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Jan. 14,1947. R
Fìied April 19, 1945
2,414,159 - ' "
Patented Jan. 14, 1947
Arthur B. Modine, Racine, Wis., assignor to
Modine Manufacturing Company, Racine, Wis.,
a corporation of Wiso
Application April 19, 1943, Serial No. 483,581
5 Claims.
(Cl. 257-130)
'I'he present invention is directed to a new and
novel combination of tubes and tins arranged and
shaped for easy assemblage and to provide a well-_
built core that can be used in various types or
kinds of heat interchanger installations. One of
the essential requisites for producing a good sub
stantial core for heat exchange devices is that the
is being subjected'during the heating process,
will have contracted within such core. `
Another feature of the present invention is the
method of producing or building up a pressure
5 within the assembled core tubes through the use
of various substances which may be introduced
into the sealed core and that are directly expand
tubular elements of that core are intimately
able from the heat of the baking process. The
joined with the edges of the openings in the core
iins to obtain the highest degree of heat trans 10 substances to be used vin creating the internal core
pressure during the heating process will vary with
fer eñiciency in such a unit. One of the better
the kind and gauge of tube. A small quantity of
known methods of producing radiator cores in
water would be suflicient to generate enough
the past has been to provide the iinswith open
steam pressure Within certain cores having light
ings which will snugly receive the tubular ele
ments therethrough, >such tubes being assembled 15 tubes, to produce the necessary expansion or
bulging of the walls of the tubes during the bak
with the fins by forcing the respective members
together either manually or by mechanical
ing and bonding process. In other cases where
heavier gauge tubes are used, other materials
such as dry ice or ether may be used to generate
It is one of the main objects of the present in
pressures within the contines of a core for
vention to provide a combination of tubes of a cer
tain shape and fins with openings so shaped as to 20 the purpose of producing the necessary expansion
of the tubes to ñt the openings in the` fins during
relatively loosely receive the tubes therein so as
to have a composite core unit which is easily and
inherent in the ar
quickly assembled prior to the bonding of the
rangement and assembly of the various: parts of
various parts thereof into a strong and rigid core.
Another object of the present invention is to 25 the present core is the abilityl to utilize different
kinds of metals in carrying out the objects of the
shape the tubes and the iin openings therefor in
present invention. It is preferatîe to use brass
such a manner that these respective elements will
for the-tubes, although copper or possibly some
coact to frictionally hold each other in place when
ferrous metals can be used for the same purpose.
assembled prior to the heating and bonding of E
30 In all cases the tubes are prefabricated with the
such parts.
use of complementary or duplicate fiat sheets of
Another object of the present invention is to
metal that are suitably spaced by means` of wires
loosely assemble a plurality of tubes and fins
or other spacing members, andthe tubes thus
>wherein the adjacent portions thereof do not have
formed all have chambers that are substantially
intimate fitting contact, and to provide a method
for causing subsequent intimate contact between
the respective core elements during the baking or
heating of the assembled parts under the Vin
fluence of the temperatures that are usually re
elongated with the metal wall portions thereof
orming comparatively ñat and narrow iluid
Other objects and advantages inherently asso
ciated with the core constructions of the present
quired to produce and effect the bonding of the
40 invention shall hereinafter appear in the follow
ing detailed description with reference to the ac
In the present core construction a well known
typical solder can be used upon the core elements
companying drawing.
In the drawing:
that will melt at approximately 450 degrees Fahr
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of 'a
enheit and which will subsequently solidify at ap~
proximately 385 degrees Fahrenheit. As a re 45 preferred form of tube construction adapted for
assembly with the ñns of a radiator core;
sult, the use of such solder in connection with the
respective tube vand iin elements of the present
Fig. 2 is a plan view of a fragmentary portion
core construction, there will be substantially no
of a iin as assembled with a tube or tubes such
contraction between the adjacent soldered parts
as illustrated in Fig. 1 and prior to being subà'
of the' core by the time that the solder has solidi 50 jected to the baking or bonding process;
fled so that the tubes will be firmly bonded to the
Fig. 3 is another fragmentary view correspond
peripheral or marginal edges oi' the holes that
ing to the view in Fig. 2 but after the core assem
are formed in the fins. Also, such bonding 'of the
bly has been subjected to the baking or bonding
respective parts will occcur a considerable time
before the internal pressure, to which the core
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view of a modiñed
of the expanding tubes reacts against the opening.
