Jan- 7, ‘1947' _ ' I F. M. MILLER ‘ 2,413,988 BLAST FURNACE BOTTOM AND METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING SAME Filed June 6, 1944 ' 3 Sheets-Sheet 1v Jlm- 7, 1947- - F. M. MILLER ‘ 7 2,413,988 BLAST FURNACE BOTTOM AND METHOD OF CONSTRUC‘TING' SAME Filed June 6. 1944 , ‘ a Sheets-Sheet 2 r ' INVENTOR, Zr dMuMi'uen Jan. 7, 1947. F. M. MILLER 2,413,988’ BLAST FURNACE BOTTOI AND >IBTHOD OF CONSTRUCTING SUE Filed June 6. 1944 3 Shouts-Sheet :5 r26 1% "2 ’ ‘ ._~ > 1' ' ' ’ - B “ INVENI Mlfz'ller; I Patented Jan. 7, 1947 2,413,988 UNITED- STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,413,988 _ BLAST FURNACE BOTTOM AND METHOD OF I CONSTRUCTING SAME } Fred M. Miller, Bala-Cynwyd, Pa., assignor to General Refractories Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application June 6, 1944, Serial No. 538,907 9 Claims. (Cl. 266-25) The object of the invention is to provide im provements in the composition of blast furnace bottoms and the method of constructing same. Another and more speci?c object is to provide in a blast furnace bottom a greater concentra tion or mass of refractory material within any given furnace dimensions, and to insure a more unitary resulting structure than has heretofore been possible, , Accepted practice heretofore has been to as-_ semble in closest possible juxtaposition multiple 2 ume stability and resultinglylongerlife under A given conditions. ' ' Still another object, therefore, is to‘provide an improved method of assembly, whereby such high-?red and resultingly dense bottom blocks or brick, even though considerably distorted, may be incorporated into a matrix of specially prepared ramming mixes to form a solid mass of high over all density. While refractory ramming mixes 10 are not new, and it is well known that if proper ly prepared a high degree of density can be at courses or layers of- accurately formed brick tained, as by ramming with pneumatic tools, (usually 18" x 9" x 41/2"), each brick being such refractory ramming mixes have not here carefully molded, handled and ?red, so as to pro tofore been employed to overcome the di?icul duce and preserve its desired dimensions and the 15 ties and problems which characterize blast fur accuracy of its corners and edges, even to the ex nace bottom construction. Also, instead of con tent that they are frequently ground, in order to insure strictly planularsurfaces and resulting structing a furnace bottom of bricks and fefrac» tory ramming mixes of the same materials intimate and uniform contact when assembled. throughout, they may be varied in accordance However, with all of these precautions it is a 20 with their position or elevation in said bottom, practical impossibility to secure such a perma and therefore with relation to the service to nently tight fit and solidarity of the mass, that which they are subjected during operation of the slight shrinkage therein will not cause joints to furnace. For example, one or more of the ?rst- a open up and metal to eventually escape. laid lower courses might comprise intermediate in line with this effort to obtain exactness and 25 heat duty brick separatedby Lumnite or Port superior workmanship in the manufacture of land cement, the next courses composed of high blast furnace bottom blocks, emphasis is stressed heat duty brick separated by an intervening upon insuring these essential characteristics, with the result that ?ring temperatures have to ramming mix comprising predominantly calcined clayv materials, the next course or courses being be regulated to‘a point where the density of the 30 composed of high?red refractory bricks and in ?red blocks usually runs to .a maximum of ap tervening ramming mix consisting of high tem proximately 1.22 ounces per cubic inch, since perature-resisting materials such as sillimanite, higher ?ring temperatures tend to cause kiln magnesite, or the like, and the one Or more up marking and a prohibitive degree of distortion, - permost courses comprising carbon blocks sepa making them unfit for assembly in accordance 35 rated by a carbon base ramming mix, with present day practices; . , The ramming mixes herein referred to com A further object, therefore, is to provide a prise calcined materials in granular form, to means or method wherebv the mass or density of gether with a small proportion of suitable bond blast furnace bottoms may be economically in ing material, and of such analysis that they in- ‘ creased, by permitting the practical manufacture 40 timately adhere to the adjacent brick surfaces, of denser bricks or blocks, which can be assem and produce a resultingly homogeneous unitary bled into a solid mass subject to reduced shrink bottom structure having such a high degree of age in service, when and as subjected to furnace cohesion as to resist the escape of molten metal operating conditions. Thus, with exactness of therethrough, as sometimes occurs. workmanship no longer the chief criterion in 45 With the objects thus brie?y stated, the inven-' tion comprises further details of construction, judging bottom bricks or blocks, and thefact which are hereinafter fully brought ‘out in