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Jan. 14,
J. A. POTTER
.
VOLTAGE REGULATION
Filed Nov. 10, 1944
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JA. PO 7TB‘?
Patented Jan. 14, 1947
2,414,122
PAT
2,414,122
‘
VOLTAGE uncommon
James A. Potter, Rutherford, N. 3., assignor to
Bell Telephone Laboratories, incorporated,
New York, N. Y., a corporation oil New York
Application November 10, 1944, Serial No. 562,7‘3tl
It maime- (m. l'ii'imglig)
11
2
This invention relates to voltage regulation and
particularly to apparatus for regulating the cur
to which alternating current is supplied from,
source l2 through secondary transformer winding
rent supplied to a load-from a direct current source
58, a ?ltering condenser it being connected across -
to maintain the load voltage substantially con
stant.
the output terminals of the auxiliary recti?er.
A relay or other. suitable switching device 22,
'
An object of the invention vis to provide im~
when its armature engages its lower contact as
shown in the drawing, completes a shunt path
proved regulated rectifying apparatus ‘for supply
ing direct current to a load.
In accordance with the preferred embodiment ‘
of the invention herein shown and described for
the purpose of illustration, there is provided a
' main recti?er comprising a‘space discharge rec-'
across the load it, said path comprising in series '
a resistor 23, recti?er 2c and a cold cathode, gase=
ous discharge device 25 having a condenser 25
connected across its terminals. The device 241 has
the characteristic that its resistance changes in
response to current changes therethrough at such
a rate that the voltage drop across the tube re
alternating current supply line and for supplying 15 mains substantially constant. Instead of using
the recti?ed current to a load. There is set up in
an electric discharge device of this type, there
tifying device having an anode, a cathode and a
control electrode for rectifying current from an‘
a circuit connecting the control electrode and
‘cathode of the space discharge device a unidirec
tional control voltage which varies over such a
range in response to load or line voltage changes
may be employed a resistance means comprising a
so-called “thermistor”, for producing a substan»
tially constant voltage drop, such a resistance
means disclosed in my United States Patent No.
that the load voltage‘changes are greatly reduced.
2,356,269, granted August 22, 1944. When the
For setting up the control voltage there is con
armature of switch 22 engages its lower contact,
nected across the load a current path comprising
a circuit is completed for impressing the voltage
in series a constant voltage resistance means the
drop across resistor 23 upon the control grid
resistance of which varies in response to current 25 cathode path of recti?er tubes ill and it, This
changes therethrough at such a rate that the
circuit may be traced from the control grid oi
voltage across said means remains substantially
tube 60 through resistor 2t, and from the control;
constant, an auxiliary recti?er for setting up a
grid of tube l l through resistor 27, thence through
unidirectional voltage which Varies in accordance
resistors 28, 29 and 23 to, the cathodes of tubes it
with line voltage changes and a resistor across 30 and Ill. A ?ltering condenser 39 connects the
which the control voltage is set up, the auxiliary
positive output terminal of auxiliary recti?er 23)
recti?er voltage being in aiding relationship with
to the common terminal of resistors 28 and 2s and
respect to the voltage of the main recti?er.
a condenser 8i connects the common terminal of
The invention will now be described with ref~=
resistors 2s and 29 to the positive load terminal.
erence to the accompanying drawing the single 35 When the armature of switch 22 engages its upper
?gure of which is a diagrammatic view of a regu=
contact a circuit is completed for impressing the
lated recti?er constructed in accordance with the
output voltage of auxiliary recti?er 2c upon the
invention.
control grid-cathode path of tubes it and M.
Referring to the drawing there is shown a main
This path may be traced from the negative out“
' recti?er comprising space discharge devices it
40 put terminal of recti?er 29 through resistor 23,
[and M, preferably of the gas ?lled type, for rec
shunted by resistors 28 and 29 in series, and re
tii'ying current from an alternating current sup
sistors 2t and 2?, respectively, to the control
ply source 52 and for supplying the recti?ed cur
grids, and from the positive terminal of auxiliary
rent through a ripple ?lter comprising series in
recti?er 20 through a resistor 32 to the cathodes
ductance element l3 and shunt condenser it to a 45 of tubes id and it.
load id, There is provided a transformer having
The switch 22 may be operated by hand or by '
a primary winding it and secondary windings it
any suitable delay means such as that disclosed in
and it. The end terminals of winding ll are con
application Serial (No. 466,860 of J. A. Potter and
nected to the anodes of recti?er tubes it and H,
D. E. Trucksess, ?led November 25, 1942, now
respectivel , and a mid-terminal of winding l'i is 50 United States Patent No. 2,377,370, granted June
connected through inductance element is to the
5, 194:5. The switch is provided for the purpose of
negative load terminal. The cathodes of tubes
applying such a negative bias to the control elec=
all and it are connected to the positive load ter
trodes of tubes it and l l, during the starting pe
riod when the cathodes of the tubes are being
minal.
'
i
There is provided an auxiliary bridge recti?er at 55 heated to operating temperature, that the flow of
eateries
4%
.
' ing means, the voltage of said amid recti?er and
said‘ auxiliary recti?er output voltage being in
aiding relationship in said circuit ‘so that the
.space current through the tubes and the result
ing damage to the cathodes is substantially pre
vented. During this starting period the switch
armature engages its upper contact and the con
voltage ‘in said circuit is increased due to the
trol grids are thus biased negativelywith respect
to the cathodes by the output voltage of auxiliary
presence of said auxiliary recti?er therein, one '
terminal of said resistor being connected to the
recti?er 2e.
positive load voltage terminal, and means for
.