:inv and tube construction as assembled prior to
» the heating or bonding process;
In Fig. 6 a core IB is diagrammatically shown
as assembled with headers I6 and I1, solder hav,-~
ing been applied to the core parts in a conven
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken substantially
along the line l-I in Fig. 4 to more or lessA dia
grammaticaliy illustrate the arrangement of the
tubes and iins before tube expansion and rigid as
tional manner and the core having been assem
bled with the parts in the relation shown in Figs.
2 or 4y of the present invention, the core now
being adapted for bonding in themanner herein
and illustrating generally such a unit as assem-- 10 before explained. By adding any suitable pres
bled and sealed for the purpose of tube expansion - sure producing medium such as, for example,
a portion of dry ice, which is soliditled carbon di
and union with the fins during the heating
oxide, as shown at I8 in Fig. 6 and by sealing
semblythereof through the baking process; >and
Fig. 6 is 'a diagrammatic view of a radiator in
corporating a core of the present construction
tube‘illustrated in Fig. 1 or tubes similar
" the inlet I9 and outlet III together with the filler
thereto are fabricated through a suitable electric 15 opening 2l, the entire radiator unit can be sub
Jected to the usual baking or heating process
welding process or by a suitable heat rolling proc
temperature. During this process the tubes will
vess substantially as disclosed and described in a
co-pending' application `of Arthur B. _Modine. rbe expanded into the excess portion of the fin
openings and against the edges thereofv and there
Serial No. 483,582, illed April 19, 1943, issued as
20 with the tubes will assume the ~contours of said.
Patent Nò. 2,396,522 dated March 12, 1946.
`openings and will be held in such position after
The tube in Fig. 1 is preferably constructed oi'
the bonding of the parts through. the solidifying
two _wall sections of any` suitable relatively thin
of the brazing material. It is to be observed that
metal such'as illustrated at I and 2, and~ such
initially the tubes are of elongated cross section.
and that the contours of the openings in the fins
are different from the contours of the tubes and
wallsv are` provided with the beads 3 and 4 re
spectively for the reception of wire spacers 5,
such assembly comprising a multiple form of tube.
Such tubes as illustrated in Fig. 1 are then readily '
that in the finished product the expanded tubes
jacent openings 1 are shaped to _receive the bead- ,
conditions and by other means than the usual
assume the contours of the openings.
assembled with iin >members as illustrated in Fig.
In some instances it is possible to merely utilize
2 provided with contiguous scalloped tube open
ings such asshown at 1. Obviously, as shown in 30 the expanded air pressure within a'sealed struc
ture for the purpose of expanding the tube`as ex
Fig. 2, it will require >three consecutive openings
plained. It is also conceivable that the necessary
. such as' 1 for accommodating one tube structure.
union of parts may be carried out under other
The projecting and joining portions 8 of the ad
v35 baking process hereinbefore referred to.
Inusing various arrangements of tubesy in com
In Fig. 3, the completely finished and bonded
bination with suitably provided fin openings for
core structure is illustrated. » By sealing the tubes ~
accommodating such tubes it is poßible to there
of the radiator structure in any suitable manner
by produce a radiator core that can be easily
and .by introducing the required or necessary
assembled with' a minimum of dimculty and which
pressure within the tubes. the side wall portions
ed portions-3 ,and l of the tube structure.
will eventually result in a structure. having inti
are expanded to snugly and intimately ilt -and - mate contact between the various parts of the
tube elements 'of a heat exchange’unit, all of
conform with the openings provided for the tubes
vwhich features are accomplished in a manner
_in the fins S. The pressure created is preferably
created by interposingv a suitable substance into 45 hereinbefore set forth.
