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Jam.y 14, 1947.
'
.
P. L_.ÃHAÉTMAN
'
oscILLÀToR
`2,414,085
`
‘
Filed Dec. 14, 19447
,
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2 sheets-sheet 1
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/N VEN TOR
y ALHARTMAN
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Jakn.l4, 1947.
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P. L. HARTMAN
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2,414,085
oscILLATÓR
Filed Dec. 14, 1944
2 4Sheets-Sheet 2
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A T TORNF V
Patented Jan. 14, 1947
UNITED STATES',AN PATENT OFFICE
2,414,085
-
‘
, osoILLA'roR
Paul L. Hartman, New York, N. Y., assignor to
Beil Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application December 14, 1944, Serial N0. 568,127
8 Claims. (Cl. 31_5--3`79)
1 .
This invention relates to tuning and coupling
devices for microwave systems and more par
ticularly to an arrangement comprising a co
axial type transmission line `or resonator sym
metrically coupled to all the 'individual cavities
of a circularly symmetrical multicavity reso
nator.
.
2
resonant system. For example, in magnetron os
cillators as ordinarily operated, the anode seg
ments at any given instant are alternately oi’
more positive and more negative polarity in suc
cession around the circumference of the anode
block, relatively to the vmean potential of the
.
anode block. In anotherv mode of operation, al
The resonator of a commonly employed type
ternate anode segments are at zero potential
of magnetron oscillator comprises a cylindrical
difference with respect to the mean potential of
anode block containing a plurality of axial per 10 the anode block, the succession of relative polar
forations constituting portions of a multiresonant
ities »being then positivazero, negative, zero, posi
cavity system having a numberof ` individual
tive, etc. To utilize the'invention in the latter
cavities, separated by segments >of the anode
mode of operation, the relatively ypositive seg
block. Adjustment of the resonant frequency of
ments may be connected to one conductor of the
the oscillator during operation is commonly af
fected by tuning one or more of the individual
cavities.
.
coaxial line and the relativelynegative segments
to` thev other as before, while the zero segments
lmay vbe connected together through a Short
It is known that those tuning arrangements
circuiting conductive ring or otherwise.
which affect the individual cavities differently,
The coupling arrangement of the invention is
distort the iield pattern of the oscillator as a 20 further adapted to coupling a plurality of mag
whole. This distortion may alter the operating
netron oscillators in a pile or stack arrangement
conditions of the oscillator as the frequency is
in which adjacent magnetrons are connected by
changed, thereby introducing undesirable varia
a short length of coaxial line or the equivalent.
tions in the eii’iciency of operation, power out
In the drawings,
‘
put, etc. The tuning arrangement in accordance 25 Fig. 1 is a perspective view partly in cross
with the present invention is symmetrical with
section showing a magnetron oscillator embody
respect to all the individual cavities and hence
ing the invention.
has a minimum of disturbing effects upon the
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view of an arrangement
output of the oscillator as a function of the fre
similar to that shown in Fig. 1 but with an in
30 terconnection of anode segments designed to
quency.
In accordance with the invention, a coaxial ` favor a. different mode of oscillation; and
line structure is associated with the resonator
Fig. v3 shows two magnetron oscillators in a
and a plurality of electrical connectors are pro
pile or stack arrangement with coupling between
vided each joining a different one of the anode
the oscillators in accordance with the invention.
segments with one or the other of the conductors 35
Referring to Fig. 1, there is shown an anode
of the coaxial line.
The anode block in the usual
block I0, as in a magnetron oscillator.
The
case is surrounded by an electromagnetic shield
defining in conjunction with the anode block an
end space opening into the individual cavities of
block ymay constitute an insert in a casing il and
may be perforated axially with a central hole
I2 and a plurality of peripheral holes IS each
the multiresonant system.` The electromagnetic 40 joined with the hole I2 by means of a slot Ill.
shield and the outer conductor of the coaxial
Between `each pair of slots I4 there is defined
line are preferably electrically continuous and
an anode segment I5. A cathode I6, which may
integral to prevent energy propagation except
be cylindrical, is preferably mounted centrally in
within the interior of the system and into the
the hole I2, the space between the cathode I 6 and
desired load connection. The coaxial line may 45 the plurality of anode segments I 5, comprising
be tuned in conventional manner thereby ad
the‘electron interaction space as in a conven
justing simultaneously the resonant conditions
tional magnetron oscillator.
