Jan. 14,1947. R A. B; MODINE _ RADIATOR CONSTRUCTION Fìied April 19, 1945 ‘ 2,414,159 - ' " Patented Jan. 14, 1947 2,414,159 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,414,159 RADIATOR CONSTRUCTION Arthur B. Modine, Racine, Wis., assignor to Modine Manufacturing Company, Racine, Wis., a corporation of Wiso onsin Application April 19, 1943, Serial No. 483,581 5 Claims. 1 (Cl. 257-130) . 'I'he present invention is directed to a new and novel combination of tubes and tins arranged and shaped for easy assemblage and to provide a well-_ built core that can be used in various types or kinds of heat interchanger installations. One of the essential requisites for producing a good sub stantial core for heat exchange devices is that the , - 2 is being subjected'during the heating process, will have contracted within such core. ` ` v Another feature of the present invention is the method of producing or building up a pressure 5 within the assembled core tubes through the use of various substances which may be introduced into the sealed core and that are directly expand tubular elements of that core are intimately able from the heat of the baking process. The joined with the edges of the openings in the core iins to obtain the highest degree of heat trans 10 substances to be used vin creating the internal core pressure during the heating process will vary with fer eñiciency in such a unit. One of the better the kind and gauge of tube. A small quantity of known methods of producing radiator cores in water would be suflicient to generate enough the past has been to provide the iinswith open steam pressure Within certain cores having light ings which will snugly receive the tubular ele ments therethrough, >such tubes being assembled 15 tubes, to produce the necessary expansion or bulging of the walls of the tubes during the bak with the fins by forcing the respective members together either manually or by mechanical means. ing and bonding process. In other cases where heavier gauge tubes are used, other materials such as dry ice or ether may be used to generate It is one of the main objects of the present in higher pressures within the contines of a core for vention to provide a combination of tubes of a cer tain shape and fins with openings so shaped as to 20 the purpose of producing the necessary expansion of the tubes to ñt the openings in the` fins during relatively loosely receive the tubes therein so as bonding. _ to have a composite core unit which is easily and One of the other advantages inherent in the ar quickly assembled prior to the bonding of the rangement and assembly of the various: parts of various parts thereof into a strong and rigid core. Another object of the present invention is to 25 the present core is the abilityl to utilize different kinds of metals in carrying out the objects of the shape the tubes and the iin openings therefor in present invention. It is preferatîe to use brass such a manner that these respective elements will for the-tubes, although copper or possibly some coact to frictionally hold each other in place when ferrous metals can be used for the same purpose. assembled prior to the heating and bonding of E 30 In all cases the tubes are prefabricated with the such parts. . use of complementary or duplicate fiat sheets of Another object of the present invention is to metal that are suitably spaced by means` of wires loosely assemble a plurality of tubes and fins or other spacing members, andthe tubes thus >wherein the adjacent portions thereof do not have formed all have chambers that are substantially intimate fitting contact, and to provide a method for causing subsequent intimate contact between the respective core elements during the baking or heating of the assembled parts under the Vin fluence of the temperatures that are usually re elongated with the metal wall portions thereof orming comparatively ñat and narrow iluid spaces. ' Other objects and advantages inherently asso ciated with the core constructions of the present quired to produce and effect the bonding of the elements. 40 invention shall hereinafter appear in the follow ing detailed description with reference to the ac In the present core construction a well known typical solder can be used upon the core elements companying drawing. In the drawing: that will melt at approximately 450 degrees Fahr Fig. