Jan. 14, 1947. ' J. SVKAMBORIAN 2,414,104 FORCE LASTED. SHOE WITH TOE STIFFENER Filed Oct. 31, 1944 Y s Sheets-Sheet 1 1220622307’ @‘Mozz'arv Lay @zr?w f Jan. 14, 1947. ,1. s'. KAMBORIAN - 2,414,104 FORCE LASTED S'QHOE VIITH2~£EOE§T1FFENER ' Filed Oct. 31.51944 " " 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Jan. 14, 1947; > ' J,‘ 5; KAMBQRIAN 2,414,104 _ Fonvcls LASTED SHOEVWIT‘H TOE STIFFENER Filed Oct‘. 31, ‘1944 ‘ ' I s SheetsI-Sheet s layer @626 Ji?k'zméanmrv Patented Jan. 14, 1947 ' 2.41.4,104 , UNITED STATES I _ Parapr- .orrl‘cs' . A] 2,414,104 ' ‘ _ FORCE LASTED SHOE WITH TOE STIFF ENER Jacob S. Kamborian, West Newton, Mass.‘ ‘7 _ Application October 31, 1944, Serial'No‘. "561,282. ‘ '12 Claims. v_ (or. sell-‘19.5) This invention pertains to force-lasted or‘Cali-' In accordance with the present inventiom'the fornia type shoes, and relatesfmore particularly upper of the shoe may-be provided with a stiffener: ‘ to a novel shoe‘and to a novel method of making a at .either en‘d—fo_r example it may have a box‘ at the, toe‘, or a counter at. the ,heel, or both as may be‘ desired. As illustrated; the, toe sti?ener 2 iscut to the proper shape and dimensions'in _‘ such shoes. . Heretofore the introduction of'end .stiffeners (toe boxes and counters)‘ into such shoes has been attended with di?iculty, and by far the t ' greater proportion of shoes of this'type are made accordance'withvusual practice, providing suf-v ' flcient marginal material for its attachmentlto. the ‘ without end stiifeners, although. the provision; ’ sock lining as hereinafter ‘described; and the' of such sti?eners would in many cases enhance it counter 3 is likewise in generalof conventional form and dimensions, but also hasgsu?icient mar the appearance and Wearing qualities of the shoe. - The principal objector ‘the present invention ginal allowance'for its attachment to the sock.‘ is to provide‘a novel mode of procedure whereby liningg The toe stiffener 2 and the heel‘stifi'enerv a toe box or counter,‘ or both, may readily 'be 3 are made of,_suitable material ‘which- is‘prefer- ‘ introduced during the course of manufacture and 15 ably initially quite soft and ?exible; for example without necessitating any radical departure from textile‘fabric, either} plain-or impregnated-with‘ prior practice in making shoes of this type.v A‘ appropriate substances to imparts-the required further object is_ to provide a novel and useful stiffness to. the ?nished shoe andfrwhichrifinot method whereby an end stiffener may be inter initially pliable, is‘ made to become; sogjitempoaw ‘ posed between the lining and'outer element of 20' textile rarily, fabric, justbefore‘oriduring paper stock or other lasting._qInsteadPof suitableflbrous .; > the shoe upper. ‘Other and further vobjects and advantages of the invention will be pointed out‘ material‘ may be used, impregnated, for- example, .1 in the following more detailed- description and with some‘ resin waterproo?ng compound.substancesuch One. desirable mate-' as'an »~ by reference to the accompanying“ drawings‘, - ‘' asphaltuor wherein ~ ' 25 ing rial offor for ‘the comprisingiyarns stiffener-ls a textilefabricponsiste which maybe made ' i \ Fig. 1 is a plan view of a-sock lining such as employed in shoes ofthetype to which the inven- I tion relates; , a . ' . t t - to become adhesive or cementitious, by, suitable‘ . ' ‘treatmen’gfor instance. recurrent yarns (ofl'elther 6. . Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic section on the line 2-2 the warp yarns,.'weft§yarns, or both)’ of vthe tax-F" to tile fabric; befrnade from cellulose acetate " Fig.‘ 3 is a diagrammatic plan view of‘ a toe or other ‘ft Vrmoplastic resin,which,.‘when‘ sub?" stiffener or box’ useful in the practice of'th'e vjected‘to proper treatment,- forexampleiby mois- : - 1 \ present invention; ‘ ' ‘ tening- with .a proper solventand/or by'~treat-»~" .ofFig.1;r I Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic plan view of a heel ‘ ment with heat and pressure become temporarily > w . stiffener or counter'useful in the ‘practice of the .35 adhesive. ‘ on the. other hand the end stiffeners. ' ‘3 ~ present invention; ' r > instead of having the adhesive or cementitious ~ Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic,‘longitudinal section‘ I material incorporated .in them, maybe provided through the sock lining showing both‘ end stiff-v eners Fig. secured 6 is a view thereto. similar to' Fig. 5 but showing the shoe upper assembled with and attached to the? sock lining; . r ' with a 'coating?'ofsuch material on one or both‘ . - sides.