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Jan. 14, 1947.
‘
‘
G. PASCHAL
2,414,165
GAME PIECE
Filed July 10, 1944
_2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ‘
Jan. '14, 1947.
4
QPASCHAL
‘
_
2,414,165
GAME PIECE
Filed 'July 10, 1944
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
I 4
Patented Jan. 14, _ 1947
2,414,165
UNITED STATES PATENT ‘
OFFICE
2,414,165
GAME PIECE
Guy Paschal, Sarasota, Fla. ‘
Application July 10, 1944, Serial No. 544,211
8 Claims.
1
(Cl. 273-437)
2
This invention relates to games of skill in which
two or more contestants pit their wits and study
and mental alertness against one another with
out dependence upon chance; and particularly
to the well-known class of naval games com
monly using game-pieces in the form of vessels
of war, in an attempt to simulate a naval en
gagement between two ?eets of squadrons of op
posing enemies; into which class I have devised
and introduced a basic innovation creating an
entirely novel game of this type, which at the
time of the application for these Letters Patent is
being successfully played with interest and enter
tainment by o?icers and men of our armed land,
air and naval forces. ‘
y
The object of my invention is to produce such
.a game differing from the elementary plan of
simple, obvious and‘ casual play upon an
arbitrarily-selected rule-basis at wide variance
from experience and conditions of actual war
fare, and which will present to the players prob
lems and predicaments somewhat in line with the
realities of naval and especially amphibious ex
peditionary or task force‘ battle involving the
waging of war and the concomitant planning of
strategy and exercise of tactical initiative on
a three dimensional scale and basis embracing
‘ sub-aqueous operations by submarine vessels
equipped actually and physically with the cus
tomary attack factors found in real warfare,
surface operations carried on by surface craft
equipped with such attack factors as are usual
to such naval vessels, air operations by carrier
borne and based airplanes equally adapted and
‘devised to follow the actualities which the players
have seen in such warfare if veterans, or will see
if and when they reach‘ the area of such war
.
to the minds of alert youth and sage age, yet
uniquely intriguing ‘to sailors, marines, soldiers
and air-forces, and the o?‘icers of all four, by
whom its underlying strategy will be recognized
as closely consonant with that of naval warfare.
An especial object of my invention is to pro
vide such a game as above-mentioned, involving
the carrying on of operations simultaneously in
the three dimensions of war, the subaqueous, the
surface, and the aerial, in which the various
stated combatant elements may carry on their
characteristic warfare each operating in its own
' stratum, yet with the ability to invade the ter
ritory of the other combatant elements in differ
15 ent strata, attack them in their own elemental
?eld, all without interference of motion to or by
any of them in ways or manners in which they
might safely travel in actuality, but with inhibi
tion of any motion or action which in real life
20 the vessel represented could not make or‘ take,
and with the ability and liability of conquest or
capture or symbolized destruction such as would
so ‘eventuate in usual combat; and‘more partic
ularly its object in this regard is to allow and
depict and represent and operate such combat
in the three ‘separate dimensionsand strata in
a game which may be played upon a game-board
constructed of or with a plane surface.
'
The invention is, in its broad aspect and es
sence as a complete entity, a game entitled by
me “Transport,” in which, in an amphibious
expedition involving the attempted landing of
substantial ground forces and 'matériel and com
missary supplies, a naval task ‘force undertakes
to convoy a transport carrying these through
the enemy ?eet in safety; the object and the
termination of the game :being the destruction by
one fleet or task force of the transport of the
fare; with the added inclusion of the fourth ele
mentof the land forces and beach-head estab
enemy in a skilled contest or game of which the
lishment and invasion by army divisions and 40 charactering and powering‘ of‘ the participant
military equipment for land attack implicit in the
game-pieces have been worked out along scienti?c
provision of transportation thereof as an im
mathematical lines and calculations; with inter
portant part of the game, of the game-pieces, of
mediate or intervening destruction ‘of defending
the object of the game, on which depends the
pieces usually found necessary to eliminate to
entire strategy and a considerable part of the 45 attack the transport, or to save the player’s own
playing operations, affording opportunity for the
pieces from destruction while engaged in so at
display of innate aptitude for naval strategy, and
tacking; ‘and ‘in which the play is‘ conducted
for gradually developing the faculty of this
throughout the entire game simultaneously in
strategy in theplayers, there being current in
supposed and structurally de?ned areas of ‘sub
naval circles the demand for such a game for the 50 aqueous, surface, and air traverse and combat,
indicated purpose.
‘
A‘ further object ‘is to provide such a game
- in which'motion of the several individual game
pieces is stratum-restricted by the essential de
vices ‘of the invention herein de?ned, while at
tardation of intricacy, learned well by the, act
tack is permited by the same inventive features,
and fact of playing it, entertainingly adaptable 55. intothe stratum of another game-piece in such
which will be easily understood without the re
2,414,165
4
,
to proceed in its own medium without con?ict
with any vessel operating in a different medium,
simulated manner as is common to the real com
bat; there being two such features'cooperating
to effect such extra-stratum attack, as well as
and on the game-board thus can or cannot oc
extra-stratum defense, the second of such fea
tures being likewise and equally designed to con
cupy a position or square in simultaneity with
another piece of the same or opposing player,
or pass such piece “under” or “over”'the same,
stitute a novel form of game attack intra-stra
turn as well as inter-strata, rendering the strat
egy of the game far more realistically intriguing
depending basically and necessarily upon its own
character as a surface, undersea or aerial unit or
than any mere game of pieces which'are but
empennage of same, and depending concomitantly
dummies with names and shapes as‘is the case
with most games of this class.
The invention comprises, with an appropriate
game-board, ?rst, a limited number of game
upon the contrary character and medium of op
eration, of the game-piece which it passes, or with
which it shares a square; the said charactering
pieces manufactured respectively in the outward
semblance and characters in the battle, ‘of major
vessels and other established naval, units, repre
' inherent and ?xed by the inventive and structural
and, powering of the game-pieces being de?nite,
and permanent features hereinbefore indicated
and hereinafter described, by which the game
'pie'ces are distinguished inter se and also from
any prior game-pieces in this class of games.
