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Jan. 14, 1947.
H, |_. HULL ET Al.
Filed July 23, 1941
F n œ.
C E; 55
4B y
i ET .
4 Sheets-Sheet l
Jan. 14, 1947.
Filed July 23,> 1941
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
F' I E-„ßY
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Jam 14, 1947'
Filed July 2s, 1941
4 sheets-sheet s
AND A.c.AMpl_|F|ER
Jan. 14, 1947.
H. L. HULL Erm.
Filed July 23, 1941
4 sheets-sheet 4'
îïatented Jan. 14, 1947
Harvard L. Hull, Garden City, William C. Hart
man, Bohemia, and Raymond C. Goertz, Hemp
stead, N. Y., assignors to Sperry Gyroscope
Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corporation of
New York
Application July 23, 1941, Serial No. 403,618
23 Claims. (ci. :is-49)
The present invention relates, generally, to ñre
control apparatus, and has reference, more par
ticularly, to sights for gun directors, in which
a> telescope sight is continuously trained on a
target, thereby enabling the production and trans
mitting of data to cause a gun to be aimed at
the target.
In previous devices of this type, control has
. been obtained by means of a handwheel, whose
motion had to be synchronized with motion of
the telescope. Also, separate controls for azimuth
and elevation were used.
These devices were
quite satisfactory for low tracking rates. How
It is also an object o the invention to pro
vide an improved control unit for precise and
steady tracking control.
It is a further object to provide an improved
control circuit for controlling the tracking veloc
ity of a sight in both azimuth and elevation by
manipulation of a single control handle.
It is an additional object to provide improved
means for effecting velocity control or combined
velocity and acceleration control of a. tracking
system, at the will oi the operator.
It is another object to provide an improved
circuit and mechanism for compensating the gun
ever, with high tracking rates, such as are nec
directing data obtained by the tracking system
essary in close-in aerial combat, proper syn 15 for any desired prediction data.
chronization of controls and telescope becomes
It is still a further object to provide an im
diftlcult and it is not possible to obtain satisfactory
proved modulator circuit for converting direct
_ control so as to be able to readily and rapidly
voltages into alternating voltages whose phase
manipulate the controls to cause the telescope
and magnitude correspond to the polarity and
to track with the course of fast moving targets, 20 magnitude of the direct voltages, for use in track
and still be steady and precise in operation so
ing control.
that a target once sighted may be continuously
It is an additional object to provide an im
followed with ease and accuracy and smooth rates
proved demodulator circuit for converting alter
obtained for prediction purposes.
. nating voltages into direct voltages whose polarity
The present invention provides a device which 25 and magnitude correspond to the phase and mag
minimizes the difiiculties of prior devices. A
nitude of the alternating voltages, for use in
tracking control system is provided in which the
tracking control.
velocity of the sight is controlled by natural and
Other objects and advantages of this inven
instinctive movements of a `single control handle
tion will become apparent as the description pro
controlling both azimuth and elevation movement 30 ceeds.
of the sight, and whose operation simulates di
In the drawings,
rect manual control of the sight. Precision and
Fig. l shows in schematic perspective view the
steadiness of operation are provided in the type
mechanical arrangement of the tracking and pre
of control unit used, in which the operator can
diction control;
ñrmly grasp a reference knob, which is fixed with 35
Fig. 2 shows a longitudinal cross-section of the
respect to the sight, with part of his hand and
signal pick-up or control unit used in the device
the control handle with the rest of the same hand.
of Fig. 1;
This provides a steadying influence on the control
Fig. 3 shows schematically the circuit diagram
process, so that extremely ñne control is possible.
of an alternating-current-operated control cir
The control handle is made fairly stili in opera 40 cuit for the device of Fig. 1;
tion, by a cantilever type mounting, making con
Fig. 4 shows schematically an alternative di
trol mainly by pressure rather than by deiiection.
rect-current-operated control circuit for the de
In addition, the present system permits complete
vice of Fig. 1, including acceleration control;
control with one hand, leaving the operator’s
Fig. 5 shows a detailed circuit of a push-pull
other hand free for other duty.
45 modulator circuit suitable for use with the circuit
A further feature of the device resides in a
0f Fig. 4; and
switching arrangement whereby the velocity con
Fig. 6 shows the detailed circuit of a full-wave
,trol may be converted to a combined velocity
phase-sensitive demodulator suitable for use with
and acceleration control which, under some cir
the circuit of Fig. 4.
cumstances, will give constant velocity tracking 60 Similar characters of reference are used in all
Without any action by the operator, whereby
tracking on a target is maintained automatically
at a fixed speed. Also, means are provided for
of the above figures to indicate corresponding
Fig. 1 shows the mechanical arrangement of
the various elements of the system. The tele
compensating the data obtained from the track
ing sight for any desired prediction data, and 55 scope tracking sight I is mounted for rotation in
for transmittingthe compensated data to a re
azimuth, as by means of vertical shaft 3, and is
mote point to control the directing of a gun.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present in
vention to provide a new and improved tracking
control system for sights and gun directors.
pivoted about a horizontal axis 2 for rotation in
elevation. Horizontal shaft 5 is rotatably mount
ed on shaft 3 as by a, yoke 4 and is positioned
t0 parallel to the horizontal axis 2 of sight l. Shaft
5 is linked to sight I as by a linkage 1, 8. so that
sight I is -rnoved in elevation in synchronism with s
rotation of shaft 5. Control unit 9, shown in de
tail in Fig. 2, is fixed to shaft 5 with its control
handle II parallel to sight I. Hence, the control
unit 9 is relatively fixed with respect to sight I
and always remains parallel to sight I, turning
with sight I both in elevation and azimuth. This
gives the operator the sense of actually manually
and/or gun in elevation and azimuth. Similar
elements are given the same reference numbers,
but primed.
