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Jan. 14, 1947.
2,414,121
J. R. PIERCE
ELECTRON DEVICE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE
Filed Jan. 17, 1941
5_ Sheets-Sheet 1
lNl/ENTOR
.1. R PIERCE
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ATTORNEY
Jan. 14, 1947.
J, R, P|ER¢E
2,414,121
ELECTRON DEVICE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE
Filed Jan. 17, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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J- R. PIERCE
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A T TORNEV
Jan. 14, 1947.
J. R. PIERCE
2,414,121
ELECTRON DEVICE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE
Filed Jan. 17, 1941
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Jan. 14, 1947.
2,414,121
J. R. PIERCE
ELECTRON DEVICE OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE
Filed Jan. I7, 1941
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Jan. 14, 1947.
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2,414,121
ELECTRON DEVIC-E OF THE MAGNETRON TYPE
Filed Jan. v1'7, 1941
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
INVENTOR
J R. PIERCE
B
‘Viv-M
A 7' TORNEV
‘2,414,121
Patented Jan. 14, 1947
UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
2,414,121
ELECTRON DEVICE OF THE MAGNETRON
TYPE
John R. Pierce, New York, N. Y., assignor to Bell
Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application January 1'7, 1941, Serial No. 374,816
7 Claims. (Cl. 179-171)
1
This invention relates to electronic apparatus
and more particularly to electron devices of the
magnetron type in which density variation of
electron streams is e?ected by a de?ection sort
ing of high speed electrons from the lower speed
electrons of a velocity varied stream.
An object of the invention is to increase the
structural size of a magnetron for a given fre
quency thus increasing the possibilities of cooling
the structure.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
magnetron in which electrons do not retrace their
paths thus reducing the limitations of space
2
enough spaced to prevent their striking the elec
trodes they are permitted to pass out of the zone
of the accelerating plates successively into an
electron sorting zone and an energy extracting
zone, the device may serve as an ampli?er. Such
an amplifier may be of the ordinary thermionic
type enclosed in a highly evacuated container of
dielectric material or it may form an asymmetric
coupling between two wave guide sections.
In a modi?ed form of the invention, electrons
emitted by a cathode which may be cylindrical
are subjected to an alternating electric cross
?eld which deflects them in one direction or in
the counter-direction depending upon the phase
charge.
'
the electric cross-?eld while those of a second
An additional object of the invention is to pre 15 of
group emitted during the opposite phase are de
clude bombardment of the cathode of a magne
?ected in the other direction. By this method the
tron by electrons which have gained energy.
electrons of the original electron stream are
A still further object of the invention is to pro
sorted into two separate density-varied streams,
duce effective density variation of an electron
the energy of either or both of which may be
stream by subjecting the stream to an alternating transferred to the circuits of suitably located aux
electric ?eld which may impress upon the elec
iliary electrodes.
trons directional or velocity characteristics or
In the drawings Fig. 1 illustrates schematically
both by which the electrons emitted during op
an oscillator constructed in accordance with the
posite phases may subsequently be sorted.
invention; Fig. 2 shows a modi?cation of the os
A further object of the invention is to provide
cillator of Fig. 1 designed for higher e?iciency;
a means for amplifying at very high frequencies.
Fig. 3 presents a modi?cation of the oscillator of
In accordance with the invention, an electron
Fig. 1 in which the structure of the electron dis
stream emitted into the space between two con
charge device is simpli?ed; Fig. 4 is a cross sec
ducting surfaces, one of which is at substantially
of‘the structure of Fig. 3 along line 4-4;
the potential of the emitter and the other of 30 ,tion
Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of an ampli?er in
which is at a relatively high potential is subjected
to a cross-magnetic ?eld of a strength sufficient
to cause the electrons to proceed laterally in a
series of cycloidal hops, the periodicity of which
is a function of the applied magnetic ?eld only.
