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Filed Sep'r.. 27, 1944
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Patented Jen. 14, 1947
rms coUPLING
Paul n. wmbiirger, cleveland ohio
_. l
Application september 27, 1944, serial Ne. 556,004 1 Claim.
(ci. ass-122)
This invention relates to tube or pipe couplings
and more particularly to that' type of tube or pipe
' avoid this objection by one of three expedients. -
» a material harder than the pipe to be connected
and which is adapted to be constricted. when -
In Figs, 2 and 3 there is shown a body .portion
having a hardened inner camming surface or`
'flared mouth. This is difficult ii’ not impossible
forced against a 4camming shoulder or flared
mouth of a body member ofthe coupling in such
a way that the-internal sharp edge cuts or bites
into the outer surface of the tube or pipe to be
to produce on the inside of a brass member
and hence is undesirable. In Fig. 4 there is shown
an insert which may be of relatively hard ma
terial, i. e. material harder than that of the pack
ing ring. This complicates the problem of manu
facture as it requires the making of an additional
member which must be carefully machined and
coupled to form its own seat, providing a satisfac
Couplings of this general nature are disclosed
in the United- States Patents Nos. 2,139,413
granted December 6, 1938, 2,171,217 granted Au
' then threaded into the body member proper.
gust 29, 1939, 2,201,404 granted May.21, 1940,
2,211,856 granted August 2'0, 1940, and 2,230,116
The form shown in Fig. 5 illustrates a lining cf
hard material located within the flaredl mouth of
the relatively soft body member cc which also
is difficult to construct in order to provide satis
It has been found in the use of these couplings
that certain difliculties have been experienced,
for example, when it is desired to couple a tube
or pipe of relatively hard material such as steel
or other ferrous material to a body member which
may be softer than the steel of the pipe. It is
The last patent referred to, 2,230,116, seeks to
provided with a forward internal sharp edge of
granted January 28, 1941.
coupling employing a sleeve or packing member _
tory hydraulic and mechanical Joint.
, manufacturing point of view, to structures of this
factory operation.
My present invention seeks to avoid these vari
ous difficultiesv by a relatively simpler expedient,
which is cheaper from the manufacturer's point
of view, yet entirely satisfactory in` operation and
necessary, of course, that the packing ring, which 25 use and requires no additional members and no
is intended to bite or cut into the material of
4special hardening of `any of the parts. More
the pipe be of some‘material which is either in
speciiically I have discovered a comparatively
herently harder than that of the pipe or can be
simple mathematical relationship of the several
made so by suitable treatment. When this ma
parts, which, if followed, will result in overcom
terial is used in conjunction with a camming
ing the difllculties above referred to by taking
-surface of a flaring mouth in a softer body mem
into account the dimensions and hardnesses of
ber, there is a danger that instead of the body
the several parts and vwhich then determines as a
Y member camming the packing ring into biting or
of design the limiting dimensions or rela
' cutting engagement with the tube, the packing
tionships which may be used to attain the de
ring will bite into the camming surface itself,
sired results without expensive additional parts,
which is undesired,” thus either preventing the ' special hardenings or diiiicult and costly addi
making of a-satisfactory coupling or so distort
Vtional machining operations.
provision of
ing the camming surface that the coupling may ` a coupling having mathematicalThe
relationships or
not be uncoupled and again recoupled in a satis
proportions in accordance with these teachings is
factory way. To avoid this all' the above men
a primary object of the present invention.
tioned patents with the exception of the last one,
_I have further discovered that in order to pre
resort to the expedient of providing a packing
vent the packing ring from biting into the cam
ring having an undercut portion, so that the
A.ming surface, it is desired that the outer lead
cutting edge was- disposed at a substantial dis
ing edge thereof be rounded, in accordance with a
tance inward from the end of the packing ring 45 specific mathematical relationship taking into
ì and the portion oi’ the packing ring arranged
consideration the moduli of elasticity oi? the ma
to engage the camming surface was thin in re
terial of the packing ring and that of the ñared
spect to that portion opposite the cutting edge.`
mouth arranged to contact it. The provision of
~ This was an eifective solution to the problem and
a packing ring constructed in accordance with
is entirely satisfactory in use. However, theme 50 this novel relationship is a further object to the
chanical operation of forming packing rings in
this way is quite diilicult, as it requires very ac
curate machining on parts which are sometimes
quite small. The resultant dimculty and expense
' ‘ thereof presents a very real objection, from the ,
present> invention.
A more specific object of the present invention
in thisrespect is t0 provide this curvature in
such a manner that it will not unduly weaken
the packing ring, particularly that portion there
pling, as well as the tube T, will usually but not
'necessarily be made of metal.
