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Jan. 14, 1947.
A_ E, BowEN
Filed May 11, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet l
Jain. I4? 1947.
Filed May 11, 1943
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
//v l/ENTOR
14, 1947.
Filed May 11,, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
//v vs/v TOR
Patented Jan. 11.1947: "
‘I 2,414,084
Arnold E. Bowen,‘ Red Bank, N. J., ,assignor to
Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated,
New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application May 11, 1943, Serial No. 486,579
2 Claims.‘ (Cl. 250-275)
This invention relates to resonators and oscil
' lators and, as to oscillators, particularly those of
the magnetron variety‘ with a segmented anode.
ring I'I. spaced apart from the ring I8, as shown.
The ring I‘! requires no clearance spaces as the
group of segments including I2 and I4 do not
An object of the invention is to provide adjust
extend as far as the ring II. A Lecher pair I8,
able tuning for a resonator or oscillator.
I9 is shown connected to the rings I6 and I ‘I.
Another object is to minimize losses by uncon
The individual wires I8 and I9 of the Lecher pair
trolled radiation from a high frequency oscillator
may be sealed through the envelope I0 and the
particularly where the oscillator has adjustable
pair may be provided with a short-circuiting
A feature of the invention resides in the man 10 movable bridge 20 and any suitable mechanical
adjusting means, represented here by a bent rod
ner of merging a segmented anode with a con
2| with an insulating handle 22.
centric transmission line structure.
The cathode may be an axial ?lament 23 at
Another feature is a combination of a seg
tached to supports 24 and 25. The envelope I I)
mented anode inside a vacuum envelope with a
may include a suitable press 26 for mounting the
tuning adjustment outside the envelope.
15 supports 24 and 25 as well as an anode support
A further feature of the invention is a half
21. In well-known manner the supports 24, 25
wave resonator formed of a combination of a
and 21 may serve as leading-out conductors for
segmented anode with a‘concentric linetuner, the
the respective ?lament and anodeterminalsx
resonator having short-circuited ends to prevent
Any suitable cathode heating means, such as
undesired radiations.
20 a battery 28, may be provided, together with a
The invention is described in detail herein
source of anode potential such as a battery 29.
after with reference to the accompanying draw
Windings .30 and 3| may be provided, preferably
ings in which:
external to the envelope II), to set up a suitable
Fig. 1 is a perspective view, partly broken away,
showing one form of magnetron ‘oscillator em ~25 magnetic ?eld inside the anode II. As is cus
tomary in this art, the axis of the magnetic ?eld
bodying the invention;
may be slightly tilted with respect to the axis
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view in a vertical
of the anode II in order to impart a helical mo
plane through the line 2-—2 in Fig. 1;
tion to electrons within the anode so that the
Fig.v 3 shows another embodiment of them
electron motion is progressive along the axis.
In the operation of the arrangement of Figs. 1
Fig. 3A is a fragmentary view showing a modi? 30
and 2, electrons are emitted by the cathode 23
cation of the structure of Fig. 3;
and constrained to circulate in the vicinity of
Fig. 4 shows still another embodiment of the
the anode segments in manner well-known in the
invention; and
art, with result that high frequency oscillations
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the structure
of Fig. 4 in a vertical plane through the line 35 are produced in the anode and in the slots be- '
tween the anode segments. The segmented
5-—5 in Fig. 4.