Thirdly, it consists in the especially novel
senting the three-dimensional branches of sur
face units, sub-aqueous units, and aerial units,
each adapted, charactered and powered ‘in play
and unusual feature, appropriate to the close
approximation of the game to naval warfare
reality, as 'hereinabove intimated,’ that, the main
so as to meet and conquer or be met and con
quer'ed, ‘by such other like enemy units as will be
encountered in reality, together with the perils to
andffrbm' the same,‘ which will in such reality of
war" exist, not by mere rules of play but by the
?eet units do not,‘ with certain exceptions re
quired for verisimilitude, themselves conquer and
devisement of certain‘de?ned physical attributes 25 destroy an opposing unit, or the enemy transport
itself, by direct vaction against it, ‘but there are
of the gameépieces, and by thein'troduction into
provided subordinate or auxiliary game-pieces
the'gameofauxiliary game-pieces which prac
launched from certain of the main ?eet units in
ti'callyj do all the conquest actions of ‘the game
and impart new situations when they are brought
proximity to ‘such unit, in‘such manner, posi
tion and direction of ‘pointing as to sink or de-'
‘into the ‘game and upon the game-board, so that
sftroy, or threaten torso do on a ‘subsequent move,
when they successively are placed upon the board,
a speci?c enemy piece_;'_ but which may be eluded
and successively moved backward and. forward in
intelligently planned play, the game presented by
the 'game-boardfwith its assembled pieces of both
‘players for four in the double-team-‘form there
of) ‘bffersfan' ‘entirely different picture to the
playere'eye View of the participants, as well ‘as to
thej'watching audience in an expert exhibition
‘game; ‘tjo'what it did ‘in, the early stages of the
contest, where it started with the simple set
pieces'of each player placed upon the board at
the ‘outset, ‘it being, understood that my game em
bodies the two principles of three-dimensional
'cemba't de?ned to the view ‘of each and all play
ersas wellas all spectators at all times, and the
superposition upon ‘the boardduring the progress
of'the matchfof “a possibly considerably large
number of "additional pieces supplemental to the
by opposing strategy. The, main units being
placed upon the board initially, at the ?eet-base,
and the subordinate gameapi‘eces being launched
in mid-ocean ‘or mid-combat only as decided
‘upon solely by the'player' himself in the conduct
of the 'game’s strategy, in position and pointing
determinable only atJthe time of such launching
40 ofsaid subordinate game-piece, and so launched
only by the expenditure of one move or turn to
play for ‘each such vsubordinate ‘piece, and each
successive move thereof’. Also the aerial ele
ments ofthe game‘jbeing held on the carrier as
in actual war, so launched asjust described. and
either or'bothlost without any previous vor future
participation incomba't ‘if their carrier be de
stroyed before its planes are launched.
Fourthly, it consistsjin the likewise‘ quite novel
main or majorpieces, which are introduced and
constantly moved upon the board into positions 50 feature of a, continuously visible strategy condi
involvingja greaterand greater intricacy of po
tion and element, by easily visible and readable
?xed indices of power of attack, and vulner
tentialities, depending upon the skill of the play
ability or invuln'erability toattack, of the several
ers,‘the length ‘to which the game may be ex
combatant fleet ‘units, and of the various sub
tended by an even balance of skills andof offense
ordinate ‘game-pieces launched by them in mid
and defensej' all ‘as more fully described herein
comjb'atfindep'e‘ndent of rules, change of rules,
after in‘ this speci?cation.
’
memory of ‘rules,’ the ‘indices ‘being marked upon
"‘Secondly, it consists in a task force in minia
the several pieces in an inter-related similarity
ture, composed‘ of two ?ghting surface vessels,
of marking, so asto make it possible at a glance,
charactered'and powered to ?ght in a close ap
toknowlthroughout the game which ‘piece or
preximation to the customary manner of such
pieces can. destroy which ‘enemy pieces, by reason
vessels, a submarine'powered to move and to‘ fight
of distinguishing'them as ‘operative in their re
‘as’such units do, an airplane carrier having two
spective‘media, as destructive of a piece operative
launcha-ble planes appurtenant ‘thereto, and
in‘ the 'same'medium, and'as destructible by a cor
‘otherwise unarmed and unprotected except by
the“ presence 'of the two major vessels ‘and the
submarineasisthe fact’ inreality, and a trans
port 'vesselsuppositiously carrying land soldiery,
65
respondingly marked, unit-piece or subordinate
piece or both; while‘at the same time making
the game continuously indicative of the ability
or‘ inability of any piece to rightfully occupy av
infantry,'engineers,_ artillery, and tank person
square with an other piece without peril to either
nel, matériel'an'd supplies, thus addingv the ele
ment/of‘g'riound forcesto the marine surface fleet 70 therefrom‘ the said indices being visiblly‘ refer
able to corresponding or registering indices upon
units‘, giving'the complete atmosphere of war
be-ing cenducted on land and sea, under
sea_,,;,and_ in-the air, in three dimensions orv al
titudes; each ofthe vessels beingcharactersd and.
powered, as a surface, or undersea or aerial unit,
enemy gameel-pieces of the opponent player (or
upon, those of both opponent players in the
doubleeteameg-amel' .l and ‘being? dependent upon
the'existence of such’ corresponding vor register
5
2,414,165
ing- indices upon the game-pieces of such op;
ponent, and particularly upon said enemy game
pieceswhich are of adiiferent character from the
respective ones upon which the opposite pieces
have: been so provided with such indices, and
upon the‘ auxiliary game-pieces above-mentioned,
elevation, and the airplane 6a shown in plan
view.
i
Figure 4, which, like 2, is on sheet 2 of the
drawings, is an enlarged view, centrally broken,
of the battleship game-piece in top plan.
Figure 5 is a similar enlarged plan view of
the aircraft-carrier game-piece.
visible to both players or all players simultane
Figure 6 is a similar enlarged plan view of the
ously,‘ as a constant revelation and display of
transport game-piece.
the appraisable situation presented to both or 10
Figure 7 is an enlarged view in perspective side
all players in determining the course of play,
elevation
and plan, of the destroyer game-piece.
and to the umpire and spectators in exhibition
Figure 8 is a view similar to Figure '7, of the
matches, also in order that any player or umpire
submarine game-piece.