‘ _In any .event the cementitious material 14o, ‘should belsuch“ thatwhen the‘ stiffener isv ?rs - ~ incorporated in the'y'slhoethe adhesive material is ‘ inert,_that is tolsayi not tacky, although having" the inher?ntncapabilityi of becoming adhesive whenfhea'tedt or lotherwise properly treated as ‘ Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. 6, but showing the parts after introduction of the last into the 45 abovelsuggestedh “ .‘ , l . .Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section showing the com-fr ‘5 ' Havingfprepa'red the:s0ck.lining and one or pleted shoe with the last still in the upper; sh‘iboth of'the end stiffeners, the'lower edge of each Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 6 but illustrating 7 ‘end stiffener to be ‘used. is’ secured‘to the corre a modified procedure; ‘ " "spp'ndipg'feiidgof [the sock lining‘ by a sewed seam Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic bottom plan view of?‘ "I or 5.4; respectively (Fig. 75) or. by other appro the parts shown in Fig. 9; and ' .-' > theFig. shoe 11 parts is a view‘ after‘similar the introduction to Fig. 9 but of the showing last. priateiastening elements,.for' example staples. "Preferably",~ the initial dimensions of each. stiff- : ener element 2 or 3 is such that its upper edge is ' Referring to the drawings, the numer\a.l___l_\de_s; ‘_ " _;o,f_;less length, when initially attached to the ignates a sock lining of the generaltype cus- " sock dining than it is in the completed shoe, the tomarily employed in force-lasted shoes and, , material being;capab_le of stretching to'some ex; which is usually of'thin,‘?_exib1e sheet'materiahl ; ‘?tent when subjected to sui'licient force. “ for example’thin leather, textile fabric or a com? The shoe upper, as-illustrated in Fig. 6, com "bination of textile fabric ‘with other material, prises a vamp portion 8 and a quarter portion ‘I. for example paperQintegrated or impregnated .60 . The vamp and quarter may be of customary form with suitable binding or stiffening material. / appropriate to the particular style of shoe being . 1 "2.114.104 4 madafor example, they maybe integral; or they may be‘ separate pieces. or‘ material united by: seams or- they may be entirely separate. leaving: sock lining, the scam I 0, here, referred to as an example-of means for attaching the upper to the sock lining, may be started at a convenient point, for instance at the shank portion of the shoe, a sap at the shank or waist portion of; the shoe ' Preferably. in. ordentomsure lucashaping. atthe the’ stitches passing through both elements of ~ toe. and’ particularlrwhena toestiifener is 9.51;?" . plored. themaraln‘of- the the- upper. -However when the seam reaches a portion of the. vamp point 2|! (Fig. 10) corresponding to the rear end is crimped or otherwise contracted so as. to. pro of the toe, stiffener at that side of the shoe, the lining is pulled rearwardly to form a loose flap vide an inwardly concave toe end. There is also provided wrapper- means, here 7 - asshown at 2| (Fig. 9) and so as to escape the shownas comprisine two independent wrapper stitches. of seam/l0, the latter then penetrating strips]: and 0 desisned to-he securedto the vamp ' portion and‘ to the. quarter I portion. respectively. ' the outer-ply. l 6. only of- the upper and continuing of the shoe upper. the wrapper elements being so arranged that their. endszlt the shank-portion; of‘the shoe overlap. ‘However it, is,c0ntemp1ated,: in accordance with‘ other common; practice, that the wrapper. may‘ be. continuous, consisting of a singlepiece of material; extending‘ all the way aroundthe shoe. The wrapper. may be attached, 20 -to theedge of the upper before theupper is assembled with the other