Fig. 2 shows a cross-section of the control unit
'I‘his control unit 9 has four symmetric mag
netic circuits disposed radially about the longitu
dinal axis 42 of the unit, only two such circuits
being shown in the cross-section taken.
circuits have a common portion 4I formed as a
operating the sight I, by manipulation of control 10 sleeve concentric with axis 42. Extending radl
handle II, since the sight appears to respond to
his natural movements in effecting tracking, al
though actually the control handle II merely
controls the sight ‘driving mechanism, as de
ally from sleeve 4I are four core members, only
two of whlchv(43, 45) are shown. These core
members 43, 45 have bent over arms or portions
41, 49 parallel to axis 42. These arms are ter
15 minated by slanted portions.“ which are prefer
scribed below.
ably formed to comprise a portion of the surface
The control handle II and its related parts are
of a sphere having its center approximately at
so shaped and formed as to provide easy and
point C. The magnetic circuits are completed by
natural manipulation by the operator. For this
a button 5I having a spherical surface which co
purpose, referring to Fig. 2, casing 55 has fas
operates with the spherical-shaped ends 48 of
tened to it a stabilizing or reference knob 50,
arms 41, 49 to form a uniform air gap between
placed concentric and adjacent to handle- I I.
button 5I and each of the arms~41, 49. It is to
Knob 5I) is shaped to be gripped by the thumb
be understood that each of the two arms not
and fore part of the hand of the operator. This
shown is formed in exactly the same manner, but
knob 50 is relatively short in length, so that the
rear or heel portion of the hand of the operator 25 disposed in a plane perpendicular to the plane of
the figure.
will at the same time be able to grip the handle
Button 5I is rigidly fastened to handle II as
II. The control circuit described below is de
by rod 53, and is resiliently fastened to case 55
signed to give full speed control for a relatively
by member 51 whose end 6I is rigidly held to
small displacement of control handle Il, which
case 55, as by set screws 63, and which has a
may be on the order of 1/8 inch for full displace
reduced resilient bending section 59. The han
ment. Accordingly, by this deviceLthe operator
dle and button assembly is adjusted so as to be
is given a fixed reference object by which to gage
normally coaxial with axis 42, but may be de
the pressure (or deflection) to be placed on the
iiected in any radial direction by a transverse
control handle, while maintaining a. firm grasp
and positive control of the control handle. The 35 pressure on handle II. The button 5I is thus
mounted in cantilever fashion, all bending taking
effect is to enable extremely accurate and steady
place approximately at the center C of the re
control with a minimum of operator effort. The
duced diameter bending section 59. The motion
complete operation is made natural, enabling in
of button 5I approximately follows the surface
stinctive reaction to changing conditions needing
control adjustment on the part of the operator. 40 of a sphere having its center at point C, which
is at the center of bending section 59. Because
Referring again to Fig. 1, also fastened to hori
of this cantilever action, the deflection of the con
zontal shaft 5 is a gear I3 driven by driving gear
trol handle I I is closely proportional to the pres
I5 which in turn is driven by drive motor I1.
sure applied to it. Since the tracking velocity of
Speed generator I9, whose function is described
below, is also driven directly by drive motor I1. 45 sight I may also be proportional to the deflection
of handle II, it will, in such case, be proportional
The drive motor I1 thereby rotates shaft 5, and
to applied pressure. Hence, the operator gets a
controls the elevation of sight I at a speed which
realistic “feel” of the operation, and can readily
may be proportional to the deflection of, or pres
imagine that his own effort is controlling the
sure on, control handle II, as will be described
sight directly. This makes it easier for the oper
below. Strict proportionality need not be fol
ator to accurately perform the required tracking.
lowed in all cases. For example, it may be desir
Placed about sleeve 4I is an energizing coi-l
able to give relatively broad and insensitive con
65, which is fed from a suitable source of alter-v
trol near the neutral axis of the control unit, and
nating current. Around each arm, as for exam
relatively sharp and sensitive control at larger
ple arms 41, 49, there is wound a pick-up coil.
Also connected lto shaft 5 is a differential 2I . Two such coils 61, 59 are shown. The entire
device is made symmetrical about axis 42, so that
connected in turn to further shafts 23 and 25.
Shaft 25 is positioned by prediction motor 21
which also drives prediction potentiometer 29.
equal voltages of equal phase will be induced
in each pick-up coil when button 5I is coaxial
Shaft 23 drives a “coarse” self-synchonous trans
with axis 42. Each pair of diametrically oppo
mitter 3| directly, and a “fine” self-synchronous 60 site coils is connected in series in opposing relatransmitter 33 through suitable gearing 35. The ’ non, so that, when button 5| is in its undenected
outputs of these transmitters 3| and 33 may go
position, coaxial with axis 42, thereby making all
to control the elevation of a remotely situated gun
four magnetic circuits identical, no resultant
(not shown) ,which will then be directed (at least
voltage is produced from each pair of pick-up
in elevation) toward the target being sighted by
coils, since the voltage induced in any one coil
telescope I. Prediction motor 21 and diñerential
is opposed and cancelled by that of its diametri
2|, cause the shaft 23 to lead or lag the shaft
cally opposite coil.
5 by an angle corresponding to any corrections
When handle II is deflected, for example, ver
necessary to cause the gun to be directed toward
tically downward, the air gaps between button
the future position of the target. Such correc 70 5I and arms 41, 49 will remain of the same
tions may allow for time of night of the projec
length, since button 5I will pivot about its ap
tile, super-elevation, wind, air density, etc.
proximate center of curvature C; however, the
Shaft 3 is driven in azimuth by exactly the
cross-sectional varea of the gap at arm 41 will
same type of system, through a coupling gear 31'.
75 decrease, increasing the reluctance of its mag
thereby giving complete control of the sight
netic circuit, and the area. at arm t9 will increase,
reducing the reluctance of its circuit.
when its winding 99 is energized and its rotor
is turned, will generate voltages in its two-phase
winding which, when added, will be closely pro
portional to the speed of rotation. Alternatively,
more voltage will be induced in coil 69 than in
coil B1, and there will be a net voltage output,
indicating deflection along the vertical direction'. 5 this generator may take the form shown in Riggs
No voltagewill appear across the other pair of
Patent 2,206,920, issued July 9, 1940. Winding 89
coils. in this instance, however, since their mag
Iis energized from supply line 13 through an ad
netic circuits remain balanced. For deflection
justable phase shifting circuit 91. The wind
upward, the opposite will occur, and the output
ings 9I , 93 are connected in series across a. poten
voltage will be of opposite phase from that of 10 tiometer 99 whose movable tap I0| is connected
the case first considered. For any other direc
to the junction of the two-phase windings 9|,
tion of deflection a component of voltage will
93. This tap I 0| is adjusted so that at stand
appear across each pair of coils which will be
still there is zero voltage output. A condenser
proportional in magnitude to the component of
|00 is connected across windings 9|, 93 to iilter
deflection along the axis of that pair of coils, and l5 out undesired harmonics. The output of the
will have a phase corresponding to the sense of
the corresponding component of deflection. The
unit is mounted so that one pair of coils has a
speed generator I9 is connected to oppose or buck
the control voltage produced in the control unit
9. Thus, the speed generator I9 and the out
vertical axis perpendicular to shaft 2 and the
put of control unit 9 are connected in series oppo
other a horizontal axis perpendicular to shaft 3. 20 sition across the primary of transformer 19.. The
Then the control signal output of the vertical
phase adjustor 91 is used to assure that the volt
pair of coils is used to control the elevation of
age output of speed generator I9 is exactly in
the sight I and the output of the horizontal pair
phase opposition to the control voltage obtained
is used to control azimuth. as will be described
from control unit 9. Accordingly, it is substan
25 tially the arithmetic difference between these two
Fig. 3 shows the circuit diagram for alternating
voltages which operates the motor I1.
