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Jan. '14, 1947.
‘Filed Nov. 12, 1942
Patented Jan. 14, 1947
Francis S. Denneen, Cleveland, and William C.
Dunn, Shaker Heights, Ohio, assignors to The
Ohio Crankshaft Company, Cleveland, Ohio,
a corporation of Ohio
Application November 12, 1942, Serial No. 465,518
5 Claims. (Cl. 219-13)
This application is a continuation in part of
our application Serial No. 337,424 for Apparatus
for hardening tapered articles, ?led May 27, 1940,
now Patent No. 2,309,631, which application is
a continuation in part of our earlier application
Serial No. 54,388, ?led December 14, 1935, now
Patent No. 2,202,759, and relates primarily to
apparatus and method for heating cylindrical
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and
related ends, said invention, then, consists of the
means and steps hereinafter fully described and
particularly pointed out in the claims; the an
nexed drawing and the following description set
ting forth in detail certain means and one mode
of carrying out the invention, such disclosed
means and mode illustrating, however, but one
articles having a single tapered surface and is
of various ways in which the principle of the
more particularly directed to inductively heating 10 invention
may be used.
a zone of the tapered surface.
In the said annexed drawing:
The art of' inductively heating and then
Fig. 1 is a plan view of one form of apparatus
quenching a surface zone of an ordinary cylin~
employed in the practice of our invention.
Fig. 2 is a section substantially on line v2——2
and the quenching a zone of a double conical 15 of Fig. 1.
surface has been taught in the parent applica
Fig. 3 is a section as indicated at 3-3 in
drical article is well known. Inductively heating
tion Ser. 337,424, However, the heat treatment
Fig. 2.
of a surface zone of a single conical element re
In the form of- the apparatus illustrated the
quires apparatus and method differing from those
current conducting member comprises an upper
heretofore used in the heat treatment of other 20 part 10 and a lower part ll, separated through
surface zones.
out the greater part of their perimeters by the
Since current induced in a surface zone of an
circumferential dividing slot !2 and joined at se
approximately cylindrical article by current
lected points by bridge elements I 3.
?owing in a conductor extending circumferen
tially around the zone ?ows circumferentially in 25 tors present a substantially continuous conduc
this surface zone, any change in a distribution
inner surface 14, which surface is adapted to lie
of the current in a cross section of the conductor
adjacent to the conical surface I5 of the article
will effect a change in distribution of current in
It ‘being hardened. The angle included between
a section of the surface zone. Also, when high
opposite elements of the inner conical surface of
‘frequency current is employed, any variation in 30 the
conductor is less than that between opposite
spacing between the conductor and the surface
of the surface of the article, thus pro
zone will affect the distribution of current in the
viding a closer magnetic coupling in the region
zone. Further, any difference of diameter of a
of greater diameter of the cone of the article
part of the surface zone not only controls the
where both a greater periphery and a greater
amount of metal being heated in that part, but ‘ mass of metal require greater heating.
controls the circumferential length of the circuit
The two conductors l0 and H joined as shown
through which the induced current flows.
are formed to provide an exterior channel 20
The present invention has been for the pur
which channel in cooperation with annular cover
pose of meeting these conditions by providing a
21 serves as a reservoir for cooling fluid which
correct distribution of heating current in a sur 40 is supplied ‘by the valve controlled conduit 22.
face zone of a tapered part of a shaft or sim
The cover is separated from the conductors by
ilar article which our investigation has revealed
23 and is held in assembled relation with
requires an inductor of a form di?ering from
the conductors by means of disc or plate 24 which
that of inductors heretofore employed. Accord
ingly the general object of our invention has
been to provide an inductor capable of controlling
through insulating ring 25 is disposed to bear
against an annular face of conductor 10. Screws
a distribution of heating current in a surface
zone of a tapered article. Another object has
been to provide means for adjustably supporting
and locating the article correctly relative to the
inductor employed. A still further object has
been to provide a generally applicable method
21 pass through holes in a peripheral part of the
disc 24 and threadedly engage holes in a periph
eral part of cover 2| to wedgingly compress gas
kets 23 between peripheral parts of inner conical
surfaces of the cover and exterior conical sur
iaces of the conductors and thus to hold the
. of procedure in the heating of a tapered surface ’ -' parts in assembled relationship.
zone. Other objects will become apparent from
the following description.
Cover 2| is supported by base 30 which carries
--adjustable centering member 3| for holding ar
v‘ticle IS in correctly centered position in the in
ductor and at the correct elevation. The con
cluctors It and II have cuts at 32 with terminals
such as 33 and 34 connected to the conductors
at parts adjacent to the cuts, the terminals serv
ing as means for‘ supplying current to the con
ductors from some suitable source such as leads
36 and 3'2’; ‘connected to awhighfrequency gen
diameter in a conductor closely spaced to the
conical surface of the said end, ?owing current
around the end of lesser diameter in a conductor
spaced from the conical surface of the end of
lesser diameter, the conductor lying adjacent to
he end of larger diameter being more closely
’ spaced to the conical surface than the conductor
‘lying adjacent to the end of smaller diameter,
moving the article axially to simultaneously vary
The inductor comprising members I (l and H
can readily be replaced by another when it is
. the space between the end of larger diameter and
desired to heat treat a conical article of a dif
ferent form or size. Support 3| can then be
adjusted to bring the article into correct position .
relative to the inductor or this support can be
. relation with each other, and supplying inducing
its adjacentconductor and the end of smaller
diameter and its adjacent conductor, maintain
ing the conductors in substantially parallel spaced
replaced by another better adapted to engage a 15 current to said conductors to ?ow in parallel
therethrough to induce heating current in coni
part of the article to be heat treated. The sup
cal surface zones of both ends of the conical
port employed is usually threaded into the base
of the‘ article.