may quickly check a wrong impermissible move
In all the ?gures of these two sheets of draw
onto an inhibited square by either player.‘
15 ings, the battleship and aircraft-carrier game
Lastly, it consists in the game I have worked
pieces are shown as being materially larger than
out embodying all these elements cooperating to
the
other pieces, for a purpose explained here
gether to create a simulated naval combat so
after. But it is not necessary that the propor
closely approximating the actual conditions and
strategy that it practically becomes a three 20 tion of these to the others be so great, nor that
the other ?eet-unit pieces all be so small rela
dimensional battle of reality on a two dimen
tively. The proportion of one to the other, or
sional surface of a special game-board which
others, is a matter of choice, provided that the
I have also worked out to extend to the game
purpose of having the battleship and the carrier
the strategy of wide scope of waters and maneu
materially larger, namely, to enable them to
vering that characterizes naval engagements
“occupy” more than one square, and extend over»
upon .the high seas, and which enables the
two squares at least in part, be carried out.
playing of an even more scienti?c and exciting
In manufacturing my invention, I ?rst make
game thereon, with four players whose individual
a game-board almost exactly like a regular chess
moves aifect constantly and materially the
and checker board, except that I construct it, or
strategy of play of the partner or ally and him
have it marked off, with eleven squares both in
self jointly, as well as that of his opponents.
width and depth, that is, eleven rows of eleven
In the accompanying drawings forming part
squares alternately black and white or equivalent
of this speci?cation, in which like numerals of
color or shade distinction. It is possible to play
reference indicate like parts in the several views:
the
single game upon a common chess board of
‘- Figure 1 is a plan view ofia game-board with‘
eight rows of eight‘squares, but the strategy ‘of
the main game-pieces of each of two opponents,
the game is cramped thereby, and where, as in
placed upon the edges of the board, with the
soldiers’
kits or other luggage, one can easily
subordinate game-pieces laid on the table or
carry the pieces but not also a board, I provide a
other surface beside the board, ready for play
in due course of the game. In this ?gure, I have All thin paper or other foldable-small outline or sur
face part, to be clipped upon a regular size chess
shown in dotted lines certain of the game-pieces,
or checker board, which will mean making the
both main and subordinate, as they appear or
squares slightly smaller thereon than on the
may’ appear in an actual game being‘ played.
eight-square common board on which it is ?tted,
These dotted '?gures of ‘the pieces‘ accurately
illustrate the play, demonstrate the varying re vb. Li in which case care is to be exercised that the
spective powers and theory of movements of the ' size of the squares and of the game-pieces is so
adjusted that the several pieces each ?t within
pieces, the position of launching of the subordi
one square, except those designed purposely to
nate pieces, the motions thereof already made,
be longer, as hereinafter described. I do not
and those permissible.
‘
I
In this ?gure I have used single arrow-headed 50 limit the board to eleven squares however, and
may employ a larger number provided an odd
dotted lines to indicate that the piece or pieces
number is used, so that the black squares, e. g.,
can move in that direction; double dotted lines,
always show at either end of the back lines or
arrow-headed, to indicate that the piece has al
rows. And" preferably, for the better playing
ready just moved as so shown; and zigzag lines,
of the game with adequate scope of movement,
arrow-headed, to indicate that the piece must not
and also being dependent upon being at all times
and can not move in that direction.
In Figure 2 I have shown the same game-board
with four sets of the game-pieces arranged to
' and not too much, I employ such number of
squares as will be double the number of ?eet
units or main pieces, plus one square, resulting
in eleven, in the ?ve-unit game shown.
Describing ?rst the game as designed for two
ers on each side. ,It will be noted that in this 60
opponents,
I manufacture ?ve main pieces in the
double game, the game-pieces‘ of each ally or
contour and character respectively of a sub
partner will be placed upon the board reversely
marine la, an airplane carrier 2a, a transport ves
to those of his said partner, and that while
sel 3a, a battleship 4a, and a destroyer 5a. The
each transport remains initially in. the centre of
pieces la, 3a, and 5a are made of a size to ?t
65
the‘ task-force, the other ?eet units which in
within a square of the game-board designed for
the single game lie at the left of the transport,
this game. The carrier 2a, and the battleship 4a,
and those which lie at the right} thereof,‘ are
are made large enough to cover in length all of
shown oppositely disposed relatively to the re
one square and'part of the square in front of
spective transports of the allied task-forces.
it, or in‘ other words “occupy” two squares at
:; Figure 3 shows in enlarged view one each, of 70 once, which is a part of the powering and move
ment-prescription of these pieces, and also a de
the subordinate game-pieces formingpart of the
terminant of their vulnerability, since a ‘vessel
invention, which are launched or ?red by'the
occupying two squares may not only move rela
{main ?eet-units as hereinafter described; the
tively
to said squares as hereinafter de?ned, but
shell. 9ozand . the . torpedo. 8a being shown in side
may be attacked in either square so occupied,
be played by four players, in teams of two play
2,414,185 I
[Alongside the player and. the board are laid
7 two airplanes 60,, la, or these planes may be made
8
from a destroyer or a submarine, or by an air
plane; then the carrier: and ‘the, transport, simi
larly dotted‘red', yellow andgreen, with the ‘same
small enough to place upon the carrier 2a. Near
ind-icated'vulnerability,which obviously in reality
them are laid ‘?ve shells 9a and ‘four torpedoes 8a.
these ?eet uni-ts‘ possess; next, there is the dc
The planes, once launched, are ‘maneuvered as
stroyer, red and green, indicating that it may be
?eet units, but in themanne‘r' of their launching
destroyed by a battleship-‘shell, or by an airplane
and the fact that they directly sink and destroy
with a bomb, but not by a torpedo, since actually
enemy pieces without, intermediate employment
a destroyer at speed will be able to dodgeor elude
of any other game-piece to d‘olthi‘s, they have
a torpedo, and under other conditions be pro
10
much the character ‘of the shells 9a; and the tor
tected-from such by a smoke screen or otherwise;
pedoes 8a, which ,aremissiles' appurtenant to'cer
next, vthe submarine, orange and green, indicating
tain ‘of the main ?eet units ‘la to 5d inclusive,
that it can be destroyed by a, destroyer, through
and usable only as such, and place'able upon the
ramming if on or near the surface or by a depth
board at all only in. connection therewith, as
also by an airplane bomb, while it cannot
hereinafter explained. The planes are supposed 15 charge,
be reached by a shell or a torpedo, being sub
to be bomlbers, hence are lethal‘ in themselves,
aqueous; lastly, the plane, red and green, indicat
without added missiles, such as shells or torpe
ing that it may be shot down by a shell, or “acke
does.