The magnitude of the voltage input to ampli
ñer 83 needed to operate motor I1 at its full
torque and speed is made very small compared to
of control unit 9 is energized from a source 13 30 the voltage generated either by the speed genera
of alternating current by means of a current
tor or the control unit. The ampliñer 83 is ad
limiting resistor 15 which minimizes saturation
v«justed to saturate at this small voltage; that is,
eiîects. The two oppositely positioned pick-up
any voltage greater than this predetermined small
coils t1, 09 are connected in series opposition
voltage is ineñective to increase the amplifier out
and are shunted by a condenser 11 whose func 35 put voltage, which remains at the motor full speed
tion is to bypass the harmonics created by satura
voltage. Of course, any amplifier input voltage
tion of the edges of button 5I. This condenser
smaller than the saturating voltage will yield an
‘l1 may tune the output coils 61, 69 to resonance
output voltage less than the motor full speed volt
at line frequency. The voltage output from con
age. and the motor will rotate at less than full
trol unit 9 is then an alternating voltage of sup 40 speed. As an illustrative example, the full-speed
ply line frequency having an amplitude propor
generator output, and the full deñection control
tional to the deflection of control handle II (in
voltage, may be about 30 volts, while the ampli~
elevation or azimuth) and a phase corresponding
fier saturating voltage may be about 0.3 volt.
current control in one plane, either in azimuth
or elevation, the same circuit being duplicated
for the other plane'. The energizing coil 65
to the sense of the deflection. This control volt
In operation, starting from a standstill, the con
age is applied over coupling transformer 19 and 45 trol handle II may be partially deflected, for ex
conventional phase shifter 8| to amplifier 83,
which amplifies the control voltage and applies
it to one winding 85 of the two phase drive motor
I1, the other winding 81 being connected directly
ample, to give a control voltage of 20 volts. Since
at this instant the speed generator I 9 is at stand
Since the control voltage will reverse phase upon
at maximum rate. `Acceleration will continue un
til the generator output differs from the con
still, ithis control voltage is unopposed and is fully
applied to the ampliñer. However, due to the
4 to the supply line 13. Phase shifter 8| assures 50 saturation effect in amplifier 83, only 0.3 volt is
that the voltage `applied to winding 85 is in
effective, which applies full starting torque to the
quadrature with that applied to Winding 81.
motor, which therefore immediately accelerates
i reversal of the control handle displacement, it
»will be seen that the direction of rotation of 55 trol Voltage only by sumcient- voltage diñerence
L. drive motor I1 will also reverse, and will accord
to maintain motor speed sufficient to yield that
a ; `lngly .correspond at all times to the direction of
‘ deflection of the control handle Il. The direc- .
generator output. Since the voltage difference
will be less than 0.3 volt, in the example used, it
tion of rotation is selected so that downward pres
will be seen that the generator output voltage
sureon handle II will drive the handle down 60 will be substantially equal to the control voltage,
ward,- `thereby giving a realistic type of opera-and, therefore, the motor speed. which provides
1 tion.`
the tracking velocity, is substantially proportion
In order to assure that the speed of rotation of
al to the control voltage, and hence to the pres
drive motor I1 will be proportional to the deflec
sure (or deflection) applied to the control handle
tion of control handle II, when this condition 35 II. Rheostat |03 is used to adjust the generator
is desired, speed generator I9 is directly driven
voltage to the proper value,
by drive motor I1. This speed generator is de
The function of 'prediction motor 21 is to posi
signed to have an alternating voltage output
tion shaft 25 in accordance with certain predic
directly proportional toits speed. In one illus
tion data. whereby the signals transmitted by
trative ‘embodiment this generator may take the
synchro-transmitters 3 I, 33 will correspond to the
form of a Barber-Colman #412 reversible alter
position of the target at the future instant of im
nating current motor. This motor has an ener
pact by the projectile. The prediction data to be
gizing winding 89 and a two-phase winding 9| ,
allowed for may include time of ñight of the pro
93, all iixed. The rotor 95 is of the squirrel cage
jectile, super-elevation, wind velocity, air density,
'type It has been discovered that such a motor,
The actual time of night t is determined by the
range and altitude of the target. If the sight, and
_therefore the gun, is tracking at an angular ve
locity w, _then the angular lead necessary to com
pensate the gun for time of night t will be at.
Since the speed generator I9 rotates at a speed
proportional to the tracking speed, its output
tentiometer 29 is wound linearly (that is, with
constant resistance per unit length) the angle be
tween point |20 and arm |2| will then be exact
ly proportional to the total prediction volta ze.
This angle is also the angle through which shaft
25, and hence differential 2|, has turned. Ac
cordingly, the prediction voltage is thus trans
formed into the required lead angle, and the posi
voltage will be proportional to u. In order to ob
tion transmitted by synchro-transmitters 3|, 33
tain a voltage proportional to wt, we use a poten
tiometer |05 connected across the output of the 10 will be compensated for the required prediction
speed generator. The full generator voltage is
It is obvious that any change in-any of the
assumed to correspond to maximum time of night.
prediction voltages will cause an immediate and
This determines the proportionality factor be
corresponding change in the position of the pre
tween the voltage corresponding to the lead angle
and the time of night. For-any other time of 15 diction motor, so that the correct lead angle 1s
night, the tap |01 ofv potentiometer |05 is adjusted
always set intodinerential 2|.
so that only a fraction of the vgenerator voltage,
equal to the actual time of night divided by max
imum time of night, is effective. In this way, a
Lead ||9 may be connected directly to center
point |20 of prediction potentiometer 29. instead
of to center point |I9 of transformer III, as
voltage proportional to wt is obtained and the 20 shown in Fig. 3, without changing the operation
proportionality is maintained both for varying
of the device.
angular velocities of sight I and for varying times
Fig. 4 shows an alternative control circuit for
' of night. This voltage across the effective por- .
the device of Fig. l, using unidirectional control
, tion of potentiometer |05 is connected in series
and prediction voltages instead of alternating
with other prediction voltages, connected to ter 25 voltages as in Fig. 3. The method of operation
minals |09. which represent the other factors to
is quite similar.
be’compensated for. These other prediction volt
Defiection of, or pressure on, control handle ||
ages may be obtained in any suitable manner.
generates alternating control voltages in pick-up
Of course, each of these other prediction voltages
coils 61, 69. These voltages are rectified in full
is made proportional to its required lead angle 30 wave rectifiers |21, |29 and are then connected
by the same proportionality factor as used for
time of flight prediction. Hence, the total volt
age represents, with a proportionality factor, the
total lead angle necessary. Fig. 3 shows the
means for positioning prediction motor 21 at this
total lead angle in response to the prediction
in series opposing relation.