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of 'a enheit and which will subsequently solidify at ap~ proximately 385 degrees Fahrenheit. As a re 45 preferred form of tube construction adapted for assembly with the ñns of a radiator core; sult, the use of such solder in connection with the respective tube vand iin elements of the present Fig. 2 is a plan view of a fragmentary portion core construction, there will be substantially no of a iin as assembled with a tube or tubes such contraction between the adjacent soldered parts as illustrated in Fig. 1 and prior to being subà' of the' core by the time that the solder has solidi 50 jected to the baking or bonding process; fled so that the tubes will be firmly bonded to the Fig. 3 is another fragmentary view correspond peripheral or marginal edges oi' the holes that ing to the view in Fig. 2 but after the core assem are formed in the fins. Also, such bonding 'of the bly has been subjected to the baking or bonding respective parts will occcur a considerable time process; , ` before the internal pressure, to which the core Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view of a modiñed 9,414,159 4 . of the expanding tubes reacts against the opening. :inv and tube construction as assembled prior to edsesi » the heating or bonding process; In Fig. 6 a core IB is diagrammatically shown as assembled with headers I6 and I1, solder hav,-~ ing been applied to the core parts in a conven Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken substantially along the line l-I in Fig. 4 to more or lessA dia grammaticaliy illustrate the arrangement of the tubes and iins before tube expansion and rigid as tional manner and the core having been assem bled with the parts in the relation shown in Figs. 2 or 4y of the present invention, the core now being adapted for bonding in themanner herein and illustrating generally such a unit as assem-- 10 before explained. By adding any suitable pres bled and sealed for the purpose of tube expansion - sure producing medium such as, for example, a portion of dry ice, which is soliditled carbon di and union with the fins during the heating oxide, as shown at I8 in Fig. 6 and by sealing process. y semblythereof through the baking process; >and Fig. 6 is 'a diagrammatic view of a radiator in corporating a core of the present construction ` tube‘illustrated in Fig. 1 or tubes similar " the inlet I9 and outlet III together with the filler thereto are fabricated through a suitable electric 15 opening 2l, the entire radiator unit can be sub Jected to the usual baking or heating process welding process or by a suitable heat rolling proc temperature. During this process the tubes will vess substantially as disclosed and described in a co-pending' application `of Arthur B. _Modine. rbe expanded into the excess portion of the fin openings and against the edges thereofv and there Serial No. 483,582, illed April 19, 1943, issued as 20 with the tubes will assume the ~contours of said. Patent Nò. 2,396,522 dated March 12, 1946. `openings and will be held in such position after The tube in Fig. 1 is preferably constructed oi' the bonding of the parts through. the solidifying two _wall sections of any` suitable relatively thin of the brazing material. It is to be observed that metal such'as illustrated at I and 2, and~ such initially the tubes are of elongated cross section. and that the contours of the openings in the fins are different from the contours of the tubes and wallsv are` provided with the beads 3 and 4 re spectively for the reception of wire spacers 5, such assembly comprising a multiple form of tube. Such tubes as illustrated in Fig. 1 are then readily ' that in the finished product the expanded tubes jacent openings 1 are shaped to _receive the bead- , conditions and by other means than the usual assume the contours of the openings. assembled with iin >members as illustrated in Fig. In some instances it is possible to merely utilize 2 provided with contiguous scalloped tube open ings such asshown at 1. Obviously, as shown in 30 the expanded air pressure within a'sealed struc ture for the purpose of expanding the tube`as ex Fig. 2, it will require >three consecutive openings plained. It is also conceivable that the necessary . such as' 1 for accommodating one tube structure. union of parts may be carried out under other The projecting and joining portions 8 of the ad ' v35 baking process hereinbefore referred to. Inusing various arrangements of tubesy in com In Fig. 3, the completely finished and bonded bination with suitably provided fin openings for core structure is illustrated. » By sealing the tubes ~ accommodating such tubes it is poßible to there of the radiator structure in any suitable manner by produce a radiator core that can be easily and .by introducing the required or necessary assembled with' a minimum of dimculty and which pressure within the tubes. the side wall portions ed portions-3 ,and l of the tube structure. will eventually result in a structure. having inti are expanded to snugly and intimately ilt -and - mate contact between the various parts of the tube elements 'of a heat exchange’unit, all of conform with the openings provided for the tubes vwhich features are accomplished in a manner _in the fins S. The pressure created is preferably created by interposingv a suitable substance into 45 hereinbefore set forth. Having thus described the present invention, the radiator core or-tubuiar structure thereof that will become greatest and most effective during . it is obvious that various immaterial modifica tions may be made without departing from the the baking or heating process to which the core breadth and scope of 'the present invention." is 'subjectedï for the purpose of bonding the vari ous elements of the cores together into a rigid 50 Therefore, no limitations should be placed on _ thereof or of the consecutive sections of the tubes the-exact form, construction, arrangement and assembly.