parts... or it may. be along, around the; toe of the shoe to unite the toev element. l8, to the sock lining until the point 22 is reached, whereupon the stitches again are caused to pass through both the outer element l8 and the lining ply I 8 of the vamp. The seam continues on until it reaches, the point 23 at the forward corner .of the counter, at which point the lining is pulledinwardly to form a. loose ?ap 24 (Fig.v 9), the- seam continuing around the heel and of the shoe but securing only they outer ele ment, l6 to the ‘sock lining until the point 25 is reached at the .opposite corner of the counter,‘ attached simultaneously with-the attachment Off the upperito another part, for instance thesock lining, or in, fact the wrapper-may. be an integral, 25. beyond which the seam continues, uniting both extcnsionpftheupperitself. Whatever the type > inner and outer‘ plies of the upper to the sock of employed. thelower edge of the up per is securedllto the marginof the sock- lining by a seam" org‘seains .llv and H, such seamsusually lining. ' _ The operator may now push the flaps 2| and also extendingethrough .the edge of the wrapper. 3.0 24 inwardly toward the ends of theshoe, it being noted that the toe and heel ends of the lining While'sewed seams; are desirable, it is contem are out without lasting allowance, and after sub plated‘that staples may besubstltuted- After the mittingthe stiffener elements to the treatment upper‘. has‘ been assembled- withv and attached to. necessary to make them adhesive, the last L is .the sock lining, the end sti?ener or stiifeners. are} inserted, thus forcing the flaps of the lining ?rm subjected to ‘appropriate treatment to cause them. 35 ly-into engagement with the respective end stiff to become temporarily:adhesiveand, the last L eners and. adhesively integrating the lining, stiff -is forced into the shoe-upper (F18. '1),-the last being'of. such sizeand dimensions (as. respects ener, and outer element of.the upper at each inner surface of the, upper so asto cause adhe sion of .the, stiffener and: upper. The. last. L re mains in. the upper‘long- .enough1to permit the cordance with the present process the preliminary attachment of theend stiifeners to the sock lin end of the shoe, The other steps in completing the size of theshoe-upmi') that-when-it is forced into the upper it expands the upper’ and holds 40 the shoe follow those above described with ref erence ‘to the construction shown in Fig. 8. the latter'in fully distended condition so that it It is thus possible to provide a force-lasted firmly. and closelyv hugs. the woodof the last. shoe with a to'eror heel stiffener element but In thus introducing the last into the upper,v the without substantially departing from the usual stinener‘el'ement?or elementais or; are caused: to steps in making a force-lasted'shoe and without conformeiothe corresponding end portion of the unduly adding to' the cost of production. In ac last and to be'.pressedjvery- ?rlnly, against the ing, as above described is an operation which is very easy to perform and one which in fact may 50 be performed by unskilled operators, but never manentlyto unite the stiffener and‘ upper and adhesiveelern'ent of the upper toset so as per thus to. impart a. permanent lasted shape? to, the end of the shore. The wrapperis now turned downwardly as shown. in Fig. firthecushion sole I! with its heel wedge ill (Fig. ,8) is, disposed in adhesivevcontact with the under- surface of the socklining; the; lower- marginsv lljand" ll! of the wrapper members, are-turnedinwardly. be neath‘ the cushion . sole, and adhesively united to theless, in‘ the completed shoe, the end stiffener is properly positioned and imparts a true lasted shape and desirable stiffness to the shoe upper. While certain desirable embodiments of the in vention have been illustrated by way of example it is to be understood that'the invention is broad ly inclusive of any and all modi?cations which fall within the scope of the appended claims. the latter, and the outer sole-B is, securedin '60 Iclaim: ’ 1. That method-of making-a force-lasted shoe place, for example, by adhesive. Theylaste may which comprises as steps providing a soft, ?exi now be withdrawn, and the shoe-?nished‘ in» ac cordance with usual practice. , _ ' V A slight modi?cation is illustrated in Figs.