The dotted arrows
near coils 61, 69 indicate the relative polarities
of the voltages induced in the coils 61, 69. In
place of rectiiiers |21, |29, any phase-sensitive
rectiner or demodulator may be used. The coils
61, 69 are connected in series opposition to form
the input of such a demodulator. A suitable de
Prediction motor 21 is mechanically coupled as
modulator circuit is shown in Fig. 6.
by shaft 25 to prediction potentiometer 29. This
The resultant direct voltage from the rectiners
potentiometer 29 is connected across transformer 40 |21, |29 (or -demodulator of Fig. 6) is applied to
I | I, which in turn is energized by current of line
the input of D. C. amplifier I3I, wherein it is am
frequency from source 13.
A rate amplifier I I3, which may be of any well
known type which yields an output voltage con
plified. The output of D. C. amplifier |3| is con
nected in series bucking relationship to the out
of speed generator I9', whose function and
taining time derivative components of the input 45 put
operation is the same as that of speed generator
voltage, of the first and/or higher orders, as well
I9 in Fig. 3. However, generator I9' is a D. C.
as amplified input components, has one input ter
generator, either with a permanent magnet field
minal ||5 connected to terminal `I0!! of the pre
or a field winding, energized by direct current, as
diction voltage input. The other terminal |09 is
connected to one terminal |01 of the time of night 50 will be described. Of course, the voltage ouput
of generator I9’ must be directly proportional to
potentiometer |05, whose other terminal |06 is
' connected by lead ||0 to the center tap I I9 of the
secondary of transformer III. The other input
terminal ||1 of rate amplifier ||3 ls connected
to the movable arm I2| o'f the prediction poten
tiometer 29. .The output of the rate amplifier I I3
its speed.
The combined direct control and speed gener
ator voltages are applied to modulator |35, which
transforms the applied direct voltage into an al
ternating voltage of proportional amplitude, and
of a phase corresponding to the polarity of the in
put. That is, the A. C. output voltage of modu
lator |35 reverses phase when the D. C. input
ergized directly from the supply line 13. Rate
amplifier ||3 may include any phase shifting cir 60 voltage reverses polarity. Fig. 5 shows a suitable
circuit which may be used as such a modulator.
cuits needed to insure phase quadrature between
The operation of this circuit will be later ex
the voltages supplied to windings |23, |25 of motor
is connected to one winding |23 of two-phase pre
diction motor 21, whose other winding |25 is en
When arm |2| of potentiometer 29 is at its
The output of modulator |35 will be an alter`
center point |20, the voltage difference between 65 nating voltage whose phase corresponds to the di
rection of denection of control handle II and
points |20 and ||9 is zero, and the only voltage
whose amplitude is proportional to the ampli
applied to the input IIS, ||1 of rate ampliner ||3
tude of the control handle denection. It will be
is the total prediction voltage. This voltage, op
understood that certain cases may require that
erating through rate ampliner H3, will cause pre
diction motor 21 and potentiometer arm |2| to 70 this proportionality be not strictly observed.
Any suitable relationship may be used. This out
turn until the voltage between center point |20
put is fed into an'A. C. amplifier and phase shifter
and the new position of arm |2| of potentiometer
0|, 83 similar to that in Fig. 3, whose output con
29 is equal and opposite to the prediction voltage,
trols drive motor I1 as described above. 'Phase
whereupon the input to ampliner I|9 becomes
zero and the prediction motor stops. Since po~ 75 shifter 8| insures that the energization of field
winding 85 of drive motor | 1 is ln quadrature with
that of field winding 81.
Incorporated in the input circuit of modulator
preached. The only way in which the voltage
drop across resistor |48 can be maintained equal
to that across the effective part of potentiometer
|35 is the integrating circuit |31 for eñ’ecting ve
|53 is for the generator to continually increase
velocity to maintain constant charging current.
Hence control handle || becomes an acceleration
locity plus acceleration tracking control. This
circuit comprises a potentiometer |39 connected
across the speed generator output and having a
control in addition to a velocity control, as it is
movable arm |4| connected through a resistor
with the switches |43, |45, |5| in their voriginal
|42 to the ñxed contact of a single-pole single
throw switch |43. Connected across the two 10
From another point of view, the generator
fixed contacts of a single-pole double-throw
voltage V must be equal to the sum of the voltage
switch |45 is a condenser |41. One terminal of
drop across resistor |49 and condenser |41. That
this condenser |41 is connected to a terminal of
the speed generator |9’, while the other terminal
is connected to the movable contact of switch |43.
’l'he movable contact of switch |45 is connected
to one output terminal of D. C. ampliñer |3| and
where R is the resistance of resistor |49, c is
also to a resistor |49 whose other side is con
the capacitance of condenser |41 and i i's the cur
nected to the input terminal |38 of modulator I 35.
rent ñowing in the circuit. It is clear that V is
Resistor |49 is selected to have a high value of 20 proportional to the tracking speed s. Also, the
resistance, and to give a large time constant with
drive motor circuit causes the drop across re
condenser |41. A potentiometer |53 is connected
sistor |49 to be maintained practically equal to
across the output of D. C. amplifier | 3|, and a
the control voltage, which is proportional to de
switch |5| can selectively connect the input ter
flectìon D of control handle ||. Hence, iR is pro
minal |35 of modulator |35 to either the movable 25 portional to D, or i is proportional to D. Neglect
arm |55 or the fixed terminal |56 of potentiometer
ing proportionality constants, the above equation
|53. The three switches |5i, |43, |45 are me
may be transformed into
chanically ganged so as to be operated simul
In the switch position shown in Fig. 4, the cir
cuit will operate with straight velocity tracking;
‘that is. theV drive motor velocity will be propor
tional or will at least correspond to the control
handle deflection, as described above. In this
position, condenser |41 is charged through cur
rent limiting resistor |42 to a voltage somewhat
less than the generator voltage, by means of the
potentiometer |35. The time constant of the
charging circuit |42, |41 is made small so that
This last equation shows that the tracking con
trol has both a velocity and an acceleration com
ponent. That is, a constant deflection D will
give a certain constant component of tracking
velocity, as shown by the first term of _the right
side of the equation, and in addition will give a
constantly increasing tracking velocity compo
nent due to the integrating eiîect of the second
term. Hence the control handle becomes both
the condenser voltage will closely follow changes 40 a velocity and an acceleration control.