The electric and magnetic ?elds are also so es
accordance with the invention; Fig. 6 illustrates
a structure designed in accordance with the sche
matic of Fig. 5; Fig. '7 is a longitudinal section
of a wave guide repeater; Fig. 8 is a cross section
taken on the line 1-1 of Fig. '7; Fig. 9 shows in
section a modi?ed form of an ampli?er in ac
tablished and the separation of the conducting
cordance with the invention; Figs. 10 and 11 are
surfaces is so predes‘gned that the cycloidal tra
schematic diagrams to assist in explaining the
jectories of the electrons under the influence of
operation of Fig. 9; Figs. 12 to 15 inclusive, show
40
the'normal forces just fail to reach the high po
modi?cations of the ampli?er of Fig. 12; Fig. 16
tential surface.
shows a modi?cation of the cathode apparatus of
A superposed alternating electrostatic ?eld be
Fig. 15;‘Fig. 1'7 shows a modi?cation having aux
tween the plates will accelerate electrons emit
iliary electrodes; Fig. 18 shows a form of oscilla
ted during one phase of the ?eld so that these
tor; and Fig. 19 shows a modi?cation of the
electrons quickly reach one of the plates and are
structure ‘of Fig. 18.
withdrawn. Electrons emitted during the oppo
Referring to Fig. 1, an electron discharge de
site phase are decelerated thus yielding oscillat
vice
comprises an evacuated container 1 I enclos
ing energy to the ?eld. They continue in their
ing a pair of parallel plate electrodes 12 and I3
course with transfer of energy during each cycle
of electrically-conducting material. Plate 12 is
of their cycloidal path until they ?nally impinge
recessed as indicated at [4 to provide a space for
upon a target or collector. The alternating elec
a linear cathode 15 which extends across the
tric field is maintained by this energy so that the
plate l2 in a direction perpendicular to the plane
device functions as an oscillator.
of the paper. The cathode [5 may be heated in
If, after the electrons have been subjected to
any well-known manner as, for example, by a
such accelerating action in a region widely
2,414,121
3
source of heating current, not shown, connected
to its terminals. Plate I 2 may be polarized at
about the same potential as cathode I5 or prefer
ably slightly negatively with respect thereto by a
source I6.
An electrical current source I ‘I is con
nected in series with resonant circuit I8 between
the plates l2 and I3 to render plate I3 highly
positive with respect to plate I2. A magnetic
tron losing additional energy to the ?eld until
?nally its vertical excursion is considerably re
duced and the electron passes out from the space
between the plates l2 and I3 to impinge upon and
be absorbed by the collector 20. It will be ap
parent that those electrons which received energy
from the alternating ?eld reduce the energy of
the ?eld while those whose vertical excursions are
?eld source I9 which may be a permanent magnet
decreased yield energy to that ?eld. However,
or an electromagnet, as indicated by the broken 10 since the electrons which abstract energy are
line circle, imposes a magnetic ?eld perpendicular
to the plane of the paper and, also, to the elec
tric ?eld, upon the space between the plates I2
and I 3. Near the end of the discharge device
and somewhat beyond the space between the
plates l2 and I3 is a collector electrode 20 which
is polarized ‘positively with respect to cathode I5
by a source 2| in series with a choke coil 22. An
electron emitted from the cathode I5 will be im~
pelled by the high positive potential of plate l3 in
a direction toward that plate.
Because of the
cross-magnetic ?eld, however, the path of the
electron will not be linear but will be curved as in
dicated by the dotted line 23. If the spacing
between the plates I2 and I3, the magnitude of
the potential source I‘! and the strength of the
magnetic ?eld of source I9 be properly related
the electron will not reach the plate I3 but its
path 23 will be approximately cycloidal in char
quickly withdrawn from the space between the
plates l2 and I3 while those which yield energy
to the ?eld remain throughout their transit be
tween the plates until they reach the collector
20, the net result will be that the ?eld gains
energy from the electrons. Consequently, any
tendency to build up such an alternating electric
?eld will be accentuated and oscillating energy
will therefore be supplied by the device over its
20 output terminals 24 and 25 or through other
coupling means to a line antenna, wave guide,
or other load circuit connected thereto.
Even when the amplitude of electron oscilla
tion is reduced to zero or a very low magnitude
the electrons will still have a velocity in the di
rection toward the collector 20 representing an
energy substantially equivalent to half that they
would receive from the unidirectional ?eld in
passing from their point of origination to the
acter. The vertical component of its motion 30 median plane of their vertical excursions. If the
in the direction between the plates I2 and I3
electrons were permitted to ?nally pass to the
will consist of a simple harmonic oscillation, the
higher potential plate I3, a part of their energy
magnitude of which depends upon the strength
would be wasted. This loss is avoided by intro
of the applied electric and magnetic ?elds and
duction of the collecting electrode 20 polarized
the frequency of which is primarily a function
at a potential such that the electrons are slowed
of the magnetic ?eld. The horizontal component
down substantially to a stop before they are
of the motion of the electron, that is, in the direc
collected.
tion toward the collector 20, will have an average
In the apparatus of Fig. 1, it was assumed that
velocity depending on both the magnetic and
the majority of the electrons emitted from the
electric ?elds.