the that they may be more economically produced to following‘ description, when read in conjunction securemaximum density with a given raw ma > with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 teriaL'followed by assembly or installation in ac cordance with the present invention, it is accord to. is a vertical, diametrical section through the bash and hearth or cupola sections of a representative ingly possible to increase the mass of blast fur-‘ type of blast furnace having a bottom of the im nace bottoms by as much as 9% to 10%. Like proved coristruction; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sec wise, since ’a furnace bottom of average size re tion approximately on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1, quires in the neighborhood of 1,250,000 pounds of successive courses of brick and intervening refractories, it is readily appreciated that the 65. with layers of ramming mix uncovered to varying de present invention makes it possible to incorpo grees; Fig. 3 shows one method of assembling rate an additional 110,000 to 125,000 pounds‘ consecutive rows of brick in a given course, and within the same space, thereby imparting to the ‘the application of the ramming mix therebe unit structure of refractory material greater vol 60 tween; Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary portion 2,418,988 4 of a given crurse, showing a modi?ed method of spaced relation with one another and Preferably assembling bricks and intervening ramming mix: in alignment. ~ Such row may be at the center of Fig. 5 is an extended section on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4; and Fig, 6 is a perspective view of a frag- . the hearth bottom coincident with a diameter, or may be adjacent to one side and coincident with a cord, as for instance the row of three brick l4. mentary portion of the matrix structure of the ramming mix per se, to show among other things the impenetrability of the‘ improved bottom con struction to molten metal. Referring to Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the major part of the lower portion of a representative type of blast 10 Between the adjacent wall surface and said bricks while backed by a short beam and between adja cent bricks in the same row ramming mix is com pressed into place, it being noted that with the improved construction the bricks do not haveto ?t the surrounding hearth jacket closely, but in furnace is shown as comprising the customary stead may leave relatively large spaces l5 that are also ?lled with the mix alone, or with a combina tion of mix and broken or odd pieces of brick. A extent through eight, ten or even more brick 15 larger beam is then used to back up a second row, of spaced bricks I 6, after which the mix is rammed courses, supported in turn by still lower bodies of between the ?rst row and the new row and be brick, concrete, or the, like, but as neither the tween the bricks of said second row, as well as in ultimate foundation nor the depth of the bottom the newly formed end spaces l5. This operation is enters into the invention, and the'upper ?ve or six brick courses alone will suffice to illustrate 20 repeated until the point illustrated by Fig. 3 is reached, wherein a much longer beam I1 is em‘ one embodiment of the invention, the full height ployed to back up the thirteenth row of bricks l8, of said bottom and its foundation are not shown. circular bosh and hearth sections I and 2, re- v - spectively. superimposed upon a bottom 3, said bottom being usually of considerable downward as they are laid in spaced relation with each other Primarily the furnace bottom is constructed within a cylindrical metallic casing 4 and a con and with the last previous, Or twelfth, row l9. centric cast iron hearth jacket 5, spaced apart by 25 The succession of beams of gradually increasing length, in one or more sections, is used in reverse intervening grouting material 6 of any suitable order as the operation progresses through the character, and surrounded by concrete (and/or second half. brick) reinforcement ‘I, that also serves to sup The varying lengths of consecutive beams may port the usual plurality of circumferentially spaced column 8, which support the weight of the 30 be secured in ?xed position by any suitable means, which merely for purposes of illustration is shown lnwall and top sections of the furnace proper in Fig. 3 as comprising a.plurality of blocks 20, above the mantel Be, as well as the bustle air and which spread the force exerted upon them by water ducts, ore-handling machinery and other jack bars 2| to spaced regions of the said beam. super-structure associated therewith. Each of said bars is adjustably positioned in any The said bosh and hearth sections comprise suitable manner, as for instance, by means of brick walls la and ‘M, respectively, which are jacks 22, backed or shored by any available tim interspaced with water-cooled plates 9, while circumferentially spaced hot-air nozzles l0 extend ' her or the like, such as the central shoring blocks Y23 and the single or built-up blocks 24, having through the upper portion of the hearth section