‘ 9 to 11, inclusive, the only substantial difference being that, in these views-‘the vamp portionof" the upper isv shownas comprising anouter'ply 1. ble sock lining, providing an end stiffener, secur ing the lower edge of the stiffener to the edge of the corresponding portion of the sock lining, 65 providing an upper and a wrapper, securing the lower edge of the upper and the edge of the wrapper to the edge of the sock lining, causing I‘ and a liningply ll‘ while. the quarter portion the end stiffener to become adhesive, introducing has the outer ply l1 and a lining ply ll, the lining being united'at itstop edge to the outer 70 a last into the upper and retaining the last in the upper until the adhesive of the stiffener has portions of‘ the upper in conventional manner; As described with reference talks I to 8; the 2. That method of making a force-lasted shoe end. sti?eners 2 and 3' are first; secured‘ by the seams 4v and I- tothe sock lining.- During the' which comprises as steps, providing a soft, ?exi ble sockv lining, Providing an end stiffener, the attachment or the margin of the upper to the end stiffener being initially non-cementitious but set. ‘ ‘ > 5 2,414,104 being inherently capable of becoming cementi tious, the upper end or the stiffener being ini 6 forming the seam, turning back the lining ply at that end of the shoe at which the stiffener is tially less in length than in the completed shoe, located so that the 'edge portion of the lining ply ” securing the lower edge of the stiffener to the is not caught into the seam, causing the stiffener lower end of the corresponding end of the sock 5 to become adhesive, and introducing a last into lining, providing an upper and a wrapper, se curing the lower edgeof the upper and the wrap per to the edge of ‘the sock lining, introducing a last into the upper and causing the stiifener to‘ the upper thereby moving the turned back por tion of the lining into contact with the inner sur face of the stiffener, and subjecting the latter to pressure thereby adhesively to integrate the lin become adhesive, the last being forced into the 10 ing, stiffener and outer ply of the upper at the upper with su?icient pressure to expand the stiiT ener and press it into intimate adhering contact I with the upper, and maintaining such pressure until such stiffener and upper are permanently’ adhesively united. 3. That method ‘of making a shoe of the force lasted type which comprises as steps providing endof the'shoe. = - 8. That method of making a force-lasted shoe which comprises as steps providing a thin, ?exible sock lining, providing an upper including an outer ply and a lining ply, providing a counter and a toe stiffener, securing the lower edges of the counter and toe ‘stiffener .to the margins of the corre a soft, ?exible sock lining, providing an end stiff» sponding end portions of the sock lining, attach ener, securing the lower edge of the stiffener to ing the lower edge of the upper to the margin of the edge of the corresponding end portion of 20 the sock lining by fastener elements which pene the sock lining, providing an upper and a wrap trate both the lining and outer ply of the upper per, securing the lower edges of the upper and except at the ends of the shoe where said fas wrapperrespectively to the edge of the sock lin tener elements penetrate the outer ply only, leav ing, causing said stiffener to become adhesive, ing the lining ply iree, causing the counter and and causing the adhesive sti?ener to adhere to toe stiffener to become adhesive, and introducing the upper. a last into the shoe, the last being of such size 4. That method of making a shoe of the force a soft, ?exible sock lining, providing an end relatively to the shoe size as to distend the upper and forcibly to press the end portions of the lin ing into contact with the surlaces or the counter stiifener, securing the lower edge of ‘the stiffener to the edge of the corresponding end‘portion of and toe stiffener, respectively, and adhesively to integrate