To facilitate explanation of my invention and
of which is subject to the compressive forces in
cident to the camming operation required to com
plete a coupling» For this purpose I have pro
clarify the appended claim, I shall .refer to that ‘
vided a speciñc >relationship by which the curved
portion of the packing ring which lies to the left
portion is restricted to the outer half of the thick- 5 of the vertical broken line in Fig. 1 as the “active
ness Aof-Ithe packing ring and bears a desired
zone” or “active end” of the packing ring. By
specific tangential relation to the outer surface
this I mean more or less of that part of the pack
ing ring S which has entered the body member B
While the invention may be embodiedin other
and has been deformed or constricted by the fiar- `
forms of apparatus, I have `illustrated in the l0 ing mouth M after the parts have been assembled
drawing what I now consider to be' a preferred
and the nut N tightened. As indicated above, the
type of coupling for carrying my invention into
opposite end of thepacking ring may likewise be
practice. Other forms or variations will occur
provided with a similar active zone to provide for
. to tl'i‘ose skilled in the art
after .I- have explained
15 'its reversibility in use and so as to make the de
vice substantially fool-proof in assembling.
In order satisfactorily to perform its cutting
Figure l. is a longitudinal section of a coupling
function the packing ring S is made of material
embodying my invention associated witheáhtube
which'is harder than that of the tube T with
or pipe about to be coupled;
' ‘
which the coupling is to` be employed. Prefer
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view
ably "the packing ring S is of lowjcarbon steel,
`the coupled or sealed position;
surfacev hardened, when the tube to be coupled is
Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the
of steel. The_body member B and the nut N can
parts in an undesirable relation;
i "' “
be made of any suitable material, preferably ine
Fig. d is a similar view showing similar parts inl ' tallic. The body member B need not >necessarily
my invention herein.
Referring to the drawing:
l be of a material harder than that of the packing
a permissible
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic
showing cf the end
e if o_fj'
ring S; it may be of the same hardness or softer.
the cutting sleeve in reference to the rounding di
The definite relationship (mentioned above)
the corner-:engageable with theiiared mouth; and
between certain physical characteristics that
Figs. 6 and 'l show modiñed‘forms of the cutlï
‘ ting sleeves-'or packing rings.
Q should not be exceeded and which, if obeyed, gives
Referring to the drawing, it will be noted that îy
the particular form of coupling illustrated` com«
mises ‘a body portion B externally threaded to ree'
«valuable and unobvious results; will now be ex
caumg the armen hardness number of the
surface of the flared mouth M in the body mem
ceive a nut Naud provided at its end with a cone- ' ~ ber B-“Ha”, and the Brinell hardness number of
Mterminating in a shoul~ 3 5
shaped or dared mouth
the material of the active zone or end of the pack
der 6. A tube T with which the coupling is to be
ing ring S-“Hs” (I have taken the _Brinell hard
employed is inserted in the body portion until its ` . A ness of that for a ‘i0 millimeterball at 3,000 kilo
entering end/abuts the shoulder t. The vnut
f` grams) and where a represents the angle of inhas a shoulder t, shown sloping in the drawing.
clination of the dared or conical mouth M meas
for the purpose of cooperating with a packing
ured from the axis of the coupling as indicated in
ring S so as to force the latter longitudinally ‘to
Fig. 1, and i is the wall thickness in inches in the
wards the body portion B andto compress its rear
active zone or end of the packing ring S as indi#
end 'l against the tube T as the nut is tightened ~
cated in Fig. l, the relationship which I have dis
up. The sleeve ifor packing ring S is shown in
covered is expressed by the following equation:
the form of a hollow cylinder of generally uniw, d5
form internal and external diameters prior to
use. Preferably, although not necessarily, Iso
construct vthe packing ring S that either end
à HS *cos 2a
For any particular valuesv of Brinell hardness
zone, whereby assembly is facilitated. Each lead- do number (HB) of the body member and (Hs) the '
packing sleeve, the value of the right hand term
ing end of the packing ring S comprises an in
of the equation should not exceed that of the left
ternal cutting edge, of which one is indicated at
hand term. k is a constant which is substan
I, and an external curved portion 3 for coopera
' thereof may be employed as’the active end or
tion with the sloping wall of the flared mouth M
tially -31- insignificant digits being disregarded
of the body portion B. The intended operation 55 and the value 3l. being sumciently practical. If
the particular packing> ring S is one which has
is substantially as follows:
had its surface hardened, say to a depth of a
In assembling, the tube 'I' is placed in the body
few thousandths of an inch, leaving a. soft core
portion B until, as stated above. its leading end
within the hardened packing ring, then the value
abuts the shoulder 6 of the body portion. The
sleeve S is placed in the position shown in Fig. 1, a@ of Hs should be taken as one-half the measured
surface Brinell hardness number.
likewise lthe nut N, and the latter is tightened on
I have found that if the above relationship is
the body portion B until the parts assume the
observed, i. e. the value of the right hand term
relative position shown in Fig. 2 where it will be
seen Athat the forward movement vof the packing ^ of the equation is equal 'or -smaller‘than that of
ring S, i. e. its movement toward the body mem- c5 the left hand term, the end of the packing ring
S will not deleteriouslyv affect the conical mouth
ber B has caused the leading inner cutting edge
or camming shoulder M when forced into it and
4 to cut, dig or plow into the outer surface of the
it is not necessary to provide the active end of
tube T striking up an annular ridge 5 around
`the packing ring E; vwith'special yielding means,
the entire periphery of the tube T.