If the control handle |I is released, so that zero
in generator voltage. The charging voltage de
voltage appears across potentiometer |53, the
pends on the position of arm |4| of potentiom
motor will drop its speed until the generator volt
eter |33’.
age output equals the condenser voltage. There
When switches |43 and |45 are switched to
after the motor will travel at constant velocity;
their other positions, the voltage across condenser 45 if the velocity should change, charging or dis
|41 is placed in opposition to the generator volt
charging current from condenser |41 will flow
age, across resistor |49. The voltage across this
through resistor |49, whose voltage drop will con
resistor |49 will be the generator voltage less the
trol the motor to restore its speed. 'I'he drive
condenser voltage. This difference voltage will
motor can be made to slow down only by revers
be much less than the voltage across potentiom 50 ing the deflection of the control handle, which
eter |53, which at the Amoment of switching was
therefore acts again as an acceleration control.
substantially equal to the generator voltage. In
With zero control voltage, D becomes zero, so
order to prevent abrupt speed change of drive mo
that the iirst term of the equation disappears,
tor Il due to the excess of the voltage across po
leaving only the integration term. Hence, S will
tentiometer |53 over the voltage across resistor
be maintained constant at the value of the in
|49, switch |5| is actuated simultaneously with
tegrated term.
switches |43 and |45, and acts to reduce the
The importance of the combined velocity and
effective voltage output of D. C. amplifier |3| to a
acceleration control arises from the methods used
value nearer the difference voltage.
in tracking. When an object is sighted, it is de
Since the generator output voltage is greater
sirable to accelerate the sight to overtake the ob»
than the charged condenser |41 voltage, the gen
ject, and then keep it trained on the object. The
erator i9’ will tend to further charge condenser
present device permits such operation. Accelera
|41, through resistor | 49. The voltage drop across
tion is provided by control handle deflection,
resistor |49 produced by this charging current
the object may be overtaken, then re
must be substantially equal and opposite to the
lease of the handle || will permit the sight | to
voltage across the effective part of potentiometer
continue tracking at constant velocity.
|53; otherwise, the drive motor |1 will speed up
A further advantage arises where the sight may
or slow down so as to make the drop across re
be tracking by itself at the proper velocity, but
sistor |49 have a value equal to that across po
behind the object. Then deflection of the con
tentiometer |53. If control handle || is held in
trol handle will apply enough additional tracking
constant deflected position,~ a constant voltage
velocity, by the first term of the last equation, to
„ will be developed across potentiometer |53. How
enable the sight to overtake the object. Then re
ever, the voltage drop across resistor |49 will
lease of the handle will permit the sight to re
tend to decrease, since the charging current of
sume practically the same tracking velocity as
condenser |41 will decrease as full charge is ap 75 before, since the integration term of the equation
winding of speed generator |9' when an electro
magnet field is used for that generator. In this
way, since all the prediction circuit voltages are
derived from the same source, namely, source 13,
any iiuctuation in source voltage will have equal
proportional effect on all voltages, so that the
will be little affected by the brief period of in
crease'i velocity.
Another useful method of operation is to use
straight velocity tracking until the object is
sighted. Then throwing the ganged switch of
Fig. 4 to its other position will automatically
continue the same tracking velocity, with the
control handle at neutral.
Fig. 4 also shows a D. C. operated prediction
control circuit which is quite similar to the pre 10
circuit as a whole is independent of source volt
age ñuctuations. This arises from the fact that
the balancing voltage from potentiometer 29
varies in the same way as the prediction volt
ages, upon any change in supply voltage.
As in Fig. 3, potentiometer 29 is rotated until
diction voltage, which is proportional to the cor
.the voltage between its arm and its center point
rection angle needed for time~oi-flight correc
balances the total prediction voltage. This is
tion, is derived as in Fig. 3 from time-of-ilight
potentiometer |05 connected across the output of 16 done by connecting the total prediction voltage
and the potentiometer voltage in opposition
speed generator i9'. This voltage is now a direct
across the input of~ device |19, which includes a
voltage since the speed generator output is a direct
" diction circuit of Fig. 3. The time-of-ñight pre- ,
D.-C. ampliller, a modulator which converts re
The other- prediction voltages may be obtained
from a transformer |51 whose primary |59 is en
versible polarity D.-C. into reversing phase A.-C.,
20 and an A.-C, amplifier. The modulator may be
of the type shown in Fig. 5. Either or both the
D.-C. and A.-C. amplifier may include rate cir
cuits for insuring dead-beat and anti-hunting op
eration of prediction motor 21. Also, the A.-C.
for illustrative purposes only, as four in number.
Each secondary winding |6| corresponds to_ one 25 circuits in device |19 may include proper phase
shifting apparatus to cause the voltage output
prediction quantity to be compensated for. It
to be in quadrature with the voltage of line 13, to
will be clear that as many secondary windings
ergized directly lfrom the alternating supply
Transformer |51 has plural similar
secondary windings |6|, shown in this instance.
source 13.
insure proper operation of .two-phase prediction
motor 21. The operation oi’ this circuit is the
Each secondary winding |5| is shunted by a
centertapped resistor |63 oi' high resistance 30 same as that of Fig. 3. and positions shaft 25 at
the angle corresponding to the total prediction
value, and by a potentiometer |65. The variable
arm |61 of each potentiometer |65 is controlled
Fig. 5 shows a push-pull modulator circuit
in accordance with the value of the quantity for
suitable for use in the circuits of Fig. 4 as the
whichl prediction correction is required, in such
modulator |35. This modulator circuit converts a
fashion that .the voltage between each variable
reversing polarity D.-C. into a corresponding re
arm |61 and its corresponding centertap of re
versing phase A.-C. The direct input voltage is
sistor |63- is proportional, by the same propor
applied to input terminals |90, |8| and is amtionality factor, to the prediction angle needed
pliñed in conventional D.-C. amplifier |83, the
for correction of that quantity. This may be ac
complished by driving the arms of linear wound 40 amplified direct voltage appearing across center
tapped resistor |85. This ampliñed voltage is
potentiometers |65 from the mechanism which
applied in opposition to ythe two grids |81, |89 of
computes the required prediction angles, through
a twin-triode tube |9| by means of a center
cams which yield the required relationship, or by
tapped input resistor |93 whose center-tap |95
. using direct drive and non-linear wound poten
tiometers |65 which will also yield .the proper 45 is connected to cathodes |91, |99 of twin-triade
|9| by means of a. cathode bias resistor 20|. Grid
voltage-angle relationship. A suitable system is
current-limiting resistors 203 may be used to
shown. in Bond Patent 2,208,623. Any other
prevent excessive grid current, should any grid
means for obtaining these prediction voltages
may be'used as desired.
maybe used.