40 cathode I5 at such times as to receive maximum
Suppose that in addition to the forces already
vertical acceleration would be collected by the
considered, namely, the steady electric ?eld be
plate I3. It might transpire that certain elec
tween the plates l2 and I3 and the steady mag
trons, although receiving a positive vertical ac
netic cross-?eld, there be applied between the
celeration from the alternating ?eld would not
plates I2 and I3 a sinusoidal electric ?eld having
be accelerated quite enough during the ?rst cycle
an angular frequency the same as the natural
to strike the plate l3. However, on the excursion
frequency of the electron motion in the vertical
toward the plate I2 they would receive from the
direction. The trajectory 23 of an electron
alternating electric ?eld an additional vertical
emitted from cathode I5 will now depend upon
acceleration toward the plate I2 and might there
the phase of the applied alternating electric ?eld
fore impinge upon that plate and be withdrawn
at the instant of emission of the electron. The
from the zone of action. The earlier these elec
amplitude of the vertical component may either
trons are withdrawn, the less energy they will
increase with time or may decrease depending
abstract from the alternating ?eld. Those elec
upon the phase position 01' the alternating ?eld
trons which are abstracted by plate I3 give rise
at the time when the electron starts. If the
to a certain loss of energy from the unidirec
amplitude increases the electron will, of course,
tional current source since they-must be replaced
abstract energy from the alternating electric ?eld
by current which ?ows through the unidirec
and it may reach a position such that it will
collide with and be absorbed by the plate I3.
This condition may be facilitated by making the
spacings between the electrodes I2 and I3 ap
proximately equal to the total vertical excursion
of electrons when there is no alternating electric
?eld so that electrons unaccelerated by the
alternating ?eld just miss the plate l3 but
those which receive the greatest acceleration
tional circuit from that source.
This loss may
be avoided by so designing the apparatus that
the electrons will tend to strike the more nega
tive plate I 2.
Fig. 2 discloses an apparatus involving this
principle in which the parallel plates 21 and 28
are so spaced with reference to the cathode 28
that the electrons tend to be absorbed by the plate
28 rather than by the plate 21, thus reducing the
unidirectional current loss involved in their col
are quickly withdrawn from the zone of
action. Suppose that an electron from the
lection by plate 21. An additional di?iculty is
cathode I5 be emitted at an instant such that
encountered in this structure in the tendency
its entire vertical excursion is opposed by the 70 of the negative plate 28 to emit secondary elec
alternating ?eld. Under these circumstances,
trons upon the impact of primary electrons col
the vertical excursion of the electron will be re
lected by the plate 28. To prevent this secondary
duced or, in other words, the electron will yield
electron effect a suppressor grid 30 may be placed
energy to the alternating ?eld. During the next
adjacent the surface of the plate 28 and may be
cycle the process will be repeated with the elec
suitably polarized with respect thereto by the
2,414,121
source 3| which ?xes the potential of the sup
pressor grid with respect to the cathode 29. The
electrode 28 may be suitably polarized by a source
32. In other respects the apparatus of Fig. 2 may
be similar to that of Fig. l. The operation of this
apparatus will, therefore, be evident without fur
ther explanation.
Fig. 3 illustrates a modi?cation of the appa
ratus of Figs. 1 and 2_ in which the upper plate
33 is provided with an integral rib 34 which
serves as the collector, thus simplifying the ap
paratus. In this structure, the plates 33 and 35
are each made of a full wave-length for oscilla
tions of the desired frequency. The mechanical
6
example, a pair of ribs 50 similar to rib 34 which
may intercept electrons whose trajectory involves
wide vertical excursions while permitting those
of smaller excursions to pass. There remains
of the stream of electrons thus sorted by with
drawal of the most highly accelerated, chiefly
those emitted at the phases or instants oi
deceleration and, accordingly, these pass as a
density-varied stream in the space between out
put circuit plates 5| and 52, the alternating elec
tric-?eld between which extracts energy from the
density-varied electron stream in the manner
already explained in connection with Fig. 1. The
device thus serves as an ampli?er and in response
supporting elements 36 for the plates 33 and 35 15 to weak alternating electromotive forces of ap
propriate frequency and signal modulated, if de
are connected thereto at nodal points in order
sired, which are impressed by the input circuit
to reduce the loss which their shunting effect
44 upon the input plates 45 and 46, there are
may tend to introduce. The external output cir
yielded to the output circuit 53 ampli?ed elec
cuit 31, 38 may be connected by leads 39 and
40, respectively, to points on the plates 33 and 20 tromotive forces of corresponding frequency and
‘35 su?iciently far from the nodal points to give
the desired coupling to the load circuit. The
wave form but of greatly augmented amplitude.
