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Jan. 14, 1947.
E, BORSTING
2,414,187
ROTARY COMPRESSOR OR SUPERCHARGER
Filed April` 19. 1943
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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¿Ni/ENTOR
Er'llng
Borshng.
Jan. 14, 1947.”
E‘. BORSTING
2,414,187
ROTARY COMPRESSOR OR SUPERGHARGER
Filed April 19, 1943
'
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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Fig. 11 ¿_
l /N VENTO/e
BY CœbJK'W
Erhn Bors l `.
1g
ng
A TTO‘RNE V5
Patented Jan. 14, 1947
2,414,187
UNITED STATES " PATENT NoFFicE
Erling Borsting, Mount Vernon, Ohio
Application April 19, 1943, Serial No. 483,589
.(cl. 23o-152)>
2 Claims.
l
‘
My invention relates to a rotary compressor or
2
the reversal of rotation of _the power plant or
other instrumentality to which it is connected.
Generally speaking, the compressor, blower or
.supercharger embodying my invention, as shown,
It has to do particularly with a
reversible compressor or supercharger adapted to
>use as a scavenging blower for two-cycleinternal
combustion engines, although its use is not nec
l supercharger.
consists of a housing or casing; one side thereof
essarily so limited since it »is equally well adapted
having an intake opening and the other side anl ,
for use as a supercharger for two-cycle or four
cycle engines, as well as a rotary pump for-liq
exhaust or discharge opening. A drive shaft is
mounted in suitable` bearings carried by hangers
located within the housing and carries a rotor
uids, such, for example, as oil.
`
_ The reciprocating type of scavenging blowers 10 provided with a plurality of preferably linedvpock
of the prior art which are used on two-cycle en
ets in which slidable vanes or blades are located.
gines are directly reversible and therefore are’
The shaft and the rotor are arranged eccentrical
suitable for reversible engines. This type of blow- '
ly within the housing. Interposed between the
er is necessarily very large and therefore not
‘housing and the rotor is a cylindrical member
suitable for use with high speed engines. «Here 15 or cylinder having a plurality of ports'formed
tofore, high speed engines have used some form
therein and with which the vanes coopera-te to
of rotary compressors or blowers, usually the Roots
compress the air or other fluid entering through
type.`
,
the intake opening. The ports in the cylinder
' Rotary compressors or blowers are not reversi
are adapted to align or register with the intake
‘ ble for the reason that if their _direction of ro 20 and exhaust openings and since the cylinder is
tation is reversed the air flow is also reversed and
free to be rotated automatically through approxi
therefore the blower could not be used with a
mately 180 degrees at predetermined times, it will
reversible engine because the air must always be
be seen that diiîerent ports therein align or reg
pumped or forced into the engine. Such blow
ister with the intake and exhaust openings de
ers have thus necessarily been equipped with re 25 pendent upon the position of the cylinder with
versing valves of large size because of the larg’e
relation to the housing. Regardless of the posi
volume of air which the blower had to handle.
tion of the- cylinder, however, the air is always
Reversing gears have also been employed but
admitted through theV intake openingand dis
- such gears add materially to the cost and sub
charged through the " exhaust opening of _the
stantially increase the size of the unit. There
30
housing.
fore, there is a distinct need for a directly re
versible rotary compressor for use with reversible
The exhaust side of the housing is provided
with a plurality of longitudinally spaced ribs
high speed engines, particularly marine engines.
which align with and at certain times cover some,Í
My present invention makes it possible to re
of the ports in the cylinder so as to always dis
verse the slidingvane type of rotary compressor 35 charge the compressed air through the exhaust
without materially increasing the size ofthe unit.
opening in the housing regardless of the direction
of rotation of the rotor.
The sliding vane type of rotary compressor can
be made to compress the air before discharge
To reduce friction and consequent wear and
which makes for high efiiciency’and quietness of
overheating, the vanes of the rotor are main-`
40 tained out of direct contact with the wall of the
operation.
cylinder. For this purpose I preferably provide
One of the objects of my invention is to pro
the opposite ends of the vanes with notched-out
vide an improved rotary compressor, blower, or
portions which support rockable bearing blocks
supercharger which is capable -of being driven in
which may be made from some suitable self-1u
either direction.