> Therefore, after the tubes such as il- . combination of parts herein shown and described _ -lustrated in_Figs. 1 to 3 inclusive have been ex or to the uses mentioned excepting as shall- be panded duringY .the vheating process, such tubes >determined »by the breadth and scope of the ap iin openings and will be bonded thereto to be 55 pended claims. What vI claim as new and- desire to secure by retained in such intimate contact and in conform will be inv intimate contact with the `margins of the ance with the shape of the openings after 'such " core has cooled. Referring to Figs. 4 and 5, the radiator com- ` -prises _a combination of fins Ill having a plu rality of >single tubes Il. vIn this case the open A ings I2 in the fins are provided with the flanges I3 for the purpose of providing a greater surface 1 Letters Patent is: ' ` 1. The method of assembling a-core of a heat exchange devicev having tubes and ñns, consist» ing of providing tubes with expandable parallel sided walls. providing fins with oval openings thereinV having clearance for the tubes, insert ing the tubes in the iin openings, sealing the tubes and expanding the tubes by fluid pressure to cause contact between the respective tubes II and the‘ fins I0. In the modifiedconstruction of radiator 65 the tube walls to `expand against the edges of the fin openings and assume` the oval contour ' corefillustrated in Figs. 4 and 5, it is to be noted thereof and simultaneously bonding the tubes _to ' that the tube similar to the tubes shown in Fig. the fins. ` l is> of `relatively narrow andlong construction ’ A which is most eiilcient in providing a. more flexible . 2. The method of producing a core of a heat arrangement of tube for fitting the fin openings 70 exchange device having tubes and fins, consist ` provided therefor under thevjínternal pressure method explained. The iianges I3 not only pro- _. videv for greaterl bonding surface contact _between the parts, but form reinforcing means to pre ing of providing spaced tube strips, assembled with wire spacers interposed therebetween at their side edges and at intermediate places therebe tween, providing ?ns with scalloped holes there vent distortion of the iin openings when the force 75 in. inserting said tube strips and wire spacers in 2,414,159 . 5 . said holes in the tins, the edges of which holes are bowed away from said tube- strips at the places between the wire spacers, sealing the tubes formed. by said tube strips and wire spacers, and introducing excessive internal pressure therein -to cause the parts of the tube strips intermediate the wire spacers to expand against the'edges of the holes, and bonding the tubes and fins in such _ and ñns, said tubes each comprising opposing walls connected together in spaced relation to each other by wire spacersdisposed therebetween in opposing grooves formed in the walls at cer tain intervals, said walls of the tubes being bulged ‘ outwardly between the wire spacers, and said iins each having- holes therein for the reception of the ~ tubes therethrough, said holes each having the marginal edges- thereof in intimate contact with 3. The method `of producing a core of a heat 10 the bulged walls of said tubes and bonded there exchange device having tubes and ñnsyconsist to ’ ing of inserting tube units composed of spaced 5. A radiator core having tubes and tins, said tube strips with wire spacers interposed 'there tubes each comprising a. pair of tube strips con between along their side edges and intermediate nected in spaced relation to each other by means said side edges, through elongated holes- in the 15 of two or more parallel wire spacers, disposed ñns, the edges of which holes bulge outwardly therebetween in opposing grooves formed in said between the wire spacers, `sealing the tube units, walls, the latter being outwardly bulged between introducing excessive internal pressure therein to said wire spacers, said ñns having openings cause the parts of the tube strips intermediate therein for. each tube, the edge of each opening the wire spacers to expand against the bulged 20 in the ñns being in intimate contact with the edges of said holes and bonding the tubes and tubes. ' relation. ' y ñns in such relation. 4. A radiator core having a plurality fof tubes ARTHUR B. MODINE.