The electrons may ?nal’y be collected by a suit
subjected to unidirectional electric and magnetic
to handle comparatively large output power and
that although the transconductance may be high
ably polarized electrode 54.
_
cathode 4| may be heated by the external source
Fig. 6 illustrates one embodiment of the elec
42 of heating current as shown in Fig. 4, which
represents a cross-section of Fig. 3 along line 25 tronic apparatus which is represented schemati
cally in Fig. 5. The electron collector represent
4--4.
ed by 54 in Fig. 5 takes the form in the particu
Fig. 5 shows schematically an ampli?er involv
lar embodiment of Fig. 6, of integral grid 34 of
ing certain principles of the invention. An input
the plate 5| similar to the collector 34 of Fig. 3.
circuit 44 is connected to a pair of input plates
It will be obvious that it may be readily designed
30
45 and 46. The space between these plates is
?elds as in the structures of the preceding ?gures.
there is substantially no reaction from the out
The spacing of the plates, contrary to that of the
put circuit plates 5| and 52 back upon the input
preceding ?gures, is made such that a negligible
45 and 45.
number of electrons from the cathode 4'| strike 35 plates
The frequency characteristic of a device such
them. While an acceleration and deceleration of
as that of Figs. 5 and 6 is dependent upon the
the oscillating electrons takes place in accord
number
of hops that the electrons make. If the
ance with the varying alternating electric ?eld
electrons make only a few hops they will not get
impressed between plates 45 and 46, no sorting
far out of phase with the alternating ?eld elec
of the accelerated from the decelerated electrons
tromotive force even if their natural frequency
occurs in this region and the input circuit is
and that of the ?eld diiier considerably. By in
therefore stable. The action of the alternating
creasing the number of cycles spent in the region
electric ?eld on the oscillating electrons causes
between the input plates 45, 46 or the number of
a certain differentiation or variation in their
45 cycles spent between the sorting plates 48, 49 the
velocities. Thus since the electrons starting in
device may be made very selective. This is ad
some phase positions gain in amplitude of oscil
vantageous for short wave operation, The fre
lation and those starting in other phase positions
quency of maximum response may be adjusted by
lose in amplitude of oscillation, there is a certain
varying the magnetic ?eld and it is to be under
net gain in energy on the part of the electrons 50 stood therefore that in each of the systems em
from the impressed alternating ?eld. This en
ploying a source l9 of magnetic ?eld that the
ergy is not returned to the ?eld of the input
source is variable to permit such a tuning of the
plates and hence is the occasion of a resistive
device to be effected.
component in the input impedance.
This‘ is,
Fig. '7 illustrates in longitudinal section along
however, a second order effect which does not
line 1-1 of Fig. 8 and Fig. 8 shows in turn a
substantially affect the linearity of the ampli?er 55 cross-section along line 8-—8 of Fig. '7 of a re
performance. A second pair of plates 48 and 49
is provided for eifecting the sorting action be
tween the accelerated and decelerated electrons.