45 bricating metal. These blocks engage floating
Another Objectis to provide an improved com
pressor, blower, or supercharger which, regard
less'of the direction of rotation of the rotor or "
rings at opposite ends of the rotor and the rings
are free to rotate on suitable bearings. Due to
the contact of bearing blocks carried by the end
portions of the blades with the rings, these rings
such as air, through the intake opening, com 50 are forced to rotate although there will be some
press it,l and discharge it through the exhaust
slippage and the rings and the rotor will not op
opening.
erate at the same speeds. The net results of 'this
Another nobject is to provide an improved com
will be that only a small fraction of slippage will
pressor of the foregoing character which auto
occur as compared to the amount of slippage
matically reverses its direction of rotation upon
which would result from the‘use of a stationary
impeller thereof, will always draw in the iluid,
9,414.1”
Figure 14 ia a. sideelevational view of an in
ring or rings. The free edges of the varies are
maintained spaced slightly away from the cylin
ternal combustion engine, shown diagrammati
der' wall.
If it should appear to be desirable to prevent
one of the rotary compressors. blowers, or super--V
cally, and illustrating the application thereto o!
f chargers embodying the invention.
leakage of the indrawn air or other fluid, I may
provide each of the rotor vanes with a strip-like
member or piece of some suitable material such,
for example, as fiber, hard rubber, Bakelite or
other suitable material. These members engage
the inner wall of the cylinder and upon opera
Referring now to the drawings. the improved
rotary compressor.v blower or supercharger of my
invention is shown as a whole at I6 and com
prises a housing or casing composed of an intake
section ,or portion I6 and an outlet or exhaust
section or portionv I1. The two sections are se-~
tion of the rotor, wear themselves in so as to fol
low the contour of said inner wall.
The invention, therefore. comprises a relatively
cured together by a plurality of bolts and nuts
I8. A longitudinally extending drive shaft I9
’ is located within the housing and is journaled at
small, compact and simply constructed reversible
one end in bearings 20 and at its opposite -end
'in bearings 2|'. The end of the shaft I9 shown,
.at the left of Figure 1 carries a gear 22 which
is _keyed to the shaft. This gear isfin mesh with
an internally toothed Ygear v23 mounted upon a
rotary compressor, blower or superdharger in
which friction is reduced to a minimum by virtue
of my improved manner of> lubrication of the
parts. Due to thereduction of friction and the
proper lubrication of the parts, there 'is virtually
no wear',l thus the life of the unit is greatly pro
longed. These features having to `do Vwith the
support of the vanes and the lubrication, would
apply equally well if the compressor were cap'able
of operation in one direction only»
The above and other objects and advantages
will'appear from the following description and
appended claims when considered in connection
20 shaft 24 journaled in bearings “25 provided in
the hubportion 26 of the housing end. The use
of the internally toothed driving gear 23 is im
VAportant since by using such a driving gear, which
follows the pitch of the internal >or driven gear
25 22, which latter is always in mesh with the driv
ing gear 23, the cylinder-and rotor can be turned
through 180 degrees to permit the rotor to be
driven in the opposite direction. The shaft ‘24
with the accompanying drawings forming a part
extends through a closure plate 21 and an oil
of this specification wherein like reference char
acters designate corresponding parts in the sev 30 seal or packing 21a which is carried _by the plate.
The plate is secured to the hub 26 by means of
eral views.
.
bolts
28'. The shaft> 24 is drivingly connected
In said drawings: with
a
drive shaft 30 from a power-plant, such
Figure l is a vertical longitudinal sectional view
as a two-cycle or four-cycle `internal combustion
through my improved rotary compressor or super
charger, taken substantially along the line l-l 35 engine shown diagrammatically at 3l, by means
of a coupling 29.
of Figure 2, looking in the direction of the arrows.
The driven shaft I9, it is to be noted, is eccenf .
Figure 2 is a transverse vertical sectional view
trically mounted in hangers* located within the
taken substantially along the line 2-2 of Figure
housing and carries a rotor 33. This rotor is
1, looking in the direction of the arrows.
provided
with a plurality of radially extending
40
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 and show
pockets
or
slots 34 each of which is provided with
ing the' rotor in a position opposite to that in
which it is shown _in Figure 2.
.