Having thus described the present invention,
the radiator core or-tubuiar structure thereof that
will become greatest and most effective during . it is obvious that various immaterial modifica
tions may be made without departing from the
the baking or heating process to which the core
breadth and scope of 'the present invention."
is 'subjectedï for the purpose of bonding the vari
ous elements of the cores together into a rigid 50 Therefore, no limitations should be placed on
_ thereof or of the consecutive sections of the tubes
the-exact form, construction, arrangement and
assembly.> Therefore, after the tubes such as il- .
combination of parts herein shown and described _
-lustrated in_Figs. 1 to 3 inclusive have been ex
or to the uses mentioned excepting as shall- be
panded duringY .the vheating process, such tubes
>determined »by the breadth and scope of the ap
iin openings and will be bonded thereto to be 55 pended claims.
What vI claim as new and- desire to secure by
retained in such intimate contact and in conform
will be inv intimate contact with the `margins of the
ance with the shape of the openings after 'such "
core has cooled.
Referring to Figs. 4 and 5, the radiator com- `
-prises _a combination of fins Ill having a plu
rality of >single tubes Il. vIn this case the open
A ings I2 in the fins are provided with the flanges
I3 for the purpose of providing a greater surface
Letters Patent is:
1. The method of assembling a-core of a heat
exchange devicev having tubes and ñns, consist»
ing of providing tubes with expandable parallel
sided walls. providing fins with oval openings
thereinV having clearance for the tubes, insert
ing the tubes in the iin openings, sealing the tubes
and expanding the tubes by fluid pressure to cause
contact between the respective tubes II and the‘
fins I0. In the modifiedconstruction of radiator 65 the tube walls to `expand against the edges of
the fin openings and assume` the oval contour
' corefillustrated in Figs. 4 and 5, it is to be noted
thereof and simultaneously bonding the tubes _to '
that the tube similar to the tubes shown in Fig.
the fins.
l is> of `relatively narrow andlong construction
A which is most eiilcient in providing a. more flexible .
2. The method of producing a core of a heat
arrangement of tube for fitting the fin openings 70 exchange device having tubes and fins, consist
` provided therefor under thevjínternal pressure
method explained. The iianges I3 not only pro- _.
videv for greaterl bonding surface contact _between
the parts, but form reinforcing means to pre
ing of providing spaced tube strips, assembled with
wire spacers interposed therebetween at their
side edges and at intermediate places therebe
tween, providing ?ns with scalloped holes there
vent distortion of the iin openings when the force 75 in. inserting said tube strips and wire spacers in
said holes in the tins, the edges of which holes
are bowed away from said tube- strips at the
places between the wire spacers, sealing the tubes
formed. by said tube strips and wire spacers, and
introducing excessive internal pressure therein -to
cause the parts of the tube strips intermediate
the wire spacers to expand against the'edges of
the holes, and bonding the tubes and fins in such _
and ñns, said tubes each comprising opposing
walls connected together in spaced relation to
each other by wire spacersdisposed therebetween
in opposing grooves formed in the walls at cer
tain intervals, said walls of the tubes being bulged ‘
outwardly between the wire spacers, and said iins
each having- holes therein for the reception of the ~
tubes therethrough, said holes each having the
marginal edges- thereof in intimate contact with
3. The method `of producing a core of a heat 10 the bulged walls of said tubes and bonded there
exchange device having tubes and ñnsyconsist
ing of inserting tube units composed of spaced
5. A radiator core having tubes and tins, said
tube strips with wire spacers interposed 'there
tubes each comprising a. pair of tube strips con
between along their side edges and intermediate
nected in spaced relation to each other by means
said side edges, through elongated holes- in the 15 of two or more parallel wire spacers, disposed
ñns, the edges of which holes bulge outwardly
therebetween in opposing grooves formed in said
between the wire spacers, `sealing the tube units,
walls, the latter being outwardly bulged between
introducing excessive internal pressure therein to
said wire spacers, said ñns having openings
cause the parts of the tube strips intermediate
therein for. each tube, the edge of each opening
the wire spacers to expand against the bulged 20 in the ñns being in intimate contact with the
edges of said holes and bonding the tubes and
ñns in such relation.
4. A radiator core having a plurality fof tubes
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