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M, 947u
CJH. MARTIN
TRACTOR-CONVEYED VIMPIJEHWÉNT AND HITCH THEREFOR
Filed May 13, 1942
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TRACTOR-CONVÉYED IMPLEMENT AND HITCH THEREFOR
Filed May 13, 1942
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TRACTOR-CONVEYED IMPLEMENT AND HITCH THEREFOR
Filed May 13@ 1942
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CHARLES H. MART/N
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HARR/J K/EcH, FOJTER d HARK/5
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FIRM
A fro/uvam
2,414,114
Patented Jan. 14, 1947
UNITED STATES PATENT lori-'ICE
2,414,114
TRACTOR-CONVEYED IMPLEMENT AND
HITCH THEREFOR
Charles H. Martin, Huntington Park, Calif., as
signor to Howard B. Rapp and Sally Rapp, co
partners doing business as Towner Manufac
turing Co., Santa Ana., Calif.
Application May 13, 1942, Serial No. 442,825
19 Claims. (Cl. 97--50)
l
Z
My invention relates to a device conveyed by a
tractive vehicle, and a hitch for connecting such
the implement is reduced to a minimum value and
device to such vehicle, and, since it finds particu
lar utility embodied in an implement such as an
offset disc harrow conveyed by a tractive vehicle,
such as a tractor, the objects and advantages of
my invention will be described in connection with
such embodiment, it being understood that my in
applied where it diminishes to the least extent
the traction of the tractor. More specifically, it
is an object of my invention to provide such- an
implement and hitch mechanism which include a
linkage presenting the most favorable leverage
` for the transmission of the upwardly directed
vention is not restricted to an offset disc harrow
force upon the tractor by the implement during
the lifting of the implement whereby such force
or an implement or a hitch construction therefor
is reduced to a minimum and to apply this up
adapted for connection to a tractor.
wardly directed force at the maximum distance
from the rear or traction wheels of the tractor
Control devices have been combined with trac
so that the component of such force exerted upon
tors for the purpose of automatically controlling
the rear wheels is of minimum value.
the depth of cut of an implement drawn by the
When a disc barrow is operated offset from the
tractor and for the purpose of elevating it for 15
tractive vehicle by which it is conveyed, side draft
transportation in an inoperative position. Linli
« forces substantially at right angles to the longt
ages have been provided for connecting such a
tudinal edge oi’ the tractor are applied tothe
tractor and such a control means to an imple
tractor, tending tc cause it to turn in the direc
ment, and such linkages have met with some suc
cess when applied to such implements as plows. 20 tion in which the harrow is oi’fset. These side
draft forces are very substantial and, if exerted
However the problem of providing a satisfactory
through the linkage ordinarily employed for con
offset disc harrow and hitch for connecting it to
necting a tractor with an automatic control and
such a tractor and such an automatic control
an elevating means, render it extremely laborious,
means involves many problems not presented by
an implement such as a plow and its connection 25 if not impossible, for 'the operator to convey the
harrow in a straight line;
to such a tractor and means.
It is an object of my invention to provide a
An odset disc harrow should be made of sub
barrow and a hitch for connecting it to a tractor
stantial weight in order to insure penetration of
and its control and elevating means, ,in which
its discs in the ground to the desired extent. The
automatic control means and elevating means of 30 such side draft forces exerted upon the tractor
are reduced to their minimum and resisted by
those tractors most commonly used with the
mechanism other than the lin‘irage from the har
hitches heretofore employed provide insufficient
row to the depth control and elevating means.
force to properly control the depth of cut or to
Likewise, in the operation of a disc harrow in
elevate to transporting position an offset disc har
row of the desired weight.
35 offset position there is a tendency for the harrow
to rotate about its horizontal longitudinal axis
It is an object of my invention to provide an
and to apply to the linkage connecting the im
offset disc harrow and a hitch for connecting it
plement to the control and elevating means of
to a tractor and to the control and elevating
the tractor, forces most substantial and destruc
means thereon, which includes a linkage pre
senting the most favorable leverage whereby the 40 tive. The hitch mechanisms employed with such
tractors and implements other than harrows are
minimum force is required for such means to
control the depth of cut of theharrow and to
unable to overcome these forces, with the result
move it to transporting position.
that the harrow is not caused to penetrate the
lground at the same depth at both of its ends.
As the control and elevating means of the trac
tor lift the implement which the tractor conveys
1t is an object of my invention to provide a
disc harrow and a hitch mechanism for connect
and which is trailing the tractor, there is of
ing it to a tractor and the control and elevating
course an upwardly directed force exerted upon
the tractor. If this force is directed upon the
means thereon, which provide the most favorable
tractor adjacent the rear or driving Wheels
leverage possible for the resistance of such forces,
thereof, the traction of the tractor is diminished. 50 whereby the implement is caused to cut to a uni
form depth without imposing destructive stresses
It is an object of my invention to provide an
upon the hitch mechanism or implement.
implement and a hitch mechanism for connecting
It is still another object of my invention to
it to a tractor and a control and elevating means
provide an implement of the class described and
thereon whereby the upward force directed upon
the tractor by the implement during the lifting of 55 a hitch for connecting it to a tractor and itsocon
3
2,414,114
trol and elevating mechanism by which the tend
ency of the harrow in offset operation to cause
the tractor to turn from a straight path .is over
come and, more specifically, to accomplish this
purpose by varying the relative pressures of con
tact of the front wheels with the ground.