to convey to the ore therein air that has been 40 diagonal or curved surfaces 25 for engagement with laterally spaced portions of the jazket 5, preheated byv so-called stoves in well-known man ner. The bosh section is probably always conical as to its inner surface, which merges ?ush into. ' the corresponding surface of the vcylindrical hearth section _ Said hearth section rests directly upon the bot tom 3, which as shown is composed of‘ any dc sired-number of vertically arranged courses of brick l I, These brick are preferably of substan tially the same size for uniformity, regularity of arrangement and easy handling, and are stood on end in each course but are angularly related. in adjacent courses. .Also, whereas it has hereto fore been considered essential that broken joints be maintained between bricks in adjacent courses, , in the present improved construction, broken joints, though maintained as far as possible fol lowing the usual practice, are not so essential, since adjacent courses are separated by inter- , As will be seen from the drawings, which are drawn fairly closely to scale, adjacent bricks in the same course are spaced approximately two ing which another course of brick is superim posed thereon but preferably arranged at right angles (or at least angularly) with respect to the bricks of the last completed course. This process ,is repeated until the desired depth or thickness of the furnace bottom is attained, whereupon the cylindrical hearth wall 2a is laid thereon in the usual manner, as shown in Fig. 1. Referring to Figs. 4 and 5, a modi?ed method of laying the brick in a given course is shown. By this method all of the brick 21 of a given course 28 are laid in preferably (though not necessarily) spacing blocks or spacers 30 of any suitable non and one-half to three inches apart, ‘or a su?lcient tion between them of any well known form of and across the entire area like a blanket, follow uniformly spaced upright position upon a layer of mix l2 immediately therebelow. Between the lowermost portions of said brick, both in longi tudinal and transverse directions, are inserted posed layers ll’ of the ramming mix. distance to permit the ready insertion and opera said central and lateral blocks being maintained in spaced relation by compression beams 26, or otherwise ‘as may be desired. Finally, after all of the bricks of a given course have been laid by this method, a layer 12 of the mix is tamped over 05 compressible material, such as metal, plastic, ceramic, or otherwise. Upon the opposite sides air-driven ramming or tamping tool, while com pressing the ramming mix in the'vertically ex of said blocks and between said bricks ramming mix 3| is inserted and rammed or tamped into tending sections l3. By contrast, the thickness place by any suitable tool 3la, whereupon said of the horizontal layers of the mix may be of any 70 blocks are lifted and the spaces left vacant by their removal ?lled with the mix duly set by desired depth, either the same as, or more or less ramming. The blocks are then again inserted than, that between the bricks of the same course. between said bricks in the elevated positions 32, Referring to Fig. 3, there is here shown one and more of the mix 33 forced into position be method of assembling the bricks in the improved construction. An initial row of bricks is laid in 75 tween them, and the blocks again lifted, their ' 2,413,9es 5 . . vacated spaces ?lled with mix as before, and the blocks repositioned at their third level d4. After ramming additional mix between them, and then into the spaces from which they are ?nally lifted, the level of the mix is brought to the level of the upper surfaces 35 of said brick, as indicated at 3B, and another blanket-like layer‘ H of the mix added thereto and likewise rammed until the ?nal hearth lining 31 is laid and rammed in place to ?nish the bottom. Obviously, however, 10 course, a fourth course of spaced carbon brick upon said last-mentioned layer, and a rammed mix having a carbon base extending across said fourth course. 5. A furnace construction, comprising superim posed courses of refractory ‘brick, said courses and the bricks of each course being initially spaced apart, and a ramming mix composed principally of the same material as that which principally constitutes the material of said brick rammed only one or possibly two elevations of the spacers ' into the spaces between adjacent courses and, be-_ may be used, if, preferred, instead of the three tween, the bricks of each course, said ramming mix uniting as an integral unit of itself and with here described. Fig. 6 has been included in order to showthe- .