,
ack,” or ‘destroyed by. an enemy plane, but is not
Upon each of the main game-pieces and the
vulnerable-to
“yellow”~.torpedo or the .,“~or-.
subordinate ones, are‘ placed clearly and continu 20 ange” rammingtheattack
of a destroyer.
ously visible marks as indicia of power and-of
On the opposite side of the game-board there is
vulnerability. These indicia are’ dots or other
provided an exactly identical set of game-pieces
marks of severaldi?ere'nt colors. Those dots on
lb to 9b inclusive, identicallymarked. The op
the bow of ‘a vessel indicate ?rst the particular
posing task-fo‘rces and all , their subordinate
enemy pieces which the bearers of these dots-can
striking pieces or missiles, are each bodily-col
destroy. Concomitantly they indicate what mis
ored in'some uniform ,color or shade common to
all the pieces of the same side of the board, At
sile, if any, they can launch for the purpose of
such destruction. A dot of‘ a certain color, for
present I employ game-pieces respectively blue
example, indicates that the piece havingthat ‘dot
for one opponent, and gray for the other. ‘On
on its bow can launch or ?re any piece which is 30 the drawings, this distinction is represented by
handed or striped ‘with that identical color;
depicting one side in clear outlines,and theoppo
hence, consequently; itfollows that any colored
site side in hatched or shaded bodies.
7
band on apiece indicates to all players instantly
The powers , of destruction of the speci?edv
that this piece may be launched or fired by any
pieces, being so marked, are‘ fixed and not var
piece having a‘dot'on its bow of the same color
as that band.‘ If a banded piece bears a given
iant, and in fact reside and depend in and on the
characters given them, by their actually in real
color and no other piece carries a‘correspondingly
ity of warfare being quali?edto sink certain ves
colored dot on its how, it is clear that no other
sels in a certain way or ways, and to be in peril
piece can launch or ?re it.v The only instance
of this is in the case of thedestroyer, which ,1 40 from other vessels in de?nite other Ways, It be
ing of the essence of my‘ invention to‘apply- these
band with an orange color, which indicates that
powers and perils to the pieces, I further add to
the destroyer can sink and destroy any vessel
the same certain powers of relative and com
havingran orange mark on'its' stern or. tail, as
such tail marks are an indication of vulnerability
4 Cl
as follows:
A dot on thetail indicates that the gameepiece
so marked can be sunk by any piece bearing on
its bow portion a mark of exactly like color;
Pieces may have tail-dots of several colors, indic
ative of vulnerability to ‘any one ‘of several pieces
which have
provided with bow marks of any
color among those ‘found on the tail of any piece.
‘ 'The bow-dots or indicia of. power‘ to attack
pieces of which there are tail-dots of like color,
or of power to ?re or launch a banded piece, are
designated by the reference numeral l ; the bands
indicating that they may be. so launched or ?red,
are designated ! I, as is the band on the destroyer
indicating that it can destroy the submarine hav
ing a like colored tail-dot; the tail-dots indicat
ing vulnerability are designated 12.
As no'colors appear upon the drawings, I recite
the color-markings;- The banded pieces are the
destroyer, just mentioned, orange band; the air
planes, green lband; the shells, red band; the .tore
pedoes, yellow band. The ‘bow-dotted pieces are
carrier, green, indicating that it may launch the
plane; the battleship, red, indicating that it may
?re the shells; the destroyer and the submarine,
yellow, indicating that either may ?re or dis-_
charge the torpedoes; ‘the 'transport'may or‘may
not carry a red dot, and the shells. ‘The tail
dotted ‘pieces are the battleship, red, yellow and
green‘, indicating that it may be > destroyed either
by a shell from‘ the. enemy battleship, a torpedo
parative movements, to correspondwith the ac
tualities additionally.
‘1 First, the battleship and the, aircraft, carrier
are, as stated, made of a size to occupy effec
tively two contiguous and successive squares
each; thus these pieces may move from the stern
square sidewise in a pivoted rotary motion to
place the bow on any one of eight squares, or
seven other than the square on which said bow
has been resting; or using the bow as the focus
or pivot, the stern may be placed on any one of
eight squares surrounding said bow-focus-square;
or these pieces may move forwardly or rearwardly
in line with the longitudinal direction of the
piece upon the board just pr-iorto movingit.
These pieces may move anywhere, in any direc
tion, occupying diagonal .as well as straight ver
tically. or horizontally disposed squares, so long
as the piece stays in one of‘ the squares it already
occupies.
.
'
'
The submarine, ?ttingly with its character lim
its, is restricted to the black diagonal squares;
having the power to‘ move‘ two squares on its ?rst
move, skipping the intervening black square, and
this regardless of any piece then-lying upon the
said black square, which theoretically it passes
under, submerged. Aifterth-is ?rst'move, it/m‘ay
move but one square at a'time, always the black
diagonals
only.
-
‘
The destroyer moves two-squares ‘in a straight
line in 'anyvdire'ction ion‘ its ?rst -vmove,va‘nd~one
square onzsucces‘sive movements; which recog-x
‘2,414,165
9
nizes the wider scope of movement in varied
“tim is removed from the‘ board; the unit unus
directionsupon the surface of the seas than a
submarine, and the lesser power and shooting
‘range, of a destroyer compared to a battleship,
‘for example, which is given a greater scope of
movement as just above de?ned.
able thereafter‘, but the'missile re-usable,‘ con
formably to the nature of each and to realities.
It is‘of' courselunderstood that no piece may
move upon‘and into a square‘already occupied by
a piece to which it is vulnerable, but is‘ free to
do so if the square is occupied only by pieces‘ to
which it is invulnerable. Also that the players
The transport,‘conformably to its relative po
sition, and proportionate motility and speed
when loaded, is accorded movement in one square
in any direction at each turn.
The planes are launched, one at a time, as
each alternately move, one move at a time, as
above described, the one moving ?rst being de
cided by any agreed means or any rules estab
elected ‘by each player, and one may be placed
initially in any square contiguous to the carrier
from which it is launched, which launching con
lished.
The foregoing‘method of playing may
be varied in minor ways, and the game may still
‘be played, and will‘ still be the unique game in
sumes the move. It may be pointed in any direc 15 vented, based upon a near duplication ‘or’ repre
tion when so placed or launched, and at this
sentation of naval warfare in conditions trans
time makes no other move. On subsequent
ferred to a board of two dimensions to'enframe
moves, the plane moves two squares in the direc
a game of units operating authentically in three
tion in which it has been previously pointed, or
dimensions
or
media.