In offset disc harrows of conventional con
4
weight much greater than, and located at a
greater distance from the tractor than, the weight
of implements such as plows. In order for the
depth control means of tractors designed for op
eration with such implements as plows to oper
ate eñiciently conveying a disc harrow, it is neces
sary to modify such means to make allowance
struction drawn by a tractor with control or ele
for the increase in such weight and moment.
vating means, the frames of both the front and
It is accordingly an object of my invention to
rear gangs of the harrow are at an angle with 10 provide in an implement and hitch therefor
each other and at an angle other than 90° with
means for modifying the depth control mech
the longitudinal axis of the tractor. As the de
anism of a tractor to counteract the increase in
gree o1' offset of the harrow on either side of this
weight to be elevated by such mechanism when
longitudinal axis is varied, the distance between
an implement such as a plow is removed there
the implement and the harrow is therefore like 15 from and a disc harrow is attached thereto.
wise varied. lf the variation of degree of offset
Embodiments of my invention capable of per
of a harrow connected to a tractor and control
and elevating mechanism thereon various the
forming these objects and providing these ad
vantages and others are described in the foldistance between the harrow and the implement,
lowing specification, which may be better under
the force which must be exerted by the control 20 stood by reference to the accompanying drawings
and elevating means to maintain a desired depth
in which:
of cut or tolift the harrow varies Widely for dif
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a harrow
ferent positions of offset of the harrow. To secure
and hitch of my invention conveyed in opera
automatic and uniform control of the depth of
tive position by a tractor;
out of the harrow and uniform elevation of the 25
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the harrow and hitch
harrow upon the application of uniform force by
illustrated in Fig. 1;
the elevating mechanism, numerous complicated
Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of the same
adjustments of such mechanism would be neces
harrow and hitch with the harrow in its trans
sary for each change in degree of offset of the
porting position;
harrow.
30
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary perspective view of a
It is an object of my invention to provide an
portion of the hitch of my invention;
implement of the class described and a hitch
Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary elevational
for connecting it to a tractor and control and
view, partially in section, of the means of my
elevating mechanism thereon by which the de
invention modifying the automatic depth con
gree of oiTset of the harrow may be varied on 35 trol and lifting means of the tractor;
either side of the longitudinal axis of the tractor
Fig. 6 is a front elevational view taken as in
without varying the distance between the imple
dicated by the arrow 6 of Fig. 1;
ment and the tractor parallel to such axis.
Fig. 7 is a modified form of harrow and hitch
Still another object of my invention is the
of my invention in operative position;
40
provi-sion of such an implement and hitch by
Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken as indicated
which the two gangs of the harrow may be easily
by the line 8-8 of Fig. 7;
and quickly shifted relative to each other.
Fig. 9 is a sectional view taken as indicated
Still another object of my invention is‘the pro
by the line 9-9 of Fig. 8;
vision of an oiïset disc harrow which operates
Fig. 10 is a front elevational view taken as in
to out a furrow on both sides of the harrowed 45 dicated by the arrow Ill of Fig. 7; and
strip, whereby none of the harrowed earth is
Fig. 11 is a plan view of a portion of the hitch
discharged upon the unharrowed ground.
illustrated _in Fig. 7.
Still another object of my invention is the pro
Referring to the drawings, which are for illus
vision of an offset disc harrow and a hitch for
trative purposes only, and particularly to Figs.
connecting it to `a tractorand the control and 50 1 to 4, the numeral 2| indicates a tractor, illus
elevating mechanism of the tractor, whereby the
trated in broken lines. The tractor 2| includes
implement and hitch may be quickly and easily
a frame 22, a front axle 23 with front wheels 24
attached to and detached from the tractor and
mounted thereon, and a rear axle 25 with trac
such mechanism.
tion wheels 26 mounted thereon and driven
Another object of my invention is the provision 55 through suitable mechanism by the tractor en
of an oifset disc harrow and a hitch of the char
gine.
acter described, which includes means for vary
The hitch and implement of my invention illus
ing, either during travel of the harrow or when
trated in these figures may be employed with au
the harrow is stationary, the depth of cut of the
tomatic depth control and elevating mechanisms
discs of one gang relative to the depth of cut 60 of various kinds. In the drawings I have illus
of the discs of the other gang to overcome the
trated a control and elevating mechanism such
forces which would be exerted upon the tractor
as disclosed in Patents No. 2,118,180 and No.
by the harrow in offset position if the discs of
2,118,181 of H. G. Ferguson. This mechanism in
both gangs penetrated the ground to the 'same
cludes a cylinder 21 to which iiuid under pressure
depth.
,
65 is supplied through a line 28 from a source of
The automatic control and elevating means
supply, such as a pump driven by the engine.
customarily employed on tractors with imple
The flow of fiuid through the line 28 is controlled
ments other than harrows are not required to lift
by a manually actuated valve 29, which also con
weights comparable with the weight of an offset
trols the passage of fluid from the cylinder 2l
disc harrow. “This is for the reason that such 70 through a pipe 30 to a suitable storage tank.
implements as plows have a tendency to ride
Mounted for reciprocation in the cylinder 2l is
out of the ground and elevate themselves. The
a piston 3| connected by a piston rod 32 to one
rear gang of an offset disc harrow rigidly con
end of a lever 33 pivoted at 34 intermediate its
nected to the front gang overcomes this tend
ends. The lever 33 on the opposite side of the
ency of the front gang and comprises a dead 75 pivot 34 is bifurcated to provide two arms 35,
2,414,114
each of which is pivoted to the upper end of a
pull rod 36, the lower end of each rod being
swingably mounted upon an elevator lever or'
link 31. Each of the links 31 is pivoted at its
forward end to the frame 22 forwardly of the
shaft >64 is provided with a crank 65 at its upper
end, and its lower end is threaded into a sleeve
66 connected to a bracket 61 pivoted to a lug 68.