»
for all the individual cavities to influence the
The casing II may be closed at top and bot
operatingY frequency of the system as a whole.
tom by end plates I'I and I8, respectively form
If desired the coaxial line may serve also as the 60 ing, together with the end surfaces of the anode
output coupling for supplying wave energy from
block end spaces I9 and 2U.
the oscillator to a load.
A coaxial line enters the end space I9 as
The tuning and coupling arrangements of the
invention are adaptable for use with a variety
through the plate I'I, preferably axially and
centrally. The outer conductor of the line may
ofv different modes of- oscillation in a multiply 66 comprise a. hollowcylîndrical conductor ZI; S1411-, `
2,414,085
3
rounding a central hole in the- plate I1, secured
as by means of a threaded collar portion 60. An
inward extension of the plate |1 may comprise
a hollow cylindrical portion 22 and this may be
threaded exteriorly to engage a complementary
thread Within a conductive ring 23 to which are
connected a number of rods, wires or other con
4
are conductively connected by electrically short
conductors to insure the operation of the device
in a mode of oscillations in which alternate anode
segments are always of opposite polarity. In
addition each adjacent pair of conductors 3|, 32
forms, with adjacent anode segments I5 and the
periphery of the intermediate cavity I3, an in
ductive circuit coupling the individual cavity
across the terminal of the coaxial line 2|, 2t
the coaxial line may comprise a rod or wire 24 10 in parallel with all the other circuits similarly
formed involving the remaining cavities. The
extending through the member 22 into the end
system comprising the anode block I0, the con
space I9. The conductor 24 may terminate in
ductors 3|, 32 and the transmission line 2|, 24
an enlarged cylindrical portion 25 to which may
may be given a high degree of circular symmetry,
be connected a number of conductors going to
various segments I5. The conductor 24 may be 15 thereby insuring uniform coupling of the indi
vidual cavities |3 to the transmission line 2|, 24.
supported and a vacuum tight closure formed
ductors connecting with various segments` I5 of
the anode block Ill. The inner conductor of
by a seal 26, as of glass, extending between a
The line 2|, 24 may be tuned as by means of the
tapered flaring member 21 and the inner con
ductor 24. Beyond the sealing member 26 an
bridge 28, the tuning adjustment evidently affect
may be arranged toslide upon the conductor 241
and in Contact with the inner surface of the outer
conductor 2|. The bridge 23 may be adjusted
the cavities I3, as shown, in which case the tun
ing adjustment will have little disturbing eiîect
upon the wave pattern in any cavity, including
the cavity to which the output lead is connected.
ing the individual cavities I3 substantially uni
adjustable conductive short-circuiting bridge 28 20 formly. The output may be derived from one of
by any suitable means such as rods 29 and a
25 If still greater degree of symmetry is desired, the
knob 30.
output may be taken from the transmission line
The conductors which connect the segments
2|, 24 in any suitable manner without inter
I5 with the two sides of the coaxial line 2|, 24
ference with the tuning function.
may be arranged as shown to connect alternate
Fig. 2 shows how the anode interconnections,
segments with the ring 23 and the cylinder 25,
respectively, thus favoring the customary „mode 30. or strapping, may be made to favor the type of
wave pattern in which the segments I5 at 'any
of oscillation, in which alternate segments |5
given instant may be either positive, negative or
are positive and negative respectively with re
at zero relative potential. For example, the seg
spect to the mean potential of the anode. In
ments may show a succession of relative polarity
Fig. 1, the segments I5 are marked alternately
positive and negative representing a relative 35 such as: positive, zero, negative, zero, positive,
polarity of the segments in the oscillating system
at a particular instant.