peater which may be incorporated as an integral
structure between two Wave guide sections 55 and
56. The repeater portion of the structure is pref
It may be accomplished in any of three ways or
erably evacuated and sealed by means of glass or
60
all three methods may be employed in the same
other dielectric closures 51. A conducting par
structure, as illustrated. In this ?rst method the
tition 58 separating the sections 55 and 55 is
spacing between plates 48 and 49 maybe made
apertured as at 59 to provide an electronic re
slightly less than that between plates 45 and
peater operating in a manner similar to the
46 so that the most highly accelerated electrons
65 stuctures of Figs. 1 and 5. The steady positive
while able to pass through the space between
potential necessary between the parallel surfaces
plates 45 and 46 without interception are inter
for operation may be applied to a conducting
cepted by plates 48 and 49 at the points of maxi
electrode 65 insulated from the body of the
mum vertical acceleration of these electrons. As “ wave guide by means of an insulating element 65,
an alternative or a concomitant expedient the
The electrode 65 preferably has a central raised
polarizing electromotive force between plates 48 70 portion which serves, like the closely spaced
and 49 may be slightly increased over that be
plates 4B-and 49, to sort out the more highly ac
tween plates 45 and 46 to enable the most highly
celerated electrons, It also has a rib correspond
accelerated electrons to increase their vertical
ing to the rib 34 of Fig. 6 projecting inwardly
excursions sufficiently to be intercepted. A third
from the margin of the electrode 55‘most remote
75
expedient is to interpose a central barrier as, for
2,414,121
from the cathode to collect spent electrons. The
alternating electric ?eld existing between the
longitudinal central rib members 68 and 8| on
point 68 at an instant when the anode ‘I8 is pos
itive with respect to the anode 'I'! or under con
ditions a half cycle later than those of Fig. 10, its
the upper and lower walls of the wave guide
trajectory will be as indicated at Fig. 11 and its
serves to variably accelerate electrons emitted 5 ?nal path will lie in the ?rst and third quadrants.
from the cathode 82. The more highly acceler
The result of this de?ecting action is that two
ated electrons are withdrawn from the zone of
oscillating groups of electrons are produced 180
action in the early period following their emis
sion or at least when they reach the zone of the
degrees apart with respect to the frequency of the
alternating electromotive force between the
central raised portion of electrode 85. Electrons 10 anodes "and 11. Remembering that the path
which are somewhat decelerated pass on through
illustrated in Fig. 11 is that of an electron start
the aperture 59 into the wave guide section 58 to ing 1/2 cycle or 180 degrees later than that whose
y'eld to the opposing alternating ?eld between
path is illustrated in Fig. 10, it may be seen that
the members 83 and 84 an ampli?ed energy cor
both groups will move in phase in the direction
responding in frequency and wave form to that 15 normal to their unde?ected motion. That is,
of the section 55. After their energy has been
when an electron as illustrated in Fig. 10 is mov
largely spent the electrons are collected at the
ing toward the right, an electron as illustrated in
terminal rib of electrode 65.
Fig. 11 is also moving toward the right. Thus,
Fig. 9 illustrates an ampli?er comprising a con
there will be an oscillating component of electron
tainer 66 enclosing a cathode 61 of circular con 20 current in the direction perpendicular to the di
tour with two active areas 88 and 68 and heat
rection of unde?ected motion. This will cause a
ers 18 electrically energized by a source not il
current to be induced in the circuit connecting
lustrated. The cathode 81 comprises two concen
electrodes 14 and ‘I5. Thus, power will be deliv
tric metallic cylinders between which are placed
ered to tuned circuit 82, the natural frequency of
the insulated heater units ‘I8 aligned parallel 25 which is made equal to the impressed electromo
with the axis and electrically connected in se
tive force between anodes ‘I8 and 11. An output
ries. The cathodes are preferably constructed of
circuit 84 is coupled to circuit 82 to deliver ampli
some such material as sheet nickel and the ac
?ed alternating currents of the frequency of the
electromotive force impressed between the
able material having high electron emitting ca 30 anodes ‘I6 and TI by the secondary winding of the
pacity. Two auxiliary electrodes ‘I4 and ‘I5 for
transformer 8|, the primary winding of which is
associating the output circuit with the space in
associated with the input circuit 88. The device
which the electron courses lie are positioned
therefore responds to high frequency electromo
within the cathode and symmetrically with re
tive forces of low intensity impressed upon it by
spect to active areas 88 and 89. Two anodes ‘I6 35 the input circuit 88 to deliver to the output cir
and 11 at opposite sides of a diameter-joining ac
cuit 84 ampli?ed electromotive forces of the in
tive areas 68 and 69 are polarized positively with
coming carrier frequency and with correspond
tive portions 88, 69 may be coated with any suit
respect to the cathode by a source ‘I8. An input
ing ‘signal modulations.
circuit 88 is coupled by a transformer 8| to the
12 shows a modi?cation of the apparatus
path connecting the anodes l8 and TI. Auxil 40 of Fig.