’
'
_
‘
l
'
:1
one move in any direction. At the completion of '20
In thedotted lines of Figure ‘l of the drawings,
a move, the plane may be repointed. It may not
‘are depicted the actual positions-of certain of
be repointed in the same space, but only after
the game-pieces in one stage of' an exemplary
moving to a new square, at the end of that move.
game tactically well and skillfully played.‘ 1It will
‘After the carrier is sunk, no planes can be
be seen that the player having a‘pieces has
launched therefrom.
The planes can pass over .
brought his battleship piece 4a up to centre of
any intervening piece on the board, being an
longitudinal squares, and has discharged a mis
sile, namely, a shell 9a, at the enemy battleship
aerial unit not in conflict with surface or un
dersea units, except a shell pointed directly at it,
libpwhich‘ shell, as shown ‘by the double-dotted
or another plane pointed directly at it.
lines vfrom the battleship to it, has moved-irom
The shells are ?red from the battleships in the so ‘said
battleship 4a‘ to the white square‘adjacent,
same manner as planes are launched; i. e., one
and as shown by the single-'dotted‘line may ‘on
"at a time, as a distinct move or turn of the player,
' in a space contiguous to the battleship.
the next move by‘player a proceed to the square
on which the bow of the enemy battleship rests,
They
may be pointed in any direction, and on succes
sive turns move one square at a time, only in the
and sink the same. It thus behooves ‘the enemy,
‘or b player, to move his battleship instead of
direction originally pointed, which may not at
any time be changed, conformably to the nature
proceedingwith his attack strategyr From the
same‘battleship éapon the‘ opposite" side, is an
‘of a ?red shell; anl for a like reason, when by
other shell '9a, which by like line's'is‘indicated‘to
successive movements they move off the board,
the player takes them back 'to'his place and 40 have been launched onto'the black square it'oc
‘cupies, and is to move to the next square‘in its
may ?re them again later, since no battleship is
pointed direction, ‘to sink‘or destroy the‘ airplane
supposedly limited to a handful of shells. A
‘6b.
The tortuous line from the plane 61) to the
shell may not be pointed at its own ?ring battle
battleship 4a, shows that the said plane ‘may not
ship.
'
Torpedos are ?red from destroyers and sub
marines in the exact manner in ‘which shells
are ?red from the battleships, except that on the
initial launching a torpedois located upon any
contiguous square, pointed in any direction, and
then moved immediately one square more, in the
same direction only, in which it Was initially 50
pointed. On successive moves, it also moves one
move to attack the ship, because it cannot occu
py and pass the square on which the shell 9a
rests, since that plane is vulnerable to the shell,
‘as indicated by the marked indicia on both‘pieces
‘as heretofore described. Moreover, the- carrier 211
has launched a plane 6a, as ‘shown by double
dotted lines, and may on the next‘ move of two
squares destroy the enemy plan'e?b, as shown by
‘single-dotted line,‘
_
On the other hand, the: 17
square at a time, like the shell, exclusively in
player has brought up-hisbattleship 4b and has
the initially-pointed direction, and is recover
1 ?red a shell 91) which 'as‘shown by‘dotted' lines
able like the shell, after being moved oiT-the
board, and re-usable, if either destroyer or 55 ‘as aforesaid, may occupy ‘the same‘ square as the
submarine lb, for this in' actuality is a subaque
submarine is still a?oat.
ous unit, while the shell is supposedly aerial.
A piece is destroyed when any other piece of
The submarine lbhas ?red a torpedo at battle
ship da, while a twisted dotted-line from destroy
er 5a indicates that it may not moveto and oc
an enemy, to which it is vulnerable as shown by
the indicia of power and vulnerability, marked
upon the several pieces, moves to the square it 60
cupy the same square as the'submarine. On an
is on. The entry upon the square of any enemy
other square a' destroyer 512 has ?red a torpedo
piece to which it is not vulnerable is of no effect.
which has traveled two-squares, as shown by dou
The battleship must sink an enemy by its shells.
The carrier by its planes. Thel submarine and
the destroyer by their torpedos, except that the
destroyer can sink the submarine by ramming it,
hence the entry upon the square by a destroyer
sinks any submarine occupying it.
Just as the
‘entry upon a square of a plane (bomber and
lethal per se) destroys any ?eet unit thereon. ‘
The destroying fleet unit survives and. re
mains upon the square.
A destroying 'missile,
‘shell or torpedo, entering a square housing a vul
-ne1"able unit, destroys the same, and with'its vic
hie-dotted lines, may occupy the same square as
.
its submarine lb, and is proceeding across that
‘square to sink destroyer 5a or the transport 3a
just beyond.
5
'
-
‘
i
-
‘
It‘ will of course be ‘understood that this is just
one of "many possible assemblies of the game
pieces in a ‘game whose players move these pieces
as they will, subject ?rst to the characters‘ and
'powersof the several‘ pieces, their inherent abil
"ity or inability to move thus or so, totoc‘cupy or
not occupy squares in common,‘their power to
‘sink or destroy this pieceor that- as indicated by
2,414,165
<11
.
12
the color indicia. on the- variousy-pieces, 35.11 of
which factors and attributes are ,?xed by thema
ture, of the fleet units in their travel- and opera
tion in their respective media, also ?xed by the
indicia upon them; and secondly subject to the
rules. of movement of certain of the pieces as de
creasingly augmentedrnumber and; separate-po
game in better consonance with the strategy
wrought from their ?xed natures and ?xed re
destroy enemy major game-pieces:"representing
sitions of both the major pieces; and the auxiliary
pieces, create a correspondingly increased; intri
ca'cy of network of perils, and escapes, of piece
relationships, of intriguing strategy and planned
tactics; the surface of the game-board present
ing therefore an increasingycomplexity and pat
scribed- herein, which mere rules are distinct
tern of game-pieces and problems, and unless the
from‘the ?xed inherent powers and characters
players are equally matched, there comesareal
of the pieces which reside in their supposed
traverse. in three media, and in the indicia speci 10 istic crumbling of the weaker side when, the aux“
iliary game-pieces are, successively operated to
?ed, which rules add to the rounding out of the
vessels; though, the player may of course exercise
his right. to; use ‘these auxiliary pieces to. destroy
While I have outlined the ‘present, and
lations.
preferable rules, for playing my newly-invented 1:5 as fast ‘as he places them each upon. the board,
if his opponent. does not preventv this'by counter
“naval game for purposes off-clarity of under
action of; defense or offense, ora move simulta
standing of said, invention and of’ the manner of
neously both. It will be noted that each auxili
operationthereof, these mere rules do not consti
ary piece is permissibly and presumably placed
tute my invention, nor the essential part there.