After the lapse of a half
etc. Each segment that is positive at a given
instant may -be connected by a conductor 3| to
the ring 23, the same as in the arrangement of
cycle of the operating frequency, the polarity
Fig. 1, and each negative segment may be con
of each segment is the reverse of that shown in
nected by a conductor 32 to the cylinder 25 as
40
the figure. For clarity in the drawing, the front
before. The zero potential segments, however,
half of the ring 23 is cut away. A plurality of
are in this case preferably connected to a short
connectors 3| are shown connecting the positive
circuiting ring 15| located intermediate the ring
segments to the ring 23. Between each two co-n
23 and the cylinder 25, as shown in Fig. 2.
nectors 3| a connector 32 is shown connecting a
The operation of the system of Fig. 2 is sim
negative segment with the cylinder 25.
ilar to that of Fig. 1, the principal difference
In assembling the device of Fig. 1, the con
being that a different wave pattern and diiîerent
nectors 3| may be secured to the lblock I0 and
relative potentials of the anode segments are
ring 23 and the connectors 32 to the block Ill
favored. In general, with the same dimensions
and cylinder 25 before the block is inserted in
of the resonator, the operating frequency as well
place in the casing ||. The inner coaxial con
as the ñeld pattern in the resonator will be dif
ductor 24 may be fastened to the cylinder 25,
ferent in the two systems, Figs. 1 and 2, re
either before or after inserting the block in the
spectively.
casing. Next the end plate ll may be installed,
It may be desirable in some cases to employ
the extension 22 meshing with the internal
the ring 23 and cylinder 25, or their counterparts,
thread 0n the ring 23. The seal 26 may then-be ’
together with strapping conductors 3| and 32
applied and thereafter the hollow cylindrical
without any connection to an outgoing trans
conductor 2| may be screwed down over the
mission line. Such an arrangement is shown in
collar 50.
>
the upper part of Fig. 3 where the elements 23,
A conventional output connection comprising
25, 3|, 32 serve as a mode-locking device with
an inner conductor 33 and an outer conductor
out any provision for tuning or for coupling
34 may be introduced in known manner into one
through an external system.
of the cavities I3. Rods 35 and 36 may be in
The arrangements of Fig. 3 also shows the
troduced in known manner to support the
utility of the arrangement of the invention in
cathode I6.
connecting a plurality of magnetrons together by
The basic operation of the device of Fig. 1
as a magnetron oscillator isconventional and
being well known in rthe art need not be par
ticularly described herein. The conductors 3|
and 32, however, take the place of the inter
segmental connectors sometimes called mode
locking straps usually employed with magnetron
oscillators of this type for insuring operation at
one predeœrmined mode only. By connecting
alternate anode segments to the ring 23 and
' cylinder 25, the anode segments of like plurality 75
end to end connection as in a pile or stack. In
Fig. 3, two anode inserts I0 and I8' have their re
spective anode segments interconnected by means
of four sets of connectors 5I, 52, 53, 54. An end
plate 55 common to .both anodes is shown in
serted between them, the yplate 55 having a cen
tral hole in which may be centrally located a
small conductive member 55, corresponding to
the cylinder 25 of the previous figures. The con
nectors 5| may connect alternate segments of the
2,414,085
6
anode I0 to the plate 55, the connection at the
plate being made preferably near the edge of the
central opening. The connectors 52 may connect
tive potential in a second group and those of zero
relative potential in a third group.