Fig. 9 in which the cathodes 88 and 81 are pro
iary electrodes ‘I4 and 15 are connected to oppo
vided with axially extending interior heating
site terminals of a tuned circuit 82. The tuned
means 88 and with active electron emitting sur
circuit is coupled as illustrated to the ampli?er
faces 89 and 98 arranged along the same,cylin
output circuit 84 which may lead to an antenna,
drical contour as the pairs of auxiliary electrodes
transmission line or wave guide or other load as
93 and 94 which correspond in function to elec
desired.
trodes 14 and ‘I5, respectively. and are similarly
Referring to the diagram of Fig. 10 it will be
connected electrically, The anodes 85 and 88
seen that an electron starting from some'posi
correspond to anodes 16, ‘I1 and are connected in
tion such as point 88 on the cathode will be ac
the same manner to the input circuit. The elec
celerated in the general direction of the anodes 50 trodes 8| and 82 are shielding electrodes which
16 and 11. Assuming that an alternating elec
may be included to prevent any reaction not of
tromotive force be impressed between the anodes
an electronic nature between input and output
16 and 11 of such character as to render anode
circuits.
11 more positive than anode ‘I8 during the ini
Fig. 13 shows another modi?cation of the ap
tial portion of the electron transit the electron 55 paratus
of Fig. 9 in which intercepting ba?les 81
will be impelled with a counter-clockwise de?ec
and 88 are provided with direct connections to a
tion as indicated in the broken line trajectory.
point in the space current source. The group of
As it passes beyond the anodes ‘I5 and TI it is
electrons of the ?rst and third quadrants is di
retarded by the adverse ?eld between these
rectly absorbed by these ba?les and the energy of
anodes and the cathode 81 until coming to rest
it begins a return transit during which it is de 60 the other group of electrons is yielded to the
electric ?eld between the cathode 61 and the
?ected counter-clockwise. Thus it will ?nally
anodes
89 and I88. It follows therefore that if
have a path lying in the second and fourth quad
weak incoming electromotive forces be applied to
rants, ‘In order for this action to take place the
alternating electromotive force impressed be
the input circuit 88, ampli?ed electromotive
65
forces of twice the incoming carrier frequency will
tween the anodes 16 and 11 should be of the same
be
delivered by the tuned circuit IM to the out
frequency as that of the oscillation of the elec
put circuit I82.
trons in the electric ?eld. This is for the reason
Fig. 14 is a schematic diagram of a modi?cation
that in the electron’s downward path electrode
of
the disclosure of Fig. 13 in which the concen
‘I1 is positive with respect to 18 and the electron
is attracted toward it and de?ected counter 70 tric cathode with its active portions is replaced by
the indirectly heated cathodes I82 and I83 simi
clockwise; then on its return path in order to be
lar to cathodes 88 and 81 of Fig. 12. A cylindrical
de?ected counter-clockwise electrode ‘I8 must be
conduct’ng shell I86 at cathode potential is in
positive so the electron will be attracted toward
terrupted
along its opposite walls to accommodate
electrode 18. If the electron starts from the 75
the cathodes I82 and I83. In other respects the
2,414,121‘
apparatus and circuit are identical with those of
Fig. 13.
-
10
faces of said second pair being spaced from each
other more closely than are the surfaces of the
?rst pair in order to intercept and abstract from
the field electrons the lateral motion of which
I 08 between which the tuned output circuit I99 is
connected. The incoming circuit H0 is coupled 5 has brought them into the space between the
second pair of surfaces and the energy of which
to a tuned input circuit Ill connected between
has been augmented by the input electromotive
the anodes H2 and H3. Intercepting auxiliary
force. .
electrodes 91 and 98 are connected directly to the
2. In a transmission system, a wave guide com
anode current source as in Fig. 13.
Fig. 16 illustrates a modi?cation of the disclos 10 prising an enclosing tube of conductive material,
a partition across the guide at a point at which
ure of Fig. 15 in which the cathodes I01 and I08
energy in the wave guide is to be ampli?ed for
with active electron emitting portions are re
Fig. 15 utilizes a split cylindrical cathode I91,
retransmission, an electron emitter and an elec
placed by indirectly heated cathodes H4 and H5
trode capable of positive polarization with respect
with cathode potential surfaces H6 and H1, all
the elements being otherwise connected electri 15 thereto within the enclosing tube on one side of
cally as in Fig. 15.