These prediction voltages are added by being 50
connected in series, as shown. lSince these volt
ages are derived from similar plural secondary
windings of the sa me transformer, their phase re
lationships will all be phase coincidence or phase
opposition, so that they may be added arith 55
metically to produce the required resultant pre
diction voltage. The resultant is applied to the
input of full-wave demodulator |69 by means of
transformer |1I. The circuit'of a suitable demodulator is shown in Fig. 6. The output of this 60
swing positive.
Anodes 205, 201 are connected to the outside
terminals of center-tapped resistor 209 in par
allel with one primary 2I| of output transformer
2|3. A source _of alternating current 223 of line
frequency is connected between the center taps
|95 and 2 I5 of resistors |93 and 209, respectively.
Let it be assumed that, for a particular polarity
of input voltage, grid |81 is positive with respect
to centertap |95 and grid |09 negative. Then, on
positive half cycles of the applied A.-C., anode
205 will have increased current, but anode 201
will have decreased current, compared to the cur
rent with zero input voltage to grids |01, |99.
tude corresponds to the amplitude of the input
On negative half cycles neither anode will con
alternating voltage and whose polarity corre
duct. Hence, a voltage drop of a particular po
sponds to the phase of the input voltage.
The output direct voltage from demodulator 65 larity appears across resistor 209, and only dur
ing positive half cycles of the supply voltage.
|69 is connected in series with the direct time-of
This voltage drop will give a half-wave output
ñight prediction voltage, as in Fig. 3, to give the
from transformer 2|3 of one particular phase.
total prediction voltage.
If the input polarity were to reverse, making grid
.The prediction potentiometer 29 has a circuit
|89 positive with respect to point |95, and grid
exactly the same as in Fig. 3, except >that D. C.
|81 negative, then, in the same way, anode 201
energization is'used. The energizing potential for
would have increased current, and anode 205
potentiometer 29 is obtained for alternating
decreased current. and again only on positive half
supply line 13 by means of full wave -rectifier
cycles of the applied A.-C. This would cause a
|13 having iilter choke |15 and filter condenser
|11. Choke |15 may be' replaced by the ileld 75 voltage drop to appear across resistor 209 of op
demodulator |69 is a direct voltage whose ampli
posite polarity, giving an output half-wave from
transformer 2| 3 of opposite phase from that of
the ñrst instance described. Thus, the phase of
the output voltage is sensitive to the polarity of
the input voltage.
or secondary winding, or both, may be tuned to
the frequency of the predominating A.-C. com
are negative.
ing in series with terminal 213. Either primary
ponent, which is twice the line frequency,
further by-pass condenser 211 is also used.
In order to provide a full-wave output, which
The input voltage to transformer 23| is of the
minimizes distorting harmonics, an exactly simi
same frequency as source 13, and is adjusted by
lar twin-triode 2| 1 is- used, with its input con
any suitable means to be cophasal (or anti-phas
nected in parallel with the input to twin-triode
al) with the voltage oi’ source 13.
|9I. The output of tube 2|1 is connected to a l0
Let it be assumed that the phase of the input
second primary 2|9 of transformer 2| 3 by a cir
to transformer 23| is such that, at a particular
cuit identical to that of tube |9I. The cathodes
instant of time to be considered, grids 231 and
of tubes |9| and 2|1 are connected together as
24-5 are positive with respect to their cathodes,
by conductor 22|, and their anodes are energized
while grids 239 and 243 are negative. Further
from the same source. However, the anodes of 15 more, let it be supposed that at this same in
tube |9| are energized in phase oppositionwith
stant, anodes 249 and 253 are positive with re
respect to the energization of the anodes of tube
spect to their cathodes, and anodes 25| and 255
This is accomplished by supplying both
tubes from source 13 by means-of a transformer
Then anode 249 will conduct, since both it and
225 having a center-tapped secondary. The cen 20 its grid are positive. Anode 25| will not conduct,
ter tap 221 is connected to the center-tap |95 of
being negative. Anode 253 will not conduct, its
input resistor |93, and the outer terminal of one
grid 243 being negative. Anode 255 will not con`
secondary section 223 is connected to the anodes
duct, being negative. Accordingly, a voltage will
of tube |9| by means of the center-tap 2|5 of re
appear only across resistor 251, making output
sistor 269, while the outer terminal of the’other
terminal 21| negative with respect to terminal
section 229 is connected in similar fashion to
the anodes of tube 2|1.
In the succeeding half-cycle from the instant
As a result of this connection, tube. |9| will
’ of time considered above, grids 231 and 245 will
conduct on half-cycles of the applied A.-C, of one
be negative, grids 239 and 243 will be positive,
polarity, while tube 2|1 will conduct on the half
anodes 249 and 253 will be negative and anodes
cycles of opposite polarity. As described above,
25| and 255 will be positive. Hence, only anode
the phase of the output voltage will reverse when
25| will conduct, the remaining anodes and/or
the polarity of the input voltage reverses. 'I'he
grids being negative. Again current will- be
device of Fig. 5 is therefore a full-wave modula
passed through resistor 251, and the same polar
tor suitable for use with the circuit of Fig. 4.
ity of D.-C. output will be obtained.
Fig. 6 shows a full-wave demodulator suitable
If the input to transformer 23| should reverse
for use with the circuit of Fig. 4. The reversible
phase, with respect to source 13, then, at one
phase A.-C. input is applied to the primary wind
instant of time grids 231 and 245 would be nega
ing of transformer 23| which has a center-tapped
tive, grids 239'and 243 would be positive, anodes
secondary winding having two sections 233, 235. 40 249 and 253 would be positive and anodes 25| and
'I'he voltage across section 233 is applied cophas
255 would be negative. Under these conditions
ally to grid 231 of twin-triode 24| and to grid
only anode 253 would conduct, yielding a D.-C.