The lug 68 is mounted upon a plate 69 secured by
a bolt 16 to a rear transverse member 1| of a
front frame 12 of a drag device or trailing device
in the form of a two-gang disc harrow 13. A
plurality of openings 14 are provided along the
control mechanism which, as best illustrated in
Fig. 5, includes a telescoping valve member 4||
rear transverse member 1|, so that the plate 69
mounted for telescoping movement between a 10 may be secured at a plurality of positions along
this transverse member 1|.
portion 4| of the frame 22 and a bell crank 42
The front frame 12 includes end members 15
to which one end of the valve member 40 is
and 16 angled to provide parallel portions nor
secured. A compression spring 43 is mounted
around the valve member 40 with one end bear
mal to a shaft 11 connected thereto. The snaft
ing against the frame portion 4| and the other 15 11 is at the desired working angle with the path
end abutting a collar 44 mounted on the valve
of travel of the implement. The endv members
member 4|). The spring 43 resists the collapsing
15 and 16 are connected by the rear transverse
movement of the valve member 40. One arm of
member`1| and a front transverse member 18.
the bell crank lever 42 is pivoted at 45 to the
The transverse member 18 is in the form of an
tractor 2|, andthe other arm is pivoted at 46 20 angle and is adapted for nesting in the angle 58
previously described. The angles 58 and 18 are
to one end of a link 41. The other end of the
link 41 is pivotally secured to a yoke 48 adjacent
provided with a plurality of openings in their
vertical legs for the reception of bolts 19, ,so that
its upper end.
When an implement of conventional construc
the front frame. 12 may be secured to the angle
tion and weight, for which the draft control 25 58 in numerous positions of offset or directly
mechanism 39 is designed, is secured to the lower
behind the tractor 2|.
end of the yoke 48 and the link 31, the valve
Mounted upon the shaft 11 for rotation thereon
member 48 operates to automatically provide fluid
are a plurality of discs 89 separated by spacing
spools 8|.
under pressure to the cylinder 21 when the draft
force necessary to draw such an implement ex 30
Attached to the front frame 12 is a rear frame
ceeds a predetermined value. This‘supply of
82 which includes a front transverse 'member
fluid to vthe cylinder 21 rotates the arms 35 of
~ 83 in the form of an angle, the vertical leg of
the lever 33 forwardly, thus urging the rear
which is adapted for being clamped to the ver
ward ends of the links 31 upwardly to lift the
tical leg of the rear transverse member 1| of
implement and diminish its resistance to for
the front frame 12 by bolts 84 passing there
through. A plurality of openings 85 for the
ward movement, while at the same time impos
ing a portion of the weight of the implement
bolts 88 are provided in the legs of both the
upon the rearward end of the tractor 2| and
transverse members -1| and 83, so that the rear
frame 82 may be moved transversely to any de
increasing its traction.
l
The mechanism hereinbefore described and 40 sired position relative to the front frame 12 and
its operation are disclosed in the Ferguson pat
secured thereto. The rear frame 82 includes
also a rear transverse Vmember 88 in the fnrm
ents hereinbefore referred to.
rear axle 25.
\ The numeral 39 indicates an automatic depth
in accordance with my invention the rearward
ends of the links 31 are not secured to an im
of an angle and end members 81 and 88.
The end member 81 is secured to the rear transf
plement but are pivotaily secured by pins 49a to 45 verse member 86 at right angle thereto and to
return bars 49, which extend forwardly to adja
the front transverse member 83 at an obtuse
angle, the end member 88 connecting‘the oppo
cent the connection of the rods 36 to the links
31. The forward ends of the return bars 49 are
site ends of these transverse members and `being
provided with a portion 89 at right angle to
secured between a crossbar 50 and a transverse
shaft 5l. Metal straps 52 are secured to the ends 50 the rear transverse member 86. Connecting the
portion 89 of the end member 88 and the end
of the transverse shaft 5| and are connected at
member 81 is a shaft 90 upon which are rotatably
their rearward ends to a stirrup member 53. The
mounted a plurality of discs 9| held in their
ends of the transverse shaft 5| and the forward
proper spaced relationship by spools 92. The
ends of the metal straps 52 are attached to brack
et members 54, which are secured to longitudinal
shaft 98, like the shaft 11, makes an angle equal
to the desired working angle with the transverse
members 55 of a lever or sub-frame 56.
The rearward ends of the stirrups 53 are piv-'
members 83, 1|, and '18. A suitable working
angle may be of the order of 20°.
‘
oted between lugs 51 carried by a front frame con
nection 58 in the form of an angle. The angle
The lower ends of the longitudinal members
58 is adapted Ifor attachment to the transverse 60 55 of the subframe 56 are attached to the stirrup
member of a front gang of a two-gang disc harrow
member 53 and extend forwardly to adiacent the
front axle 23 where they are connected by a
in a manner which will be described.
Adjacent its center, the angle 58 is provided
transverse bar 91. A transverse brace 98 con
with forwardly extending lugs 59 to which the
nects the longitudinal members 55 near their for
lower ends of arms 69 of the yoke 48 are pivoted.
ward ends and a cylindrical pin 96 attached to
the brace 98 at its center extends through the
The yoke 48 includes the arms 6|), which converge
upwardly, and a transverse brace 6| extending be
transverse bar 91 and forwardly of a plate 99
tween them adjacent the lugs 59. The arms 69
attached by arms |00 to the frame 22 of the
are provided with a plurality of aligned openings
tractor 2|. The plate 99 is attached by bolts IDI
62 for the receptiòn of a bolt 62a to connect the 70 to a rearward plate |92 having transversely elon..
gated openings 93 for the reception of .the bolts
link 41 to the yoke 48 at various levels.
|0| to permit the transverse adjustment of the
Pivoted between th'e upper portion of the arms
6|] is a bearing 63. 4A s'haft 64 is rotatably mount
plates 99 and |02.
p
’
Secured to the rearward plate |02 are de
ed in the bearing 63, so that it is restrained
against axial movement relative thereto. The 75 pending lugs |03 connected by pins |94 and |05
2,414,114
upon each of which there is mounted a roller
|06 of hourglass form. The rollers |05 are
spaced to receive between them the pin 96 to re
strain motion of the pin 96 and the forward
part of the subframe 56 transversely relative
to‘the tractor frame 22, while permitting the
subframe 56 to move longitudinally relative to the
frame 22.