After the cathodes are heated, the armature of
switch 22 engages its lower contact to complete
, connecting the other terminal of said resistor to
path comprising in series the constant voltage
tube 2%, the output of auxiliary recti?er 20, and
recti?er to maintain the load voltage substan
resistor 23.
P 2. Means including a main recti?er connected
said space current control element for controlling
a currentepath connected across the load 85, said 10 the' current supplied to. said load fromsaid main
tially constants
There is thus completed a circuit
which may be traced from the positive terminal
of the main recti?er through resistor 23, auxiliary
recti?er 26 and constant voltage tube 26 in series
to the negative output terminal of the main rec
ti?er, the output voltages of the main recti?er
and of the auxiliary recti?er being in aiding re
lationship in the circuit.. The sum of the load 20
voltage and the output voltage of the auxiliary
,
recti?er 2b is sumciently high to cause the tube
24 to pass current which flows through the re
sistor .23. The positive‘ terminal of resistor 23 .
is connected to the cathodes of tubes it and ii 25
and the negative terminal of the resistor is con
nected through resistors 2e and 28 and thence
through resistor 26 to the control grid of tube
i0 and through resistor 21 to the control grid
of tube ii. The voltage drop across resistor 23 30
is su?ciently' low to cause space current to ?ow
through tubes ill and ii.
I
1
If the supply line voltage i2 increases, for ex
ample, the output voltage of auxiliary recti?er
20 will increase. Since the voltage across voltage
regulating tube 24 remains substantially constant
irrespective of the resulting current rise in the
circuit comprising resistor 23 and tube 25, the
voltage drop acrossresistor 23 increases by an
amount substantially equal to the increase of
output voltage of the auxiliary recti?er. The
control grids of recti?er tubes it and it thus‘
.'
,
>
to an alternating current ‘supply sourcefor sup
plying direct current to a load at substantially
constant voltage comprising space discharge
means having an anode, a cathode and a control
electrode, auxiliary rectifying means connected
to an alternating current supply source for pro
ducing an output voltage, voltage stabilizing
means the resistance of which changes in re
sponse to current changes therethrough at a rate
to maintain substantially constant the voltage '
across said stabilizing means, a current path con‘
nected in shunt to said load with respect to said
main recti?er comprising in series a resistor, said
auxiliary rectifying means and- said voltage sta
bilizing means, the voltage of said main recti?er
and the voltage of said auxiliary rectifying means
in said path being in aiding relationship so that
the voltage in a circuit comprising said voltage
stabilizing means and said resistor is increased
due to the presence therein of said auxiliary rec
tifying means, and means for impressing upon
said control electrode with respect to said cathode
I a potential which varies in accordance with vari
ations of the potential difference across said
resistor.
_
-
.
-'
I 3.‘ A combination in accordance with claim 2
in which said last-mentioned means comprises
means for connecting one terminal of said re
sistor to said cathode and the other terminal of
become relatively more negative with respect to
said resistor to said control electrode.
’
the cathodes to substantially prevent 4a rise of
4. In combination, a main recti?er for recti
current through the load it and thus to main~ 45 fying current supplied thereto from an alternat
ing current supply line and for supplying the rec;
tain the load voltage substantially constant irre
spective of the change of line voltage. If the load
ti?ecl current to a load, said recti?er comprising a
voltage'rises by a small amount due to a decrease
space discharge device having an anode, a cath
ode and control electrode, the cathode of said "
in load (increase of load resistance), for example,
the voltage ‘drop across resistor 23 rises, due to 50 discharge device being connected to the positive
‘the increase of current ?owing through the path ' load voltage terminal, voltage stabilizing resist
comprising resistor 23, recti?er 20 and constant
ance means the resistance of which changes in
response to change of current‘ therethrough at
voltage tube 26, by an amount substantially equal
to therise of load voltage. As a result the con
trol grids of tubes i0 and H become relatively
such a rate that. the voltage across said means
remains substantially constant, an auxiliary rec
ti?er for rectifying current supplied thereto from
said alternating current supply line the output
voltage of which varies in accordance with supply
morenegative with respect to the cathodes to
reduce the current supplied to the load.
rise of load voltage‘is thus minimized,
What is claimed is:
The
,
' line voltage changes, a current path connected
1. In combination, a main recti?er comprising 60 in shunt with said load comprising in series said
arspace current device having an anode, a cath
voltage stabilizing means, said auxiliary recti?er I
ode and a space current control element for rec
output and a resistor, one terminal ‘of said re
tifying current supplied thereto from an alter- _ sistor being connected to the positive load voltage
nating current supply line and for supplying rec
terminal, the main recti?er output voltage and
ti?ed current tow a load, an auxiliary recti?er for 65 the " auxiliary recti?er output voltage being in‘
aiding relationship in the circuit including said
rectifying current supplied thereto from ‘said
supply line to produce an output voltage which
current path so that the. voltage in said circuit
ls'increased due to the presence of the auxiliary
varies in response to line voltage changes, voltage
stabilizing means the resistance of which changes
recti?er output voltage therein, and means. for
in'response to current changes therethrough'at 70 connecting the other terminal of said resistor to
a rate‘ to maintain substantially constant the
voltage across-said stabilizing means, a circuit
connected in'shunt to said load with respect to
the control electrode of said discharge device,
thereby controlling the current supplied by said
main recti?er to said load.
‘ said main recti?er comprising in series, a resistor,
said auxiliary recti?er and said voltage stabiliz 75
JAMES A. For
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