of ;v they enable comprehension of'the objects and '20 upon the board contiguously'to the major; piece
to" which it appertains by virtue of its speci?c
purposes of my invention, and of the novel fea
form and character, e. g;., the airplane may only
tures, ?xed, structural, permanent and inventive,
be launched from a plane-carrier, the shell ,(in
which I have devised and created, whereby a
tendedly a, heavy bomb-shell)‘ from-abattleship,
game is produced which is or may be played in
the'manner set forth hereinabove. The essential 25 the torpedos from the light destroyer and ‘sub
marine, which‘ of course ' in actuality cannot
invention, and the, wholly original factors of the
carryand ?re guns of the calibre of a battleship
game never hitherto known, are ?rst, the three
?ring shells of major size, and therefore are‘
dimensional game, embodying game-pieces con
structed in- advance unalterably thereafter,
given in my game the torpedoes as; their missiles; >
which by their very structure and identifying 30 thus . the distance to which the major 'vesselsiare
moved, and their consequent contigu-ity' to the
features, are charactered and empowered, and
enemy, govern the nearness of approach thereto
concomitantly limited and inhibited, to act in
certain ways, move in certain manner and not
other, to move one way if a con?icting game
piece is not there, and not so move if it is, to de
stroy, conquer or capture one piece and not an
other, these ind-icia being wholly dependent up
on the structure and identifying marks upon an
of the auxiliary ‘game-pieces launched orv?re by
, said major piecees.
It; is possible for a game
35 which starts with ten simply and distantly re,
lated pieces, to become a game of thirty two
game-pieces in near complexly related positions
of mutual or- one-side-dominant perils‘. vThus it
will be; seen that these auxiliary game-pieces not
enemypiece of an entirely different character, so
that the game-pieces are interdependent per se in 40 only enable me to produce (with the indicia ?xed
upon each game-piecengoverning inherently its
herently, and by that interdependence and iden
ability and inhibitions of movemenu'its vulner
tifying and empowering and inhibiting indicia, I
ability and invulnerability to, and powers of de
,may operate on a plane board the game of three
struction) a' game of three dimensions or trav
dimensions, three vertically distinct strata of
traverse, with the ability and quali?ed power to 45 erse or strata, as before‘ described, but inany and
all strata of battle,lin the very essence of the
invade the other two strata, and destroy a vessel
whole game, they also help’ to create an entirely
therein, or inhibit the movements of another ves
original naval- game of this class offering situa—
sel. or gamespiece, by any and- all of the game
tions and alterations of ‘situations not common
.pieces of each stratum, so that they are con?ned
to a. supposed medium or intra-stratum move 50 1y a feature of any games of‘ thisi‘class or even
-ment while empowered on occasion representing
the conditionsof combat, to engage in inter
strata battle and destruction; secondly, the
game-pieces- are provided in the form and meas
ure of a set number of major characters, fash
ioned to represent the major vessels of a task
generally related nature.
‘
,
It will also be manifest that this game may
‘ consequently be played by ‘players of differing
skills and expertness; by the players ‘mutually
agreeing to, or tournament-organizers imposing,
force escortinga transport, which vessels are set
a handicap upon one player ‘or team of playing
with a lesser number of' auxiliary game-pieces
on certain de?nite squares at the outset, while I
than the opponent.
. provide auxiliary game-pieces held in reserve and
placed, as the game proceeds, upon squares usu
ally and designedly other than the base squares
of starting, which auxiliary game-pieces, are suc
Cessively placed upon the board, and remain up
'
Changes in the mere'rules of playing may be
60 made and minor changes in'the device or details
in immaterial respects likewise, without ‘affecting
in any'way’the essence of my invention, especial
ly such structural or distinctive features and ele
ments of the invention hereinabove described as
on said board as long as the player elects, and
‘each, is or may be started or entered into the 6.5 are inherent and necessary therein to. produce
the novel game I have devised, and which
game at a different spot or square usually more
measurably prescribe at. least generally and, fun
and more remote from the base, these auxiliary
damentally the manner in which it. is playedas
game-pieces, being movable upon the board at all
times and capable of being both initially placed, ‘ .most of the attributes of. my game, and of the
and continually further placed, in various and 70 gameepieces thereof, combine to evolve the strat
egy and tactics approximating those of actual
different squares upon the board relatively to the
naval Warfare in which an, amphibious expedition
.major game-pieces both of‘ the playerand espe
or task force embodying ?eet units of_ the sub
cially of his opponent, so that the game becomes
aqueous, surface and aerial branches, is engaged,
more plentiful ofv pieces upon the board as it
1. account as of my invention all such minor and '
-.-progresseS, the intertwined menaces of the in
2,414,165
'
'
13
colorful variations thereof as fairly come within
its spirit, and within the scope and purview of the
claims de?ning the same hereunto ultimately ap
pended.
In Figure 2 of the drawings, I have shown the
four-player game, or two-team game, in which
a pair of partners on each side, join together in
an allied attack against opposed ?eets or similar
ly allied task forces.‘ The partners may play with
their vessels aligned on opposite sides of the
board, with each player allotted game-pieces of
v14
visibly appropriate to ‘the several major game
pieces representing battleship, aircraft-carrier,
destroyer and submarine, these auxiliary game
pieces representing the portion of the pieces used
in the game which are to be employed in destroy
ing enemy pieces by motion of said auxiliary
pieces upon the game-board and by their said
form and shapes visibly showing that they are
such missiles or appurtenant adjuncts and being
adapted to be placed upon the surface near the
game-board and to be successively placed and
moved upon the‘said board by each respective
player in squares contiguous to those occupied
on one side my have men all of one color, and
those of the opposite side have men of all one 15 by the major pieces to which they are so appur~
tenant; both'the said major game-pieces and the
color, e. g., all-blue team against all-gray team.
auxiliary game-pieces being distinctively marked
The partner strategy wherein a total‘ of ten ves
with indicia of like color but different design vis
sels is massed in skilful positions to destroy the
ible at all times to all the players and others
enemy totally or piece by piece, will be found
more lively, more deadly to deal with, more sub 20 about the game, and showing by the particular
indicia upon each, just which auxiliary "piece or
tle. It is not essential that the men of each two
missile or other adjunst they can launch or ?re,
team side be posted both‘in alignment laterally,
or be launched or ?red by, and with just which
as shown in Figure 2, but such arrangement is
other
pieces they can occupy a square, and to
better calculated to produce an interesting game
which pieces they‘are vulnerable or contrarily in
than the alternative, which is quite permissible,
vulnerable.