The spring 43 of the automatic depth control
mechanism 39 customarily employed upon such 10
tractors is made of such resistance to deforma
tion as to be compressed sufñciently to auto
matically lift the attached implement. This
automatic lifting of such a conventional imple
ment results from the increased resistance to
forward motion of the implement, urging the
link 41 forwardly, compressing the spring 43, and
telescoping thevalve member 40 to supply fluid
under pressure to the cylinder 21 and thus
through the lever 33 and rods 36, vlifting the 20
links 31 and attached implement- upwardly.
In the event that the weight of the implement
attached to the tractor 2| and the automatic
depth control mechanism 39, or the moment ‘of
such implement exerted upon the depth control 25
pression spring ||0 retained in place between the
plates |01 and |09 by an inwardly extending pro
jection or boss ||0a provided upon each of them.
A nut ||2 is threaded upon the pivot pin |08
against the plate |09, so that the plate |09 is
caused to compress the spring 43 suñìciently to
compensate for the increased weight of the har
row 13 over the weight of the conventional im
plement for which the depth control mechanism
39 is designed. While the compensating mech
anism of my invention has been described with
specific reference to a disc harrow attached to
the tractor and the automatic depth control
mechanism of the tractor, it will be understood
that this compensa-ting mechanism may with
equal advantage be employed in connection with
any pulling device having thereon an automatic
depth control or lifting mechanism and in con
nection with any trailing device which is of great
er weight than, or exerts upon the automatic
depth control or lifting mechanism a moment
greater than, the weight or moment of the trail
ing device for which the control or lifting mech
anism is designed or any trailing device which,
although of approximately the same weight and
mechanism is greater than the Weight or such
exerting approximately the same moment upon
moment of the conventional implement for which
the control or lifting mechanism as the trailing
the depth control mechanism is designed, it is
device for which such control or lifting mecha
necessary to apply a compensating force to the
nism was designed, offers less resistance to for
spring 43 although the implement offers a re 30 ward motion than the device for which the con
sistance to forward motion substantially equal
trol or lifting mechanism was designed.
to the resistance to forward motion of such a
The harrow being in the operative position il
conventional implement penetrating the soil to
lustrated in Fig. 1, draft force is applied to the
the same depth. Likewise, in the event that there
harrow through the transverse shaft 5l, straps 52,
is attached to the tractor 2| and the depth 35 stirrup member 53, bracket member 54, subframe
control mechanism 39 an implement of substan
56, and lugs 51, which may be regarded as draft
tially the same weight as such a conventional
means. When this draft force necessary to pro
implement, but which, due to its type of con
pel the harrow increases as the harrow passes over
, struction or means of attachment to the tractor
softer ground, the links 31 swing upwardly and
or depth control mechanism, offers less resist 40 through the yoke 48 4and the link 41 moves the
ance to forward motion when penetrating the
valve member 40 to a more collapsed position,
soil to the desired maximum depth than such
thus supplying fluid under pressure to the piston
an instrument of conventional construction, it
21. This fluid forces the piston 3| outwardly,
is necessary to apply a compensating force to
swinging the arms 35 of the lever 33 forwardly
the spring 43. This compensating force is of
and pulling the rods 36 and the links 31 upwardly,
such value that the spring 43, under these vary
the lever 33, rods 36, and links 31 and 41 con
ing conditions, will permit movement of the
stituting an elevating linkage, and the return
telescoping valve member 40 to automatically
control the depth in the same manner as when
bars 49, crossbar 50.1transverse shaft 5|, straps 52,
stirrup members 53, and lugs 51 constituting a
such a conventional implement is employed.
50 first linkage, and the yoke 48, bearing 63, shaft 64,
Due to the fact that the harrow 13 is of consid
sleeve 66. and bracket 61 constituting a second
erably greater weight than such a conventional
linkage, .the two linkages together constituting a
implement for which the depth control mecha
linkage connecting the implement to the power
nism 39 is designed, it is necessary to compensate
lift mechanism so that the implement may be
the spring 43 by compressing it an amount which
drawn by the tractive vehicle and lifted by the
is a function of such difference in weight. The
power lift mechanism. The upward movement
automatic depth control mechanism thus far de
of the links 31 causes the harrow to be elevated
scribed is provided with a compensating mecha
to penetrate the ground to a. lesser depth, thus
nism ||| adapted for compensating the spring 43
when there is attached to the depth control mech 60 reducing the draft pull necessary to propel it to
that predetermined value determined by the re
anism _an implement of greater weight or one
sistance
of the spring 43 opposed by the spring
offering less resistance to forward motion than
| I0 to the collapsing of the valve member 40. The
such a conventional implement.
lifting of the implement imposes upon the trac
This mechanism |I| includes a plate |01 hav
ing formed thereon a bracket |01a secured to the 65 tor .2| a part of the weight of the implement, in
creasing the pressure of the rear wheels 26 against
I tractor 2| by bolts |01b. The plate |01 has
the ground and thus increasing the traction of
mounted thereon a pivot pin |08 projecting rear
the tractor.