In Fig. 17, the auxiliary electrodes H8 and H9
are formed as semicircular shielding elements and
also constitute one terminal of the output circuit.
The input circuit 80 is connected between the
anodes 98 and 99, as in the previously described
structures. The electrodes H8 and H9 encom
the partition and aligned to cause a discharge
of electrons transverse to the guide, means for
producing 1a magnetic ?eld transverse to both
the guide and the electron discharge in the re~
gions of the guide at opposite sides of the par
tition whereby electrons are de?ected from their
original direction to follow a trajectory proceed
ing longitudinally of the guide by a series of
pass such a large portion of the space surround
cycloidal hops toward the partition, an aperture
ing the anodes 98 and 99 that they serve to
largely isolate and shield this region from that of 25 in'the partition of such size as to permit the
passage therethrough in the course of the cy
the ?eld of the output circuit lying between aux
cloidal hops of electrons whose transverse ex
iliary electrodes H8 and H9 and the cathodes.
cursions are of lesser magnitude than the original
Electrodes H8 and H9 are angularly displaced
excursions but to intercept electrons whose ex
with respect to the line joining the centers of the
cathodes and also act as intercepting electrodes 30 cursions are greater than their original excur
sions whereby. electrons undergoing diminishing
to eliminate electrons which have been de?ected
excursions may pass over into the region of the
clockwise.
guide at the opposite side of the partition to inter
Fig. 18 illustrates an electron discharge oscil
act with and deliver energy to a transverse elec—
Within an evacuated container I20 are
2:
disposed a pair of parallel plates l2| and I22 con 35 tric ?eld.
3. In ‘combination, two pairs of conducting sur
stituting a quarter wave-length Lecher circuit
faces, the surfaces of each pair being separated
terminated at its far end in the short-circuiting
by a respective intervening space and the pairs
condenser l23. An electron gun I24 impels elec
being arranged end to end so that their inter
trons into the space between the plates Hi and
vening spaces are substantially aligned, input
40
I22 which is subjected to a cross-magnetizing
conductors connected to one pair of surfaces to
field as in the case of Fig. 1. Electrons emitted.
enable them to serve as the input of an electron
during one phase are accelerated toward and ab
discharge device and conductors connected to the
sorbed by the positive plate I21 and thus with
other pair of surfaces to enable them to serve
drawn from the ?eld. Electrons emitted during
as the output of the electron discharge device,
the opposite phase execute a series of cycloidal
means for causing emission of electrons in the
hops along a trajectory such as that indicated by
space between the input surfaces, means for im
the broken line delivering their energy to the os- '
pressing a unidirectional electromotive force be
cillating ?eld until ?nally‘they impinge upon the
tween the input surfaces to accelerate electrons
target I25. Alternating output energy is sup
60 toward the more positive surface, magnetic means
plied to the output circuit I26.
for deflecting the electrons to prevent incidence
Fig. 19 shows a modi?cation of the structure
upon the more positive surface and to impel them
of Fig. 18 in which in lieu of an electron gun a
in a cyclical path extending generally in a direc
?lamentary or strip cathode I21 is utilized, to
tion parallel to the surfaces, an apertured parti
gether with a suppressor grid I28 similar to the
tion extending in a direction transverse to and
grid 30 of Fig. 2. In other respects, the structure 55 between the two pairs of surfaces, the aperture
and operation of this system is the same as that
having such restricted dimensions as to permit
of Fig. 18.
electrons executing diminishing cyclical hops to
What is claimed is:
pass therethrough and to cause electrons execut
1. An electron discharge device comprising a
ing increasing cyclical hops to be intercepted by
pair of parallel conducting surfaces, means for 60 the partition whereby only the non-intercepted
emitting electrons in the space between the sur
electrons pass into the region between the output
faces at a point adjacent one of the surfaces,
surfaces and means for enabling the output sur
means for’ impressing a unidirectional electro
faces to abstract energy cyclically from ‘the elec
motive force and an alternating input electromo
trons which pass between them.
tive force between the surfaces, means for pro 65
4. An electron device comprising an electron
ducing a magnetic ?eld in the space between the
emitting cathode, a target, a pair of conducting
surfaces of such magnitude and direction as to
input elements intermediate the cathode and tar~
cause electrons proceeding towards the more pos-.