'
of posting the game-pieces ?ve on each (left
2.
In
a
game
of
the
class
described,
playable
hand or right-hand) corner of the board. The
upon a checker-squared board, two or more sets
game may also be played as a battle royal in
a distinctive color, whereby, e. g., the blue and
gray oppose the red and yellow, or the players
which each ?eet or task force operates independ
ently, but this is not so ?tting to the nature of
naval warfare so closely simulated by my game,
and its various novel features, which by my in~
vention departs markedly from the ‘ old-style
naval game in which simple replicas of naval ves
sels move like checker-men or parcheesi-men in
arbitrarily and monotonously uniform motion
on a board according to some simple set of rules
bearing no relation to the conditions underlying
naval warfare as a?ecting convoying by a task
force of three dimensions or media.
‘
Where I specify red, green, yellow, orange, etc.,
for superposed color markings for the designed
purpose, this is a descriptive, not a limiting, la
belling, in that one color may be substituted for
another, provided all marks named as of that
color, on every game-piece, are also changed in
marking to match.
of player-distinguished game-pieces representing
various vessels respectively adapted for combat
in the sub-aqueous, surface and aerial strata, and
constituting the major game-pieces of the game,
such as are customarily placed upon the board
at its outset in base positions; and two or more
sets of player-distinguished auxiliary games
pieces matching each set of major game-pieces,
and fashioned to represent appurtenant or ad
junct warfare items commonly carried by some of
the vessels represented by the major game-pieces,
whereby they are visibly distinctive therefrom
and appurtenant thereto, and whereby they may
be thus appropriately employed in a game where
they are intended to be placed near but not on the
board and only moved thereon by the player up
on a square contiguous to one of the major game
pieces during the progress of the game; both the
major game-pieces and the auxiliary game-pieces
being distinctively marked with indicia of like
Having thus fully described my invention,‘ its
color
but different design showing visibly at all
mechanism, principle, and operation, what I
times to all the players which of the auxiliary
claim is:
50 game-pieces may be launched or ?red by which
1. In a game of the class described, playable
major game-pieces, and with which pieces any
upon a checker-squared board, two or sets of
of
either major or auxiliary pieces is vulnerable
player-distinguished game-pieces representing
or invulnerable thereto, and with which ones
various vessels respectively adapted for combat
they may occupy the same squares.
in the several areas or strata, the sub-aqueous,
3. In a game of the class described, playable
the surface, and the aerial, each set of game
upon a checker-squared board, two or more sets
pieces being divided into two separate divisions or
of player-distinguished game-pieces represent
sections, namely, a plurality of major game
ing various vessels respectively adapted for com
pieces of a size to occupy and ?t within and upon
bat in the sub-aqueous, surface, and aerial strata,
a single square, and respectively shaped like a
and constituting the major game-pieces of the
destroyer, a submarine and a transport-vessel, 60 game
such as are customarily placed upon the
and a pair of other major game-pieces shaped
board
in base positions before starting the game,
respectively as a battle-ship and an aircraft-car
to
commence
or initiate the ?eet-unit movements
rier of a size each to substantially occupy two
thereof; and two or more sets of matching player
squares-each of the same board, whereby visibly
distinguished auxiliary game-pieces fashioned to
to be charactered and powered to move in any 65
represent
appurtenant or adjunct warfare items
direction from either of the two squares so occu
such as missiles and airplanescommonly carried
pied by each in a game where such condition gov
by vessels such as represented by the major
erns such pieces, while the other major pieces will
game-pieces, and'being adapted to be appropri
show that they are not to be powered and mov
able from more than one space or square; and 70 ately employed in a game where they are ‘intend
ed to be placed near but not on the board and
two or more sets of player-distinguished auxil
iary game-pieces formed and shaped and charac
tered as missiles or. appurtenant stored and car
ried adjuncts of different purposes and functions
then-moved upon it upon a square contiguous‘to
the respective vessels or major game-pieces dur
ing the progress of the game, to be employed in
said game as substantially or nearly or mainly
aerator
15
the. sole; lethal Qr destructive piecesmoved to. de
stroy enemy pieces ;. both. the major game-pieces
and the, auxiliary game-pieces being distinctively
marked with indicia of like color but different
design, visible at all times to all players, and
showing which of the various pieces may occupy
squares in common during the progress of the
game, which of the major pieces may launch from
contiguous squares to them certain of the missile
or adjuncts, to which they are vulnerable or in
16
whereby visibly to be, empowered to. move.
any
direction from either of said squares. in, a, game
where it is part of the. playing mode that they
are so empowered; and two or more sets of
matching player-distinguished auxiliary game
picces fashioned as visible adjuncts or appurte
nances to certain of the major game-pieces re:
spectively, to- show visibly their employability in
connection with and operability from the squares
of the. game-board contiguous to the said major
game-piece, the said auxiliary game-pieces rep
vulnerable, the said indicia consisting of marks
resenting respectively airplanes and missiles
upon the, bow of the vessels of the major pieces
commonly carried by the major game-piece ves
and; registering complementary but not identical
sels
and being adapted to be employed as such
marks upon, certain, of the auxiliary pieces to in
adjuncts,
and to be moved upon the same plane
dicate that they may launch or ?re, said auxili 15
of the game-board when placed thereon in the
ary‘ pieces, and which enemy pieces similarly
progress or the game; both the major game‘
marked they may thereby destroy, and marks
pi‘eces and the auxiliary game-pieces. being
upon the tail or stern of the said major game
marked with indicia, of several different colors, to
pieces. which indicate to which other game-pieces
they are vulnerable and may in the game be de 20 visibly show to all players at all times the inter
stroyed , thereby.