When harder ground is encountered and the
mounted upon the pin |08 and is provided with 70 draft pull necessary to propel the tractor has di
legs |09a projecting around the valve member 40
minished below the predetermined value for
in contact with the rearward side of the collar
which the springs 43 and I I0 -are set, the spring 43
444 The legs |0911 are urged forwardly, and the
urges the plate |09 rearwardly, moving the valve
uper end of the plate |09 is urged rearwardly by
member 40 to extended position and permitting
' an auxiliary pressure means in the form of a com 75 the harrow to be lowered by gravity relative to the
wardly therefrom substantially parallel to and
above the valve member 40. A plate |09 is loosely
2,414,114
`
10
»
tractor to penetrate the ground to a greater
tractor 2| to be exerted to greater extent upon
depth.
the right front wheel than upon the left front
The front frame 12 and the rear frame 62 of
the harrow 13 being rigidly connected together
and the front frame 12 being lifted and lowered
substantially vertically by this automatic depth
control operation, the two frames 12 and 82 are
maintained in substantially the same plane
through the elevation and lowering.
wheel, thus overcoming the tendency of the har
row to turn to the right. Suchen upward force is
directed by the pin 96 as a result of the tendency
of the weight of the barrow 13 to rotate the for
ward end of the subframe 66 upwardly whenever
any of the weight of the narrow is supported by
the tractor. By such a transverse movement of
When it is desired to elevate the disc barrow 10 the point of application of this upwardly directed
13 from its operative position illustrated in Fig. 1
force, the side draft or transverse forces resulting
from the operation of the harrow in any degree
to its transporting position illustrated in Fig. 3,
of offset can be completely overcome by the
the control lever 29 is actuated by the operator
manipulation of the crank 65, as previously de
from his place on the tractor to cause iiuid under
pressure to be admitted to the line 28 and cylin 15 scribed, while securing any desired depth of pene
der 21, moving the piston 3| outwardly and swing
tration of the discs.
Inasmuch as the return bars 49, crossbar 56,
ing the arms 35 of thelever 33 forwardly. This
and transverse shaft 5| cause the weight of the
harrow 13 to be applied to the links 31 immedi
upwardly.
.
20 ately adjacent the connection of the links 31 to
The front frame 12, being connected to the
the rods 36. instead of at the ends of the links
A31 which are at a distance from such points of
transverse shaft 5|, and through the yoke 48 and
connection substantially equal to the distance
link. 41 to the tractor, is thus moved upwardly,
and the rear frame 13, being rigidly connected to
between such points and the pivoted ends of the
the front frame 12, is likewise elevated so that 25 links 31 and cause the transverse frame members
18 and 83 always to remain at right angles to
the discs 30 and 9i of the two frames remain in
substantially the same plane. When it is de
the longitudinal axis of the tractor, thus permit
sired to lower the disc harrow 13 to its operative
ting the center of gravity of the harrow 13 to
position, it is necessary only for the operator
be as close as possible to the tractor, itv will be
»to manipulate the control lever 29 so that the` 30 seen that the implement and hitch of my inven
tion provide a linkage by which an implement of w
fluid under pressure in the cylinder 21 is per
mitted to iiow through the outlet line 36 to the
the maximum weight may be lifted with the ap
storage tank of the system, whereupon the weight
plication of the minimum force through the rods
36. Such features permit an implement, such as
of the disc harrow 13 causes it to descend to a
depth of ground penetration predetermined by 35 the disc harrow 13, to be elevated either to vary
its depth of cut or to transport it in inoperative
the setting of the automatic depth control mech
anism 39.
position with the minimum power from the ele
If at any chosen depth o'f penetration or degree
vating mechanism.
Whenever any of the weight of the barrow 13
of offset of the disc harrow 13 relative to the
longitudinal axis of the tractor 2| the operator 40 is carried by the tractor 2|, an upwardly directed
finds that the narrow is exerting any side draft
force is exerted upon the tractor, since the barrow
13 is suspended behind the tractor. This up
or transverse forces upon the tractor, they are
, readily overcome by his manipulation of the crank
wardly directed force is applied by the pin 96 at
35 operating connecting means which includes
a point substantially ln alignment with the front
the yoke 48, bearing l63, shaft 64, sleeve 66, and 45 axle 23. The application of this force at such
point provides a lever arm of maximum length,
bracket 61. Thus, when the disc harrow 13 is
offset to the right of the tractor 2|, looking in
since this point is spaced as far forwardly as
the direction ci travel, if there is any tendency
possible from the points of connection of the
for the side draft o-r transverse forces of the
rods 36 to the links 31. The implement and
harrovv upon the tractor to cause the tractor to 50 hitch of my invention therefore apply the up
veer to the right, this tendency may be overcome
wardly directed force resulting from the lifting
by rotation of the crank ‘65 in such direction as
of the implement with the greatest possible me
to lengthen the distance between the lug 68 and
chanical advantage, so that such force is of the
the yoke 43 to thus permit fthe rear gang to
minimum value.
penetrate the ground to a greater depth. Such 55
This upwardly directed force, if applied adja
deeper penetration increases the side draft or
cent to the rear wheels of the tractor. would have
transverse forces applied by the disc harrow 13
a component or moment tending to lift the rear
to the tractor 2|, tending to cause it to veer
wheels of the tractor and impair the traction of
to the left, resulting in an equilibrium of such
the tractor.
forces, permitting the tractor to follow a per 60
From the foregoing it will be seen that the im
fectly straight course without special attention
plement and hitch of my invention reduce to a
from the operator.