the end stlneners, lining and outer ply the sock lining, providing an upper and a wrap per, securing the lower edges of the upper and at the end of the shoe. 9. That method or making a force-lasted shoe which comprises as steps providing a sort, ?exible sock lining, providing an end summer, the end stiiiener including a substance which initially is lasted type which comprises as steps providing wrapper respectively to the edge of the sock lining, causing said stiffener to become adhesive, applying internal pressure to the end stiifener thereby to expand it and force it into close and substantially non-adhesive but is inherently ca intimate contact with the upper, and maintaining pable or becoming adhesive, securing the lower such pressure until the adhesive has set. edge of the stihener to the margln DI the end of 5. That method of making a force-lasted shoe 40 the sock lining, providing an upper, sewing the which comprises as steps providing a soft, ?exi lower edge OI the upper to the marginal portion hie sock lining, providing a toe sti?ener of sheet of the sock lining, causing the adhesive to become sticky, and introducing a last into the upper material, the stiffener, including a substance thereby pressing the stiffener into adhering en which initially is ‘non-adhesive but which is in herently capable of becoming adhesive, sewing gagement with the end portion or‘ the upper. the lower edge of the sti?ener to the edge of the 10. A iorce-lasted shoe of the kind in which a toe end of the sock lining, providing an upper sock lining, an upper and a wrapper are united having a crimped and inwardly concave toe end, by fastening means, the upper comprising a lin ing and an outer ply, the lining being Iree from sewing the lower edge ‘of the upper ‘to the mar ginal portion of the sock lining, causing the toe 50 said Iastening means at the end or the shoe, and an end stiriener having its lower margin united stiffener to become adhesive, ‘and introducing a last into the upper thereby forcing the toe stiff by said fastening means to the sock lining, said ener into adhering engagement with the toe por stiiiener being interposed between the lining and tion of the upper. outer ply of the upper. 6. That method of making a force-lasted shoe 11.. A Icrce, lasted shoe of the class described which comprises as steps providing a soft, flexible comprising a sock lining, an upper, a wrapper sock lining, providing a counter of sheet ma ‘and, at one end, a stiifener, said upper compris terial, the counter including a substance which ing an outer ply and. a lining, tile stlliener oelng initially is non-adhesive but which is inherently interposed between the outer ply and the lining capable of becoming adhesive, sewing the lower - edge of the counter to the heel end of the sock lining, providing an upper, sewing the lower edge of the upper to the marginal portion of the sock lining, causing the counter to become adhesive and‘ introducing a last into the upper thereby [forcing the counter into adhering engagement with the heel portion of the upper. 7. That method of making a force-lasted shoe of the upper, the wrapper and the lower edges or‘ the stln'ener and 01' the outer ply or the up per being united by iasten-lng means to the sock lining at ‘that end, and the lining of the upper at that endbeing i'ree irom such iastemng, means. 12. A force lasted shoe of the class described. comprising a sock lining, an upper and, at one end, a stin'ener, said upper comprising an outer ply and a lining,the stinener being interposed be which comprises as steps providing a thin, flexible , tween the outer ply and the lining OI the upper, sock lining, providing an upper including an outer the lower edges or .the stirtener and of the outer 70 ply and a lining ply, providing an end stiifener, ply of the upper being united by fastening means securing the lower edge of the end sti?ener to to the sock lining at that end, and the lining of s the margin of the corresponding end of the sock the upper at that end being free from such fas lining, attaching the lower edge margin of the upper to the sock lining by a seam and while tening means. JACOB S. KAMBORIAN.