4., In a game of the class described, playable
upon a checker-squared board, two or more sets
dependent movement and inhibition of :move;
ment of the several major and auxiliary pieces,
their ability or inability to occupy the same
squares, their Vulnerability or invulnerability, the
ioned respectively as vessels of three vertical 25 said indicia consisting of marks of like colors and
different forms, such as dots and bands, upon the
strata of combat or traverse, each set being mov
major piece and theauxiliary respectively, the
able upon the same plane of the game-board;
dot upon the major piece being placed upon the
two or more matching. player-distinguished sets
bow
of the vessel,_and complementary dots of the
of auxiliary game-pieces visibly fashioned as ap
purtenant game-pieces respectively adjuncts of 30 several colors being placed upon the tail or stern
of the major pieces to indicate that they may be
- certain of the vessels of the major pieces, and
destroyed by a, major or auxiliary piece bearing
also movable upon the same plane of the game
that
same color: all whereby a-game of the afore
board as all the other pieces when they are placed
said combat in three dimensions may be played
thereon in the progress of the game; all or most
of, the pieces being marked with indicia visible at 35 upon the plane surface of the said game-board,
and whereby there is produced a game of in
all times to all players, showing constantly
creasingly numerous, game-pieces upon the said
which major pieces may launch or ?re which
board, moved thereon in the, progress of‘ the
~ auxiliary ones, which auxiliary ones may be so
game, and placed initially upon squares near the
?red by said major pieces, which major pieces are
vulnerable or invulnerable to certain other pieces, 40 already advanced major pieces with which the
game is started.
and‘ which may occupy squares in common with
6. In a game of the class described, playable
which others, the said indicia being a mark of
upon
a checker-squared board of plane surface,
given color in selected form, such as a dot, and
two sets of game pieces for each player in said
the auxiliary piece or pieces being marked with
game, the ?rst set being the vessel-shaped major
a like given color in a different form such as a
pieces designed to be placed upon the board at
band, the said dot on each major piece being
the outset, the second set being auxiliary game
placed upon its. bow to indicate its destructive
pieces fashioned to represent adjuncts to said
power to pieces complementarily marked with
major pieces and adapted to be placed upon the
the samecol‘or, and each major piece being also
marked on the tall with a mark of one or more 50 board and moved over its plane surfac'e'durin'g
progress of the game; both of said sets of game
colors to indicate its vulnerability to attack by a
pieces matching in color or equivalent distin
vessel or vessels having a dot of like color or
guishment; the major pieces being representa
dots of various respective colors on it bow, or to
tive of vessels of three combat strata but wholly
an auxiliary piece or pieces having a comple
or mainly not directly destructive of enemy
mentary band or bands: whereby a game of
pieces; all of said pieces, both major and auxthree-dimensional warfare may be played upon a
of player-distinguished major game-pieces fash
plane surface by the game-pieces representing
the vessels of said three combat strata, and the
said auxiliary pieces.
iliary, being provided with conspicuous indicia
visible to all players, and interdependently com-'
plementary and varied in position upon each of
the several pieces in such arrangement that a
5. In a gamev of the class described, playable 60
mark in one place upon one piece, and in an
upon a checker-squared game-board; two or
more sets of player-distinguished game-pieces
fashioned respectively to represent various ves
sels vadapted for comb-at in or from the several
areas or strata, the sub-aqueous, the surface, the
aerial, each set of major pieces being divided into
two sections or sizes, namely, a plurality of such
game-pieces of a size to occupy and ?t within
and upon a single square of the game-board, and
. respectively shaped like a destroyer, a submarine
and a transport, and adapted to be appropriately
employed in a game where such pieces are allot
ed certain single or otherwise equal movement,
and a pair of other major game-pieces of a size
each to occupy two squares of the same. board
other place upon another piece, indicates that
the one may employ or destroy some other,
while that other by its complementary mark is
shown to be employable by one piece or destruc
tive to another, or v‘may be both and certain of
the major pieces and each of the auxiliary
pieces vbeing marked with such indicia like in
color but di?erent- in design.
>
"
Y' 7. In a game of the class described, playable '
on a checker-squared board, two sets or main
game-pieces, one colored as blue, and the other
as gray, in the shape of a battleship, an airplane
carrier, a transport, a destroyer, and a subma
rine, the ?rst two. about twice as long as the oth=
17
2,414,165
18
ers, to visibly occupy twice as many squares on
submarine and so identify the game-piece as a
any given board; two or more sets of auxiliary
game-pieces also colored as blue and as gray,
vessel thus attackable in actual warfare, and the
plane auxiliary game-piece being provided with
constructed to lie upon and be movable on, a ?at
tail-dots of red and green color to identify it as
a unit actually vulnerable to a shell or another
plane; whereby also a game may, when so de
sired, be played upon a ?at board of two dimen
game-board, and comprising at least two planes,
approximately ?ve pieces constructed like shells,
and four like torpedoes; the said plane game
pieces being marked with a green band and the
sions, with the game-pieces self-identi?able as
carrier piece with a green dot on the bow there
of, to visibly denote that said plane is a game
piece belonging adjunctively to the carrier, the
operable, and destructive, and vulnerable, by
10 such units as would in actuality be operable in
shells being marked with a red band and the bat
tleship with a red dot on its bow, to denote that
such auxiliary game-piece belongs to the battle
ship game-piece, the torpedo game-pieces be
ing marked with yellow bands and the destroyer
and the submarine game-pieces being marked
with yellow dots on their bows to denote that the
torpedo game-pieces belong to the said destroy
er and submarine game-pieces; the battleship
game-piece being also marked upon its stem with 20
dots of red, green and yellow to further identify
the same either surface, aerial or sub-aqueous
stratum or combat traverse,
8. In a game of the class described, two sets of
game-pieces color-distinguished, representing
major vessel units; two matching sets of like
colored pieces movable on a ?at board, and con
structed in the shape of planes, shells and torpe
does; each of the major game-pieces being bow
marked with a distinctive color superposed upon
its overall color, and each of the plane, shell
and torpedo game-pieces being marked with a like
superposed color in a di?erent pattern; at least
said game-piece as a vessel which customarily
one of the plane, shell or torpedo game-pieces,
can be destroyed by a plane, a shell, or a torpedo;
and all the major game-pieces representing ma_
the transport and the carrier being likewise so
marked with stern-dots so identifying; the de 25 jor vessels being alsomarked with a plurality of
several other stern color marks in addition; all
stroyer game-piece being marked with stem
of said superposed colors being varied in tint and
dots of red and green for like reminder and iden
meaning; whereby a game playable in a strategy
ti?cation; the submarine being provided with
of
actual three-dimensional warfare may be,
stern-dots of green and orange, and the destroy
er being marked with an additional band of 30 when so desired, played upon a‘ ?at two-dimen
{sional board.
orange color to denote also its ability to ram a
GUY PASCHAL.
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