‘
minimum the component of such upwardly di
Such side draft or transverse forces may be
rected force which is applied to the rear wheels,
overcome also by adjusting the relative positions
impairing their traction. by exerting this force
of the plates 99 and |02 to move the point of 65 as near `>as possible to the front ‘wheels of the
attachment of the subframe 56 transversely/on
tractor.
the tractor 2|. This is accomplished by loosen
The side draft forces applied to the tractor
ing the bolts ißi and moving the plate |62 later
by the harrow in operation are applied to the
ally and securing it in its desired position by the
links 31 and rods 36 adjacent their connection
bolts lili. Thus, if the side draft or transverse 70 with each other instead of at the ends of the
forces exerted by the harrow in offset position
links 31, so that the moment of these forces
upon the tractor tend to cause the tractor to
tending to cause the front wheels to change their
veer to the right, the rearward plate |02 is moved
direction of travel is greatly reduced. Further,
to theA right of itscentral position. This causes
these- side draft forces are resisted by the rigid
the upward force exerted by the pin 96 upon the 75 subframe 56 reinfo’rced against deformation.
exerts tension on the rods 36 and causes the links
31, crossbar 50, and transverse bar 5| to swing
l1
9,414,114
Since the forces applied to the tractor, result
ing from the tendency of the harrow in opera
tion to rotate about its longitudinal axis, are
applied throughA the long subframe 56 instead of
through the much shorter lengths of the depth
Gearsv |20 _and |2| are disposed within the hous
ing ||3 and mesh with the racks ||8 and H9.
respectively, and with each other. The gear
|20 is rotatably mounted upon a pin |22 which is f
secured in the housing ||3.A The gear |2| is non'
control and elevating mechanism. it will be seen Y rotatably mounted upon a shaft |23 which has
that my invention reduces the effect of such
secured thereto a driving gear |24. A worm gear
forces upon the tractor to a minimum.
|26 is mounted upon a shaft |25 in the housing
When it is desired to move the harrow 'I3 to
||3 for rotation by a flexible shaft connected
ofl'set position, it is necessary only to remove the 10 thereto and extending through a flexible conduit
-bolts ‘I9 and move the front frame 12 laterally
|25a to a hand wheel |20 mounted upon the
relative to the angle 56 and again connect them
tractor 2| within reach of the driver.
by the bolts 19 and in a similar manner shift the
With the construction describedthe driver of
connection of the plate 69 to the rear transverse
the tractor may by rotation of the hand wheel
member 'Il of the front frame 12. _ Because the
"|28 rotate- the worm gear .|26, thus driving the
front transverse members 18 and 83 of the frames
driving gear ' |24 and causing the shaft |23
‘l2 and 82 are at all times at right- angÍles to the
to rotate. The rotation of the shaft |23 causes
longitudinal axis of the tractor> 2|, the move
the meshing ygears |20 and |2| to rotate in oppo
ment of the harrow 13 to a positionof any degree
site directions, and these gears, meshing with
of offset and movement of the frames relative 20 the racks ||8 and IIS, travel along the racks in
to each other do not change thedistance between
the same direction and at the same rate of speed.
the center of gravity of the harrow 13 and the.
A’s the housing moves transversely of the tractor
control mechanism of the tractor 2I,_so that the
2| the rollers ||1 roll along the transverse brace
force required to elevate the implement to vary
|20, retaining the housing ||3 parallel to the
its depth of cut or to move it to transporting 25 longitudinal axis of the tractor 2| during its
position remains constant for all of its positions of
travel. In this manner the driver of the tractor
offset and al1 of the relative positions of the two
may, during travel of the tractor, alter the point
gangs.
»
at which forces are applied by the subframe 56
When it is desired to disconnect the implement
to the tractor.
and hitch of my invention from the tractor, it is 30' Whenever the disc harrow 13 is moved vertically
necessary to remove the pins 49a from the links
relative to the 'tractor 2| in the embodiment of
31 and to remove the bolt connecting the link 41
my invention illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6, there is
to the yoke 48, whereupon the tractor may be
longitudinal movement of the subframe 56 caus
driven forwardly until the pin 96 is moved out of
ing the pin 96 to move longitudinally upon the
contact with the rollers |06. It will be apparent 35 rollers |06. In the embodiment of my invention
that the implement and hitch of my invention
illustrated in Figs. 7 to 11, however,'the forward
may be again attached to the tractor 2| with equal
end of the subframe 56 is restrained against longi
facility. The compression of the spring 43 by the
tudinal movement relative to the tractor 2|.
plate |09 due to the action of the spring ||0
In this form of my invention horizontal movecounteracts the effect upon the action of the spring 40 ment of the harrow during its vertical movement
43 resulting from the excess of the weight of the
relative to the tractor 2| is `permitted by providing
harrow 13 over the lighter implement custom»
an elongated opening |21 in each of the return
arily employed with the depth control mecha
bars 49 for the reception of the pin 49a connecting
nism 39, so that it operates with this greater
it tothe link 31~ The movement of the pins 49a
weight in the same manner that it operated with 45 in the elongated slots |21 permits a relative hori
the lesser weight.
zontal movement of the links 31 together with
In Figs. '1 to 11, inclusive, which illustrate an
the
tractor 2|, to which they are connected, and
other embodiment of implement and hitch of my
the return bars 4l together with the subframe 56
invention, also capable of performing the objects
to which they arotonnected.
and providing the advantages hereinbefore `set 50 While the harrow illustrated and described as
forth, like numbers are employed to indicate ele
an illustrative embodiment of my invention is a
ments like those illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6 and
two-gang
disc harrow, it will be apparent that my
previously described.