get and one of the pair of input elements being
itive of the surfaces to be de?ected and to pro
located at each side of the direct electron path
ceed laterally in a series of hops, the hop fre 70 therebetween, means for impressing a varying
quency being approximately that of the alternat
electromotive force between the elements for de
ing input electromotive force,‘ a second pair of
flecting the electron stream in its course in ac
parallel surfaces adjacent the end of the ?rst
cordance with the electromotive force, a second
pair :toward which the lateral procession of elec—
lator,
trons occurs and insulated therefrom, the sur
75 pair of conducting elements between which the
2,414,121
11
.
electron stream passes and an integral conduct
ing member on one of the elements of the second
pair projecting from the surface of the element
into the path of the stream to such an extent
that the stream is at times intercepted by the
conducting element depending upon the amount
of its de?ection whereby the stream is density
varied in accordance with the varying electro
motive force impressed upon the input elements.
5. In combination, a pair of plane parallel con 10
ducting surfaces, a recess in one of the surfaces,
a cathode seated in the recess, means for main
such magnitude as to cause electrons proceeding
toward the more positive surface of the ?rst pair
to be de?ected and to proceed laterally in a series
of hops of approximately the preselected fre
quency of an alternating input electromotive
force to be impressed on the input terminals, the
surfaces of the second pair adjacent the end to
ward which the lateral procession of electrons
occurs being spaced from each other more closely
than the surfaces of the ?rst pair in order to
intercept and abstract from the ?eld electrons
the energy of which has been augmented by the
taining the cathode in electron emitting condi
input electromotive force, and output terminals
tion, means for polarizing the cathode and the
connected to the third pair of surfaces whereby
recessed surface at substantially the same poten 15 alternating current energy may be derived there
tial and negatively with respect to the other sur
from in consequence of the reaction of electrons
face, means for subjecting the space between the
which were not abstracted by the second pair
surfaces to a constant magnetic ?eld in a direc
of surfaces and succeeded in reaching the space
tion parallel to the principal dimension of the
between the third pair.
cathode and of a ?eld strength su?lcient to so 20
7. An electron discharge device comprising a
de?ect electrons as to prevent their absorption
pair of separated conducting surfaces, electron
by the more positive surface, means for superim
emitting means within the space between the
posing between the surfaces an alternating poten
surfaces and adjacent one of them, means for
tial of a frequency equal to that of the successive
polarizing the other surface to a positive poten
de?ections of an electron whereby electrons hav 25 tial with respect to the electron emitting means
ing the phases of their excursions opposed to the
and also with respect to the adjacent surface
alternating ?eld deliver energy thereto and un
whereby electrons are impelled in a direction from
dergo a diminution of excursion, a second pair
the one surface toward the other, a second pair
of plane parallel conducting surfaces each sub
of separated surfaces disposed in end-to-end re
stantially aligned in the plane of one of the sur
30 lation to the ?rst pair, and means for polarizing
faces of the ?rst pair and at the side of the ?rst
the surfaces of the second pair with respect to
pair in the direction toward which electrons are
each other to produce a similarly directed inter
carried, the space between the second pair of sur
vening electric ?eld, means for producing a mag
faces being less than that between the ?rst pair
netic ?eld in the zone including both pairs of
and an electron collecting electrode positioned to 35 surfaces and of such direction as to be transverse
absorb and remove from the ?eld electrons whose
both to the direction of electron discharge and
excursion has been substantially reduced.
to the direction in which the pairs of surfaces
6. An electron discharge device comprising
are aligned whereby electrons are impelled to de
three pairs of parallel conducting surfaces dis
viate from a linear path and to follow a trajec
posed in end-to-end relation, input terminals 40 tory of cycloidal hops from the space between
connected to each of the surfaces of the ?rst
the ?rst pair of surfaces to that between the
pair, means for emitting electrons in the space
second pair and an intermediate partition sepa
between the ?rst pair at a point adjacent one of
rating the pairs of surfaces and having an open
the surfaces of that pair, means for polarizing
ing therethrough sufficiently large to permit pas
the surface of each pair on that Side which in
sage of electrons the excursions of which are de
the ?rst pair is adjacent the electron emitting
creasing but to cause the partition to intercept
means negatively with respect to the respectively
those electrons the excursions of which equal or
opposite surface, means for producing a magnetic
exceed their initial excursion.
?eld in the spaces between the pairs in a direc
tion transverse to the electron discharge and of 50
JOHN R. PIERCE.
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