245 of tube 241. The voltage across section 235
output of opposite polarity from that of the case
is applied cophasally to'grid 239 of tube 24| and
considered above.
to grid 243 of tube 241. Hence, the grids 231 and 45
On the succeeding half-cycle, all polarities
239 of tube 24| are energized in phase opposition
would reverse, and only anode 255 would conduct.
as are grids 243 and 245 of tube 241. Current
Accordingly, Fig. 6 gives a phase-sensitive, full
limiting resistors 203 may be used. The cath
ì wave rectiñer or demodulator, suitable for use in
odes of both tubes are« connected together and
the circuit of Fig. 4.
to the center tap of the secondary winding of
In Figs. 4, 5 and 6, .tubes |21, |29, |13, |83, ISI,
transformer 23|. It’v desired, a fixed bias voltage
2|1, 24| and 241 have been illustrated as being
may be inserted between points 234 and 240, or
of the twin or duplex type. It is obvious that
cathode bias resistors may be used in the cathode
_two separate single tubes could equally well be
circuits of the two tubes.
used. Also, tubes |83, |9I, 2I1, 24| and 241
The anodes 249 and 25| of tube 24| are ener
need not be of the triode type, as shown, but may
gized in phase opposition from the secondary 55 be of any type of amplifier tube incorporating
winding of a transformer 265 fed from the A.-C.
a control grid.
source 13.. The center tap of this secondary
As many changes could be made in the above
winding is connected to the cathodes by load
resistor 251, which is by-passed by ñlter con.. 60 construction and many apparently widely dif
ferent embodiments of this invention could be
denser 259. Anodes 253, 255 of tube 241 are en
made Without departing from the scope thereof,
ergized in similar fashion from transformer 261
it is intended that all matter contained in the
and have a similarly connected load resistor 26|
above description or shown in the accompanying
and ñlter condenser 263. Transformers 265 and
shall be interpreted as illustrative and
261 are so connected that anodes 2.49 and 255, 65 drawings
not in a limiting sense.
Whose corresponding grids are cophasally ener
Having described our invention, what we claim
gized, are energized in phase opposition. Also,
and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
anodes 25| and 253 are energized in phase oppo
- 1. A target tracking device comprising a sight,
motive means for rotating said sight, generating
Across load resistors 251 and 26| connected in 70
means driven by said motive means for generat
series, there is connected a filter circuit 269 for
ing a unidirectional voltage dependent on the
filtering out all A.-C. components, leaving only
speed of rotation of said sight, control means for
pure rectified D.-C. at output terminals 21|, 213.
generating. a. unidirectional signal voltage cor
This filter includes a choking transformer 215
to _a desired speed of rotation of said
having its terminal 21| and its secondary wind 75 sight, and means
for controlling the speed of ro
tation of said motive means by the arithmetic
duced in said pickup coils of amplitudes depend
ing on the position of said armature relative to
said coils, means for balancing the voltages in
duced in oppositely disposed pickup coils with said
diiIerence of said voltages, whereby said sight
will rotate at said desired speed.
2. A target tracking device as in claim 1, fur
ther comprising means for transmitting the ori Ul armature in its neutral position, and means for
connecting oppositely disposed pickup coils in
entation of said sight to a remote point, means
series opposition, whereby the resultant voltage
connected to the output of said generator means
output from each pair of pickup coils will rep
for obtaining a prediction voltage corresponding
resent by its phase and magnitude the sense
to a desired angular correction of the orientation
of said sight, and means under the control of said 10 and magnitude of the component of deflection of
said handle along the transverse axis of said pair
prediction voltage for compensating said orienta
tion transmitting means for said angular cor
of coils.
3. A target tracking device comprising a sight,
motive means for rotating said sight, generating
means driven by said motive means for generat
ing a speed voltage dependent upon the speed of
rotation of said sight, control means for gen
erating a signal voltage corresponding to a de
tilever carried by said support, a control handle
arranged on vsaid cantilever for displacement in
any transverse direction relative to said sup
port, the amount of displacement of said handle
obtaining a voltage corresponding to said speed
voltage, and means for controlling the speed of
control voltages corresponding to the direction
and magnitude of the pressure applied to said
7. A control unit comprising-a support, a can- I
thereby being dependent upon the magnitude
of pressure applied thereto, and means respon-.
sired speed of rotation of said sight, means for 20 sive to displacement of said handle for producing
rotation of said motive means by the algebraic
8. A control unit as in claim 7, wherein said
sum of said signal voltage and the difference be
tween said speed voltage and said obtained volt 25 voltage-producing means comprises a plurality of
magnetic poles ñxed with respect to said casing
age whereby said Ymotive means will continue to
and carrying coils energized by alternating cur
operate without signal voltage at a speed corre
rent, and a magnetic armature member ilxed to
sponding to said obtained voltage.
said control handle for motion therewith.
4. A target tracking device comprising a sight,
motive means for rotating said sight, generating 30
9. A target tracking device comprising a sight,
motive means for moving said sight, a control
handle mounted for deflection about a single
point, means responsive to deflection of said han
tation of said sight, control means for generating
dle for moving said sight in a direction corre
a signal voltage corresponding to a desired speed
of rotation of said sight, means for controlling 35 sponding to the direction of deñection of said
handle and at a speed corresponding to the mag
the> speed of rotation of said motive means by
nitude of deflection of said handle, means for
the arithmetic difference of said voltages, means
means driven by said motive means for generat
ing a voltage dependent upon the speed of ro
for transmitting orientation of said sight to a
remote point, means connected to the output of
transmitting the instantaneous orientation of
said sight to a remote point to control the orien
for causing the sight to continue tracking at sub
said generating means for obtaining a prediction 40 tation of a remotely situated gun, means to com
pensate the transmitted orientation for predic
voltage corresponding to a desired angular cor
tion data whereby the gun will be oriented to- '
rection of the orientation of said sight, and means
ward the future position of the target, and means
under the control of said prediction voltage for
means fory said angular correction.
45 stantially constant speed without deñection of
said handle.