.
invention may with equal facility be applied to
In this embodiment of my invention draft force
and employed with a multiple-gang disc harrow.
is applied to the disc harrow 13 at the front end
While those embodiments of my invention here
of the subframe 56 instead of through the return
inbefore illustrated and described are fully
bars 49, the subframe 56, bracket members 54.
capable of performing the objects and providing
stirrup member 53, straps 52, transverse shaft 5|,
the advantages hereinbefore stated, there arc
and lugs 51 acting as draft means. The trans
various other embodiments likewise capable of
verse bar 91a passes through a housing ||3
60 performing these objects and providing these
through which a transverse member ||4 also ex
advantages, and I therefore wish my invention
tends with its ends connected by hangers H5 to
to be understood as not restricted to the specific
the frame 22 of the tractor 2|. The housing ||3
embodiments hereinbefore described.
extends rearwardly of the transverse member 91a
and is provided with rearwardly extending shafts 65 I claim as my invention:
1. Means for hitching a trailing device to a
H6. A roller ||1 is secured upon each of the
pulling device, which includes: draft means for
shafts ||6 for rotation relative thereto. The
coupling the two devices together; and vmeans
rollers ||1 are hourglass in form and spaced to
manually operable by the driver of the pulling de
receive between them a transverse brace |29 which
vice during travel of such devices and adapted for
is connected to the longitudinal members 55 of
70 varying the elevation of the rearward end of the
the subframe 56.
trailing device relative toits forward end and the
The transverse bar 91a is provided with a rack
pulling device.
||8 which projects forwardly therefrom. A simi
2. In a hitch for connecting a trailing device
lar rack ||9 is provided on the transverse mem
having forward and rearward ground-engaging
ber ||4 and projects rearwardly therefrom. 75 members
to a tractlve device, the combination of :
2,414,114
14
13
draft means for coupling the two devices together;
connecting means variable in length connecting
-the trailing device to the tractive device and
adapted on variation in length for varying the
relative pressures of contact with the ground of
the forward and rearward ground engaging mem
bers; and means operable by the driver of the
tractive device during travel of the devices and
adapted for varying the length of said connecting
means.
3. In a hitch for connecting a disc harrow in
cluding a. front gang of discs and a rear gang
- against transverse movement while permitting its
longitudinal movement relative to the tractor,
whereby the weight of the forward portion of the
tractor is applied in opposition to the lifted weight
of the implement.
8. In a hitch for connecting an implement to
a tractor having a power lift mechanism actuat
ing elevator levers for lifting the implement, the
combination of : a linkage connecting the elevator
10 levers to the implement adjacent its sides, where
by the implement may be drawn by the tractor
and elevated by the lift mechanism; a rigid
frame including two longitudinal members rigid
ly connected to said linkage and extending for
linkage for lifting the harrow, the combination
of: draft means connecting the harrow to the 15 wardly therefrom; and means connecting said
linkage, whereby the harrow is drawn in opera
frame to the tractor, whereby the weight of the
forward portion of the tractor is applied in oppo
tive position; connecting means connected to the
sition to the lifted weight of the implement.
linkage and to the harrow at a point spaced from
of discs to a tractor provided with an elevating
9. In a hitch for connecting an implement to
'the connection of said draft means to the har
row, said connecting means including a member 20 a tractor having elevator levers pivoted to the
tractor and pull rods connected to such levers
adapted for movement relative to said draft
and a power lift mechanism for lifting the im
means, whereby the rear gang may be moved
plement, the combination of: a‘ñrst linkage con
vertically relative to the front gang; and means
necting the elevator levers adjacent their con
for moving said member, whereby the relative
values of the side draft forces of the front and v25 nection to the pull rods to the implement; and
means connecting the tractor to the implement
rear gangs are varied.
v
including a second linkage connected to the
4. In a hitch for connecting an implement to
implement rearwardly of its connection to said
a tractor having a power lift mechanism for lift
first linkage.
ing the implement, the combination of: a linkage
10. In an offset disc harrow and hitch for con
connecting the implement and mechanism, where- 30
nection to a tractor having a power lift mecha
by the implement is drawn by the tractor and
nism connected to elevator levers for lifting the
lifted by the mechanism; a lever rigidly connected
harrow and an automatic depth control lever re
to a part of said linkage and extending forward
sponsive to variationsl in draft for actuating such
ly therefrom; and means connecting said lever
to the tractor, whereby the weight of the for 35 mechanism, the combination of: a rear gang of
discs; a front gang of discs; means connecting
ward portion of the tractor is applied in opposi
said gangs rigidly together; a first linkage con
tion to the lifted weight of the implement.
necting the forward portion of said front gang
5. In a hitch for connecting an implement to a
to said elevator levers adjacent their connection
tractor having a power lift mechanism for lifting
the implement, the combination` of: a linkage 40 to the lift mechanism; means connecting the
tractor to said gangs including a second linkage
connecting the implement and mechanism,
connected to said gangs rearwardly of the con
whereby the implement is drawn by the tractor
nection of said first linkage; and means oper
and lifted by the mechanism; a lever rigidly con
able independently of the lift mechanism for
nected to a part of said linkage and extending
forwardly therefrom; and means connecting said 45 varying the relative depth of cut of the discs of
the said gangs by varying the effective length of
lever to the tractor, whereby the weight of the
said second linkage.
forward portion of the tractor is applied in op
11. In an offset disc harrow and hitch for con
position to the lifted weight of the- implement,
nection to a tractor having a power lift mecha
said means being adjustable for moving such con
50 nism connected to elevator levers for lifting the
nection transversely of the tractor.
