting of silliinanite and
the bricks of the uppermost course and the
magnesite, and a layer of,» rammed mix between
rammed mix are characterized by substantially
the same density.
two of the adjacent courses.
9. The method of constructing a furnace bot
4. A furnace bottom, comprising a course of
spaced relatively lowheat duty brick, a rammed
hydraulic cement mix between the bricks of said
course, a layer ‘of a mix covering said course, a
second course of spaced high heat duty brick upon
said layer of mix, av rammed mix of granular
calcined clay materials between the bricks of said
tom of a plurality of brick courses, which con
sists in laying a course of spaced brick, ramming
between said bricks a mix, and upon them a layer
of mix in coalescing engagement with the ?rst
mix, laying a second course of spaced bricks upon
said rammed layer, and a mix between and in a
second course, a layer of a mix covering said sec
layer upon said last-mentioned bricks, the bricks
ond course, a third course of spaced high-?red
of the uppermost course being of higher refractory
refractory brick upon said last-mentioned layer, 70 characteristics than those of the lowermost
a rammed mix of high temperature-resisting ma
course, and the mix when rammed being of sub
stantially the same density and at least as high
terials selected from the group consisting of silli
manite and magnesia-containing material be
refractory characteristics ‘as that of the adja
tween the bricks of said third course, a rammed
cent bricks.
layer of the same material covering said third 75
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