5. A target tracking device as in claim 3, in
10. A target tracking device comprising a sight,
which said control means comprises a control
motive means for moving said sight in azimuth,
handle mounted in cantilever fashion for deflec
motive means for moving said sight in elevation,
tion about a single point, a magnetic armature
carried by said handle. two parallel magnetic 50 a control handle mounted for deilection in all
transverse directions about a ilxed point, means
paths bridged at one end by a magnetic mem
for controlling the velocity of said first motive
ber and at the other end by said armature, means
means in response to the component of deflection
for applying equal alternating magnetomotive
of said control handle in a predetermined direc
forces to said two paths. a coil linking each path,
whereby the voltage induced in each coil will 55 tion, means for controlling the velocity of said
second motive means in response to the com
depend upon the position of said armature, and
means for connecting said coils in series opposi
ponent of deiiection oi' said control handle in a
different predetermined direction, and means re
tion, whereby the voltage across both said series
sponsive to the speed of each of said motive
connected coils will reverse phase as the arma
ture passes through theposition yielding` 'equal 60 means for supplying signals to said control means
for operating said motive means in response to
coil voltages.
an integrated value. of its corresponding com
6. A control unit comprising a casing, a con
ponent of handle deflection.
trol handle fixed at one end within said casing
l1. A target tracking device comprising a sight.
for cantilever deilection with respect to said cas
ing, four pickup coils having their axesv parallel 65 motive means for orienting said sight, a control
handle mounted for deflection, means for pro
to the neutral undeñected axis of said handle
ducing a control voltage in response to deflection
and mounted equidìstant from said neutral axis
both radially and angularly, an energizing coil
mounted coaxial with said neutral axis, open
magnetic circuit means connecting said pickup
of said handle, means for integrating said voltage
over a period of time, and means for controlling
said motive means both by said integrated volt
age and by said control voltage.
coils with said energizing coil, a magnetic arma
12. A target tracking device comprising a sight.
ture carried by said handle and positioned to
complete said magnetic circuits, means for en
a control handle, a cantilever securing said han
ergizing said energizing coil from a 'source of
dle on said sight permitting relative displacement
alternating current, whereby voltages will be in 75 in any transverse direction, the amount o! dis
placement being dependent upon the magnitude
of pressure applied thereto, and means responsive
to pressure applied to said handle for moving said
sight in a direction corresponding to the direc
tion of said pressure and at a velocity correspond
_ing to the magnitude of said pressure.
13. A control unit comprising a casing, a eon~
prising motive means for moving said object, gen
erating means ‘operated by said motive means for
generating a iirst speed signal dependent upon
the speed of said object, means connected to said
generating means for producing a second speed
signal opposing said ñrst speed signal, control
means for producing a control signal, and means
for controlling the speed of said motive means
according to the algebraic sum of said control
trol handle mounted in cantilever fashion with
respect to said casing for deñection in any radial
direction with respect to the axis of its unde 10 signal and the difference between said speed
' flected position, a stabilizing reference surface
rigidly mounted on said casing and adjacent to
19. A control system for a movable object com
said handle ina position yto be used by an oper
prising motive means for moving said object, gen
ator as a reference with respect to which said
erating means operated by said motive means for
handle may be deflected, said surface and said 15 generating a ñrst speed signal dependent upon
handle being formed to conform to the contour
the speed of Ysaid object, means connected to said
of the hand of the operator whereby precise and
generating means for producing a second speed
steady neñection of said handle may be obtained,
signal opposing said ñrst speed signal, a com
and means responsive to arbitrary deflection of
bining circuit connected to said generating means
said handle for producing voltages each corre
and said last-named means for combining said
sponding in polarity and magnitude to the sense
speed signals in opposition, control means for
and magnitude of a component of said deñection
producing a control signal, and means connected
in a predetermined direction.
to said combining circuit and said control means
14. A control system for a movable object com
for controlling the speed of said motive means.
prising motive means for moving said object,
20. A control system for a movable object com
generating means for generating a speed signal
prising motive means for moving said object,
dependent upon the speed of said object, control
generating means operated by said motive means
means for producing a control signal, and means
for generating a ñrst speed signal dependent upon
for controlling the speed of said motive means
the speed of said object, a condenser connected
according to the diiïerence between said control
to said generating means for producing a second
signal and the time derivative of said speed
speed signal in opposition to the signal from said
generating means, control means for producing a
15. A control system for a movable object com
control signal, and means for controlling the
prising motive means for i moving said object,
speed 0f said motive means according to the alge
generating means for generating a speed signal ' braic sum of said control signal and the diner
dependent upon the speed of said object, a dif
ence between said speed signals.
_ a
ferentiating‘network connected to said generat
21. A control system for a movable object com
ing means for obtaining the time derivative
prising a motor fdr moving said object. a gen
thereof, control means for producing a control
erator driven by said motor for producing a ñrst
signal, and means connected to said differentiat 40 speed signal dependent upon the speed of said
ing network and said control means for control
object, a condenser connected in series with said
ling the speed of said motive means according
generator, an impedance connected in parallel
to the difference between said control signal and
with said series circuit. control means for pro
said time derivative signal.
ducing a control voltage, and means for control
16. A control system for a movable object com 45 ling the speed of said motor according to the alge
prising a motor for moving said object, a gener
braic sum of said control voltage andthe voltage
ator driven by said motor for generating a speed
across said impedance.
signal dependent upon the speed of said object,
22. Tracking apparatus comprising a sight, a
a condenser and resistance network connected to
motor for turning said sight, a generator driven
said generator for differentiating said speed sig 50 by said motor for producing a ñrst speed voltage
nal, „a control device for producing a control
dependent upon the speed of said sight, means
signal, and _means for controlling the speed of
connected to said generator for producing a sec- _
said motor according to the difference between
ond speed voltage in opposition to said first speed
said control signal and said differentiated signal
voltage, control means for producing a control »
17. A target tracking device comprising a sight,
voltage, and means for controlling the speed of
motive means for rotating said sight, generating
said motor according to the algebraic sum of said
means driven by said'motive means for generat
control voltage and the difference between said
ing a voltage dependent upon the speed of rota
speed voltages.
tion of said sight, control means for generating
23. A tracking control comprising a controller
a signal voltage corresponding to a desired speed
of rotation of said sight, means for controlling
the speed of rotation of said motive means by
the arithmetic difference between said voltages,
means for transmitting the orientation of said
sight to’a remote point, means connected to said
generating means for obtaining a prediction volt
age corresponding to a desired correction of the
orientation of said sight, and means controlled
by said prediction voltage for oiïsetting said ori
and a driven object, motive means for rotating
the latter. a generator driven by said means pro
ducing a voltage proportional to the rotary speed
of said object, means at the controller produc
ing a voltage proportional to a desired speed of
said object, other means deriving a voltage cor
responding to said generator voltage, and means
for opposing said generator voltage by said de
rived voltage whereby said motive means will
maintain its speed for a time without a controller
entation> transmitting means relative to said 70 voltage.
sight in accordance with said correction whereby
the desired corrected orientation is transmitted
by said transmitting means.
18. A control system for a movable object com
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