`
harrow and an automatic depth control lever
6. In a hitch for connecting an implement to
a tractor having a power lift mechanism for lift
ing the implement, the combination of: a linkage
responsive to variations in draft for actuating ,
such mechanism, the combination of : a rear
gang of discs; a front gang of discs; means con
connecting the implement and mechanism,
whereby the implement is drawn by the tractor 55 necting said gangs rigidly together; a first link
and lifted by the mechanism; a lever rigidly con
nected to a part of said linkage and extending for
age connecting the forward portion of said front
gang to said elevator` levers adjacent their con
nection to the lift mechanism; means connect
wardly therefrom; means connecting said lever to
ing the tractor to said gangs including a second
the tractor, whereby the weight of the forward
portion of the tractor is applied in opposition to 60 linkage connected to said gangs rearwardly of
the lifted weight of the implement; and means
operable by the driver of the tractor and asso
ciated with said connecting means and adapted
for affecting the direction of travel of the tractor
the connection of said first linkage; means oper
able independently of the lift mechanism for
varying the relative depth of cut of the discs
of the said gangs by varying the effective length
by moving said connecting means transversely of 65 of said second linkage; a lever connected to said
first linkage and extending forwardly therefrom;
the tractor.
7. In a hitch for connecting an implement to
a tractor having a power lift mechanism for lift
ing the implement, the combination of: a linkage
connecting the implement and mechanism,
whereby the implement is drawn by the tractor
and lifted by the mechanism; a lever rigidly con-v
and means connecting said lever to the tractor
near its forward end, whereby the weight of the
forward portion of the tractor resists the moment
on the tractor of the lifted weight of the im
plement.
ì
12. In an offset disc harrow and hitch for con
nected to a part of said linkage and extending
nection to a tractor having a power lift mech
anism connected to elevator levers for lifting the
forwardly therefrom; and-means so connecting
said lever to the tractor as to restrain said lever 75 harrow and an automatic depth control lever
15
2,414,114
responsive to variations in draft for actuating
such mechanism, the combination of : a rear gang
of discs; a front gang of discs; means connecting
said gangs rigidly together; a first linkage con- '
16
a. first axis, whereby the trailing device is moved
substantially vertically relative to the pulling de
vice; and means operable by the operator of the
pulling device during travel for swinging the trail
necting the forward portion of said front gang
ing device about a second axis spaced from said
to said elevator levers adjacent their connection
first axis, whereby the elevation of the rearward
to the lift mechanism; means connecting the
end of the trailing device is varied relative to its
tractor to said gangs including a second linkage
forward end.
connected to said gangs rearwardly of the con
16. In an implement and hitch for connection
nection of said first linkage; means operable 10 to a tractor and a power lift mechanism con
independently of the lift mechanism for varying
nected to elevator levers for lifting the implement
the relative depth of cut of the discs of the said
and an automatic depth control lever responsive
gangs by varying the effective length of said sec
to variations in draft for actuating such mecha
ond linkage; a lever connected to said first link
nism, the combination of : a front frame; a rear
age and extending forwardly therefrom; means 15 frame; ground-engaging members mounted in
connecting said lever to the tractor near its for
each of said frames, said frames being so formed
ward end, whereby the weight of the forward por
that the front of each frame and the rear of said
tion of the tractor resists the moment on the trac
front frame are at right angles to the pathof
tor of the lifted weight of the implement; and
travel of the tractor; a first linkage connecting
means for affecting the path of travel of the 20 the forward portion of said front frame to said
tractor by shifting said lever connecting means
elevator levers adjacent their connection to the
transversely of the tractor.
lift mechanism; and means connecting the trac
13. In an offset disc harrow and hitch for con
tor to said frames including a second linkage con
nection to a tractor having a power lift mecha
nected to said frames rearwardly of the connec
nism connected to elevator levers for lifting the 25 tion of said first linkage.
harrow and an automatic depth control lever re
17. A combination as in claim 1 including:
sponsive to variations in draft for actuating such
means for lifting both the rearward end of the
mechanism, the combination of: a front frame; a
draft means and the trailing device.
rear frame; a gang of discs so mounted in each
18. A combination to be used with a tractor
of said frames that the front of each frame and 30 having an elevating linkage and comprising: an
the rear of said front frame are at right angles
implement adapted to be drawn by the tractor
to the path of travel of the tractor; a first link
and having forward and rearward ground-engag
age connecting the forward portion of said front
ing members, said implement tending to produce
gang to said elevator levers adjacent their con
side draft when drawn by said tractor in certain
nection to the lift mechanism; and means con 35 positions; draft means movably connected with
necting the tractor to said gangs including a
said implement and adapted to be connected with
second linkage connected to said gangs rear
said tractor for drawing said implement, and
wardly of the connection of said ñrst linkage.
with said elevating means for lifting the imple
14. Means for hitching a, trailing drag device
ment; connecting means directly connected with
to a pulling device whereby the drag device may 40 the implement and adapted for connection with
be pulled by the pulling device, which includes:
said elevating means, whereby the rearward
ground-engaging members may be moved verti
gether; and means operably connected to the
cally relative to the forward ground-engaging
drag device and to the pulling device and oper
members to equalize draft; and actuating means
able by the driver of the pulling device for vary 45 for said connecting means to produce said rela
ing the elevation of the rearward end of the drag
tive movement.
device relative to its forward end and the pulling
19. A combination according to claim 18 where
device.
.
.
in said connecting means is constructed for vari
15. Means for hitching a trailing device to a
ation in effective length, said actuating means
pulling device, which includes: draft means cou 50 including meansl operable independently of the
pling the two devices together; means control
operation of the elevating means for varying said
lable by the operator of the pulling device dur
effective length.
ing travel for swinging the trailing device about
CHARLES H. MARTIN.
draft means for coupling the two devices to
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