> the material of said brick to form a dense, mono lithic mass of substantially uniform integral mix , characteristics of the ramming mix per se after ture. being rammed in a complete bottom, that is, as though the mix were formed in the absence of the bricks, or the bricks removed from this frag 6. A monolithic furnace bottom, comprising su- ' perimposed courses of refractory brick having substantially the same refractory characteristics, mentary portion of the composite bottom struc--. ture, thereby clearly indicating the relationship 20 said courses and the bricks of each course being _ initially spaced apart, and a mix composed of ma of the numerous walls that cooperate to form the terial having at least as high refractory charac monolithic cellular or matrix structure, by which any molten metal that may enter between a teristics as that which constitutes the material , slightly'shrunken brick and *the adjacent mix of said brick rammed into the spaces between ad is trapped by the next lower. horizontal layer 25 jacent courses and vbetween the bricks of each course, said mix coalescing with said bricks to of such structure, and thereby prevented from continuing further through and escaping from form a substantially integral monolithic “struc tureof substantially uniform density throughout the furnace bottom as a unitary whole. ' said bricks and the intervening mix. What I claim and desire to protect by Letters 7. The method of constructing a furnace bot Patent of the United States is:~ 30 tom, which consists in laying a course of spaced 1. A furnace bottom, comprising a course of bricks, ramming between them a, mix having sub spaced intermediate heat duty brick, a hydraulic stantially the same refractory characteristics as cement mixture rammed between them, a layer ' that of said bricks to attain a density of sub of mix upon said course, a second course of spaced high heat duty brick upon said layer of mix, a 35 stantially the same order as that of said bricks, mix of granular calcined clay materialsrammed between the‘ bricks of said second course, a layer. of mix upon said second course, a course of spaced ramming a layer of similar mix upon said ?rst course, in coalescing engagement with said‘?rst mix, laying a second course of spaced bricks upon said rammed layer, and ramming between the high refractory brick upon said second layer, a mix rammed between the bricks of said last-men 40 brick of the second course a similar mix in co alescing engagement with the mix of said layer, tioned course, and composed of high temperature resisting materials selected from the group con to form an integral monolithic structure of brick and mix having substantially‘ uniform density sisting of sillimanite ‘and magne'site, a layer of throughout. ' the same mix material-upon said last-mentioned course‘, a layer of spaced carbon brick-upon said 8. A monolithic furnace bottom, comprising last-mentioned mix layer, and a carbon-base'mix superimposed courses of refractory brick, the ‘ brick of the uppermost course being of higher rammed between said carbon bricks. 2. A furnace bottom, comprising the combina refractory characteristics than those of the low tion of a course of intermediate heat duty brick, ermost course, said courses and the bricks of each course being initially spaced apart, and a mix a course of high heat duty brick, a course of composed of material having at least as high re high refractory brick, a course of carbon brick, and a layer of rammed mix between two adjacent fractory characteristics ‘as that which constitutes ' courses. ‘ the material of the brick of said uppermost course 3. A furnace bottom, comprising the combina rammed into the spaces between adjacent courses tion of superimposed courses of refractory brick, and between the bricks of said uppermost course, the joints between the bricks of each course be said mix coalescing with said bricks to form a sub ing ?lled with a mix composed of materials se stantially integral monolithic structure in which lected from the group consisting of silliinanite and the bricks of the uppermost course and the magnesite, and a layer of,» rammed mix between rammed mix are characterized by substantially the same density. , two of the adjacent courses. 60 9. The method of constructing a furnace bot 4. A furnace bottom, comprising a course of spaced relatively lowheat duty brick, a rammed hydraulic cement mix between the bricks of said course, a layer ‘of a mix covering said course, a second course of spaced high heat duty brick upon said layer of mix, av rammed mix of granular calcined clay materials between the bricks of said tom of a plurality of brick courses, which con sists in laying a course of spaced brick, ramming between said bricks a mix, and upon them a layer of mix in coalescing engagement with the ?rst mix, laying a second course of spaced bricks upon said rammed layer, and a mix between and in a second course, a layer of a mix covering said sec layer upon said last-mentioned bricks, the bricks ond course, a third course of spaced high-?red of the uppermost course being of higher refractory refractory brick upon said last-mentioned layer, 70 characteristics than those of the lowermost a rammed mix of high temperature-resisting ma course, and the mix when rammed being of sub stantially the same density and at least as high terials selected from the group consisting of silli manite and magnesia-containing material be refractory characteristics ‘as that of the adja tween the bricks of said third course, a rammed cent bricks. layer of the same material covering said third 75 ' ' FRED M. MILLER.