This coupling, if constructed according to my 70 or to hardenthe surface of the flaring mouth M
deeper, or to a state harder than the packing
invention, provides a 'very effective and emcient
duid-tight seal betweenthe'tube Tand the body
member B and is comparatively inexpensive to
_ manufacture and easy to assemble.
The component parte or elements of
the touw is
When the forward end of the cutting ring for
cibly contacts the surface of the flared mouth or
funnel orcamming shoulder M of the body of the
respective parts of the sleeves other than the
As shown in Fig. 5 when the desired- radius is
active ends thereof. ‘
sr'nall in respect to the thickness of the sleeve so
In accordance with the provisions of the patent
statutes, I have herein -described the principle of
that 'the rounding takes the shape or the arc 2t,` '
the arc may conveniently be struck from a center
i operation of my invention, together with the ap
lying in a line at 45? to the inner and outer sur
faces of the sleeve as at 2i. The rounded corner
20 will »bear smoothly on the flared mouth and
fairly close to the front face 30 of the forward
end of the sleeve S. as will be apparent upon in
paratus which I now consider to represent the
best embodiments thereof, but I desire to have it
understood that the apparatus disclosed is only
lillusizrativeand that the invention can be carried
spection of Fig. 5, where the line M2 represents 16 lout-by other.l means. Also, while it is designed
the flared mouth. If, however, the prescribed -,._toïu'se the various features and elements in the
._¿z'comblnation and relations described, some of
radius should .be somewhat greater than the
thickness o‘i the sleeve S as I have illustrated by ~ "these may be altered and others omitted, and
some oi.' the 'features of each modiiicationr'nay be
the arc 22 struck from a center point 123, the
condition would be less desirable, in my present 15 embodied in the others, without interfering with
the more general results outlined, and the inven
view, by virtue, oi excessively thinning down the
tion extends to such use within the scope of the
sleeve above and adjacent to the cutting edge I.
appended claim.
To accommodate such larger radii and to pre- v
, serve a substantial square height above the cut
What4 is claimed is:
ting edge ¿i as up to the point 3l, for example, 20
‘ I prefer to move thecenter from which such
Means for coupling a pipe oi relatively- hard
material to a iitting ~of relatively soft material,
wherein said iitting has a shoulder for engage
ment with the end of the pipe to be. coupled there- ,
to the point 2d so that the rounding of the edge
to andv a substantially frusta-conical, outwardly ,
will follow the arc 25, or substantial tangency,
retaining, of course, its tangency to the outer sur 25 ,flared recess therein, comprising a ring ofmate
_rial harder than that >of the pipe having a curved iace of the sleeve.` This permits the square front
leading edge adapted slidingly to engage with the
surface between the points 4 and 3i to be sub
inner conical surface of said recess, and means
- stantially half the thickness o! the sleeve, as' I
radius is struck forwardly from the point 2d as .
cooperating withsaid ring and said fitting i'or
, prefer, and will permit the arc 25to have its ini
tial line'oi contact with'the dared mouth of the 30 forcing said ring into camming engagement with
body to be well forward on the curve as at about
' the conical surface of said recess, the angle of -the
the point 26 so that the inwardly (downwardly
as viewed in Fig. 5) acting forces will be reason
common axis' of 'said pipe and said fitting and
corneal surface of said recess in‘respect to the -. '
the thickness of said ring being jointly deter
ably adjacent to the `front face 30 of the sleeve .
and the cutting edge l.
In Figs. 6 and 7 I have illustrated two modi
35 mined in accordance with the hardness of the
surface oi said recess andthat oi the surface
contacting portion of said ring so as to prevent
undesired deformation of the surface of said re
cess upon the completion of the coupling such as
f >accordance with the teaching 0I the instant
speciiication. The thickened portion Il! o! .the 40 will-prevent effective re-use of the coupling.
~ fied forms o! cutting rings or sleeves Si and Sz.
The'active ends ci these rings are constructed in .
`sleeve «Si and the thickened .portion 4l of thel
sleeve S2 are each disposed to give strength to the ` `
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