anode structure is merged physically and elec-‘
In Fig. 1 there is shown within a vacuum- '
trically into the Lecher pair I8, I9 by means of
tight envelope ID, a conductive cylindrical anode
the rings I6 and I1. The combined system is
II which is slotted from one end to form a plu
rality of segments, such as I2, I 3,, I4 and I5. All 40 found to constitute a half-wave resonator having
short-eircuited ends. The right-hand end por
the segments are conductively connected together
tion of the anode I I, which is conductively joined
or short-circuited at'one end by the body of the
to all the anode segments, constitutes a short
anode II. In Fig. 1 the short-circuited end ap
circuiting connection at that end of the anode
pears at the right. At the open end, which is
as shown in Fig. 1. The bridge 20 forms a short
at the left in the ?gure, alternate segments
= circuiting connection across the Lecher pair to
including I2 and I4 are cut shorter than the
constitute theother end of the half-wave reso
others and are conductively joined together by a
nator. It is found that electromagnetic waves
ring or yoke I*6 which may be shapedas shown,
can form standing wave patterns in the resonator
somewhat in the physical form of an internal
gear with cut-away portions providing clearance 50 as so constructed, with voltage nodes at the short
circuited ends and with a voltage antinode ap
for the remaining anode segments including the
pearing between adjacent anode segments over
segments I3 and I5. as appears in cross-sectional
a portion of the anode II between the ring I6
viewv in Fig. 2. The latter group of segments
are conductively connected together by a second 55 and the right-hand end of the anode. The reso
nant frequency of the. system may be adjusted
out in Fig. 1, the electronic portion or the mag
i?ed so as to permit the anode to operate sub
stantially as a halt-wave ‘resonator. For this
purpose there is attached to the left-hand surface
netron structure is situated inside the envelope
10 whereas the adjustable portion oi the tuning
element is located outside the envelope where
conductor 54,. The conductor 54 has an inner
diameter a little greater than the outer diameter
or the anode II to afford a clearance between the
by moving the bridge :0 along the wires I l and
I! by manipulating the handle 22. As brought,
or the ring I6 a short length of hollow tubular
adjustment is accomplished without the mechani
cal complication of any linkage'extending through
- conductor 54 and the segments such as I3 and I5
the envelope.
In the arrangement of Fig. 3, the anode II
and the rings I6 and I‘! connected to alternate
_ closes the space between the rings l6 and I‘! but
anode segments are the same as in the arrange-'
the anode may enter into the space between the
concentric conductors 50 and 5|. A considerable
attached to the ring IT. The conductor 54 partly
leaves an annular gap through which electromag
netic waves reaching the/rings l8 and I1 from
ment of Fig. i. The Lecher system in this case,
however, is in the form of a concentric transmis
sion line having an outer conductor 50 conduc
tively attached to the ring l6 and an inner con
ductor 5| conductively attached to the ring I].
An annular slidable tuning member 52 is provided
in the space between the conductors 50 and 5|.
The member 52 may be adjusted in position by
means of rods 33 and 34 attached thereto and
provided with insulating handles 35 and 36. The
vacuum-tight envelope may be arranged in any
suitable manner so as to enclose the anode | | and
capacity is provided between the conductor 54 and
the segments such as i3 and i5, this capacity
serving as a partial short-circuit between the two
sets of anode segments at the left-hand end of the
anode II in Fig. 3A.~ The presence of the sub
stantial short-circuit tends to make the anode
operate as a halt-wave resonator by determining
a voltage node at this point. The resonator is
coupled to the adjustable tuning device through
the annular space above described ‘between the‘
conductor 54 and the ring H. The annular tun
leave the concentric line partially outside the vac 25 ing member 52 will in this case be adjusted to a
uum space to permit the tuning adjustment to be
position approximately a halt wave-length dis
e?ected outside the envelope as in Fig. 1. Fig.
tance from the‘ left-hand end of the anode. A
3 shows the envelope in three sections. The right
certain amount of variation in the resonant fre
hand section 31 is sealed to the right-hand side
quency oi the system as a whole may be obtained
of the ring I6 in Fig. 3. A middle section 38 is 30 by adjusting the position of the element 52 al
inserted between the rings l5 and I1 and the left
though, as above mentioned, the tuning range
hand section 39 is sealed to the left-hand side
will generally not be as great as in the case where
of the ring l1. The ?lament 23, which is axially 7
located as in Fig. 1, may be shorter than the an
ode II, as shown in Fig. 3, in order to limit the
thermionic emission to the region where the elec
tric ?eld is the strongest, that is, the left-hand
half to two-thirds, or so, of the anode, consti
tuting a voltage antinode. One end of the ?la- ‘
ment is shown attached to a leading-out conduc 40
tor 40 which is sealed through the envelope sec
tion 39. An insulating spacer 4|, such as a mica
disc, may be employed for centering the conductor
the anode serves approximately as a quarter
wave-length section as in the arrangement of
Figs. 1' and 2.