39 and held in position by lock nut 39. '
3. In a method of heat treating surface zones
It will be observed that in axially'adjusting
of a generally conical part of an article, a diame
the position of the conical portion of article l6
at. one end of the part being greater than a
ininductor it the rate of change of air gap at
diameter at an opposite'end, the steps compris
the larger-diameter is muchrgreater thanthe
ing ?owing current around the end of the greater
rate of change of air gap at the smaller diameter,
~ diameter in a conductor closely spaced to the coni
i. e., by. axially adjusting the position of the-ar
ticle'in theinductor a substantialchange in ratio. 25 cal surface of the said end, ?owing current
r of airgaps at opposite ends occurs.
Thus, the
around the end of lesser diameter in a conductor
spaced from the conical surface of the end of
lesser diameter, the conductor lying adjacent to
the end of larger diameter being more closely
spaced to the conical surface than the conductor
considerable amount. Hence, by axially shifting,
lying adjacent to the end of smaller diameter,
the article in the inductor and selecting a proper
moving the article axially to simultaneously vary
frequency of current being supplied by leads 3%
the space between the end of larger diameter and
and 31' such as by=changing speed of a high fre
its adjacent conductor and the end of smaller,
quency generator-supplying the current and/or
by changing the power being delivered by suitable 35 diameter and its adjacent conductor, maintaining
the conductors in substantially parallel-spaced
?eld regulation of the generator, a very accurate
relation with each other, supplying inducing cur
control for a distribution of heating in the 'sur
rent to said conductors to iiow in parallel there
face zone of the conical portion is attained, such
through, and ?owing more current in parts of the
as in ‘the extent of the heated .part of the zone
and in'its- depth contour. To attain a proper‘ 40 conductors remote from each other than in ad
jacent parts of the conductors to increase heat
distribution of heating, in some cases the elements
ing in opposite ends of the conical part~
of the‘ inner surface of the inductor are not
ii. In apparatus for heating a'surface zone of
always straight lines but are curved to provide
conical portion of an axially extend
a greater or lesser air‘gap at‘ the central part
ing article, an inductor comprising two substan
of the, inductor according the. heating desired
airgap at the largediameter can- readily be re
duced to a very small amount, while the air gap
at the small’ end, although reduced, remains of
and frequency and power available.
, Other forms may be‘ employed embodying the
, 'features of our invention instead of the one'here
~ inexplainednhange being made as regards the
tially parallel generally conical conductors adapt
ed to encircle adjacent parts of the conical
' portion and to lie in closely spaced relation with
said parts, one of the conductors being disposed
vmeans. and the steps herein disclosed, provided 50 to lie in'cioser relation to its encircled part than
the other conductor lies to its encircled part,
the. elements-stated by any of the following claims
means for supporting the conical portion substan
' or. the equivalent of such stated elements be
tially co-axially with the conductors, means :for
employed, whether produced by our preferred
adjusting the supporting means to vary the space
method or by others embodying steps equivalent
to those stated in the following claims.
55 between the conical portion and each of the con
ductors, and meansfor ?owing inducing current
We therefore. particularly point out and dis
through the conductors to ‘heat the adjacent parts
' tinctlyv claim as our invention:
of the conical portion.
1; In apparatus for'heating a surface zone of
5. Inapparatus for heating a surface: zone of
'a substantially conical portion of, an axially ex
> .tending:article, an inductor comprising substan-’_ 60 a generally conical portion of an‘axiallyextend
ing article, an inductor having a, substantially
tially .two parallel current'conducting sections of
conical inner surface adapted to lie adjacent to
generally'conical form adapted to extend periph
‘ erally of the‘ conical portion, one of. said sec
tions being of varying thickness to control a dis
tribution of- eurrent.?owingperipherally in the
said-one section, and means for supplying period
ically varying current to said inductor.
the surface zone, an annular groove in an "outer
surface of the inductor, an annularly disposed cut
in a root portion of the groove dividing the in
ductor into two substantially parallel. conductors,
a plurality of bridge elements» spacedalongithe
cutv holding the conductors in-‘spaced' relation
2. In a method of heat treating surface zones
with each other; andmeans for supplyingiinduc
:._ of», a generally conical part of an article,.a diame
> ter at one end of'the part being greater'than a 70 ing current to theinductor.
diameter at an oppositev end,,the steps comprising
?owing current ‘around,- athe, .end oi.,.the‘ egreater
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