3. An oscillator comprising a multi-resonant
structure having a plurality of coupled circuits
the remaining segments of the anode I0 with the
member 55. Alternate segments of the anode I 0’
may be connected to the underside ofthe plate 55
connected .by intermediate conductive elements,
means for constraining said multi-resonant
structure to operate in a particular one of its
possible modes of oscillation, namely a mode
by the connectors 53 which may make contact
with the plate near the periphery of the central
opening. The remaining anode segments of the
wherein a succession of relative Ipotentials occurs -
anode lû’ may be connected to the member 56 by l() at any given instant upon said intermediate con
.the connectors 54. It will be evident that the
ductive elements in the order positive, Zero, nega
system of connectors 52 and 54 and the element
tive, zero, positive, etc., said constraining means
55 may be replaced if desired -by a system of con
comprising three concentric conductors and a
nectors running from an element of the upper
plurality of connectors joining .the positive ele
anode to a diametrically opposite element of the 15 ments to one of said concentric conductors, the
lower anode. In the arrangement of Fig. 3 each
negative elements to a second of said concentric
anode with its associated cathode Works as a
conductors, and the zero elements to the third of
unit with only a certain small phase difference
said concentric conductors._
between one unit and lthe next. The magnetic
4. An oscillator in accordance with claim 3, in
flux in each of the two units is practically limited 20 which the intermediate conductive elements of
to its own unit. This arrangement has certain
zero relative potential are connected to the middle
advantages over the use of a longer anode block,
one of said concentric conductors.
such as reducing any tendency of the »oscillating
5. An oscillator in accordance with claim 3, in
system to establish a mode of oscillations in
which .the intermediate conductive elements of
which there are considerable phase differences or 25 zero relative potential are connected to the middle
phase reversals along the axis of the oscillator.
one of said concentric conductors, and in which
While the invention is illustrated herein as ap
tuning means are connected between the inner
plied to a magnetron oscillator having eight cav
most and outermost of said concentric con
ities, it wi11,be evident lthat the invention is not
ductors.
limited to an oscillator nor to a magnetron and 30
that the number of cavities may be increased or '
decreased as desired, without going beyond the
scope of the invention .as defined in the appended
claims.
What is claimed is:
35
l. An oscillator comprising a cylindrical anode
block containing a plurality of axial perforations
constituting a multi-resonant system having a
number of individual cavities separated by seg-l
ments of said anode block, an electromagnetic 40
shield surrounding said anode block and defining
therewith an end space opening into said multi
resonant system, said end space being bounded
different one of said anode segments with one or
the other of the conductors constituting said co
axial line, the said electromagnetic shield and
the outer conductor of said coaxial line being
electrically continuous and integral whereby en
ergy propagation is conñned within the system.
2. An oscillator comprising a multi-resonant
connected by intermediate conductive elements, ~-
means for constraining said multi-resonant
structure to operate in a particular mode of oscil
tive potential in one group, those of negative rela
tive elements of zero relative potential are con
nected to said ring.
_
.
'7. An oscillator comprising a plurality of multi
resonant anode blocks mutually spaced apart and
mounted endto end, _said anode blocks each hav
ing a plurality of anode segments, an apertured
conductor located within and spaced from the
edge of the aperture in said shielding member.
8. A plurality of multiresonant `anode blocks
mutually spaced apart and >mounted end xto end, `
said anode blocks each having a plurality of
anode segments, an apertured shielding member
interposed between adjacent anode blocks, a plu
rality of electrically short condu-ctors connecting
lation wherein a succession of potentials relative `
electrically short interconnectors connecting to
gether respectively the elements of positive rela
ring, and in which .the said intermediate conduc
segments of the same anode block to a common
structure having -a plurality of coupled circuits
to the mean anode potential occurs at any given
which the innermost and outermost of said con
centric conductors are of extended length to con
stitute a transmission line, the middle one of said
»concentric conductors comprises a conductive
shielding member interposed between adjacent
anode blocks, a plurality of electrically short con
ductors connecting a group of anode segments in
one of said anode blocks to said shielding mem
ber, and another plurality of electrically short
conductors connecting another group of anode
in part by end surfaces of said anode block, a
coaxial line extending into said end space, and a
plurality of electrical conductors each joining a
instant upon said intermediate conductive ele
ments in the order positive, zero, negative, zero,
positive, etc., said constraining means comprising
‘
6. An oscillator in accordance with claim 3, in
a group of anode segments in one of said adjacent
anode blocks to said shielding member, and an
other plurality of electrically short conductors
respectively connecting together anode segments
in two other groups of anode segments, said latter
two groups being located respectively in adjacent
anode blocks on opposite sides of said shielding
member.
PAUL L. HARTMAN.
65
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