Fig. 4 shows an alternative construction in
which the envelope is in a single section 55. The
inner conductor 5| of the concentric transmission
line is connected directly to alternate segments
of the anode by means 01! a plurality of straight
rods _or wires 60 which pass through the envelope
55 and may be soldered to the conductor 5| out
side the envelope. The outer conductor, 50 is
40. The other end of the ?lament may be at
connected to the remaining segments oi the anode
tached to a conductor "which is in turn con 45
by bent rods or wires 5| which also pass through
ductively connected to a tension maintaining
the envelope and may be soldered to the con
spring 43, which latter is connected to a leading
ductor 50 outside the envelope. The concentric
out conductor 44' that may be sealed through the
line is in e?ect passed through the envelope by
section 31 of the envelope. A second insulating
means of the plurality of rods or wires 60 and
spacer 45 may be employed between the ?lament
6 | . A sectional view of the rods and their attach
23 and the spring 43 to center the conductor 42.
ment to the anode segments is shown in Fig. 5.
The ?lament may be heated by means of the bat
Instead of the ?lamentary cathode of Figs. 1 and
tery 28 as in the arrangement of Fig. 1 and the
3, an indirectly heated cathode 23' of any suit
anode battery 29 may be connected to the outer
able known construction is shown in the arrange;
conductor 50 of the concentric line outside the
envelope, which is in conductive connection with 55 ment of Fig. 4. The indirectly heated cathode
may be inserted from one end of the envelope as
the anode || through the ring I6. A solenoid 30’
may be provided to set up the desired magnetic
shown and has the advantage that it is more
easily centered than the ?lament and does not
?eld inside the anode ||.
The operation of the system of Fig. 3 is essen
require spring tension. The thermionicaliy ac
tially the same as in the case of the arrangement 60 tive portion of the cathode 23' may be con?ned
of Figs. 1 and 2, the tuning being accomplished
to the region 65 in the strongest portion of the
by manipulating the ‘handles 35 and 35 to adjust
electric ?eld, by applying a suitable coating in
the position of the annular tuning member 52.
that region.
In the arrangements so far described, the anode
Couplings for picking up the generated electro
is preferably designed to be approximately a quar 65 magnetic waves and means for conveying the
ter wave-length long, the Lecher system then
waves to an antenna or ay other suitable utiliza
comprising an additional quarter wave-length to
tion circuit or device may be provided in conven
make up the desired half wave-length for the
combined structure. If desired, however, the an
' tional manner. For clarity in the drawings, such
output coupling means have been omitted. but
ode as a unit may be made to operate substan~~ 70 these will be readily supplied by anyone versed
tially as a half wave-length resonator. In this
in the ultra-high frequency art.
case the system vmay still be tuned by means of
What is claimed is:
the exterior Lecher system, although the range
1. A resonator comprising a segmented anode,
of tuning is generally reduced. Fig. 3A shows a
segment of which has a free end at one and
way in which the structure oi Fig. 3 may be mod 75
the same end of the anode and all of which'seg-'
ments are conductively connected together at
the other end by the body portion of the anode;
a pair of conductive means joining together the
gather at one end. and tree at the other, a con
centric line section located outside said envelope
and having a closed end adjustable by means of
a slidable short-circuiting conductor and having
the opposite end open-circuited, means conduc
tively connecting the free ends of the anode seg
ments into-'two groups, said groups being insu
lated from each other, and‘ means conductively
Joining means.
2. A magnetron oscillator comprising a vacu 10 connecting the‘said groups 0! segments with the
respective terminals of the open circuited end
um-tight envelope containing working electrodes
of said concentric line section.
including a segmented anode, the segments of
free ends of alternate segments into two insulated
groups, respectively, and a concentric transmis
sion line, the inner and outer conductors of which
are connected respectviely to said conductive
which anode are all conduotlvely connected to
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