Figure 4 is a horizontal longitudinal sectional
' a lining formed from some suitable wself-lubricat
ing material such as sìntered brass or bronze 35.
view, partly in elevation and partly broken away,
The linings could be welded, brazed or bolted to
_ of the rotary compressor or supercharger of the 45 the rotor or the rotor itself'v could be made of
sinte'red bronze in which case no linings would
preceding views.
be required. Located within each of the lined
Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view of the drive
pockets and capable of sliding movement therein
is a blade or vane 36 having a straight outer or
of Figure 4, looking in the direction of the arrows.
lFigure 6 is a vertical section taken substan 50 free edge 36a. Theopposite end edges of the y
blade 38 are notched out at 31 toreceive and sup
tially‘ along the line 6-6 of Figure 4, looking inport substantially cylindrical members or pins 33
the direction of the arrows.
_
which are secured to the blade by rivets or the
Fig. 'I is a vertical sectional view taken sub
like 39. Each of these members 38 carries a rock
stantially along the line 1--1 of Figure 4, looking
55 able block or contact member 40 provided with a
' in the direction of the arrows.
socket or recess which has a relatively snug fitr
Figure 8 is `an enlarged transverse sectional
with the member 38 yet‘which has suillclent free
view of the rotor and cylinder assembly.
dom of movement to allow it to be oscillated or
Figure 9 is an enlarged elevational view, partly
rocked
relative to the member 38. The part 40 is
in section, of the rotor, illustrating the arrange
ment of the lubricating means.
4 60 preferably formed from material similar to the
lining material35 such, for example, as sintered .
Figure 10 is a fragmentary «sectional view, on
gearing taken substantially along the line 5-5
I an enlarged scale, illustrating a modified form
of rotor vane or blade.
brass or bronze.
,
'
.Y
'
It will be understood that as the rotor 33 re
volves and as the successive vanes 33 are moved
Figure 11 is a fragmentary perspective view,
partly‘broken away,`looking at the exhaust side 65 into their respective sockets or pockets 34, in ,
gf the rotary compressor embodying the inven
ion.
Figure l2 is a perspective view of one of the
vane's or blades of the rotor, partly broken away,
showing the rockable bearing blocks attached to 70
its opposite ends.
'
Figure 13 is a perspective view of a portion of
the cylindrical member of the compressor, show'
îrlig thâ arrangement of the slots or ports there
which position they are shown at the bottom
of Fig. 2 and at the top of Fig. 3, the contact
blocks 40 carried at the ends of the vanes move -
into their respective recesses 40a.,see particularly
Figs. 8 and 1l.
.
Mounted concentrically within the housing or
casing I5, is a cylinder or cylindrical member 42
provided with a plurality of longitudinally and
circumferentially spaced slots or ports to be de
scribed hereinafter. This cylinder is, as shown,
2,414,187 ,
mental-like projection 55a.- The opposite end
provided at opposite ends with flanges `which
edges 55h of the projectionare adapted to en
carriers or members 43 to which the cylinder is ' gage the adjacent end edge-.of the block 53 as
the cylinder 42 rotates a half revolution crap
secured by means of bolts 44. The hangers \43
proximately 180 degrees-` The ring 55 at the right
are supported by the outer housing in bearings
engage and aresupported by so-called cylinder
i541 and Ila, respectively.
end of Figures `1 or 4- is held in fixed position
> against the end of the housing by a cover plate
56 and bolts 56. The ring 55 at the left end of
Annular internal
flanges on the hanger members 43 support, at the
right-hand end of Figure 1, a bearing 4assembly
the cylinder 42 in Figures l and 4 is preferably
45 and at the left end, `a bearing assembly 45a.
These bearing assemblies 45 and 45asupport a 10 fastened to the web’or partition wall lla of the
housing by bolts or cap screws 60. Atthis left
pair of similar guide rings 46 having inwardly
` end there is not provided a. cover plate such as
directed annular _ilanges with which the outer
‘surfaces of the bearing Vblocks 40 are in contact.
It is to be noted, see particularly Figure 8 of
plate 58 described above, because of the presence
of the shaft end i9 and the gearing 22, 23 at this
` the drawings, that‘the outer or free edges 362i 15
end of the housing.
'
-
I
The exhaust side or section i1 of the housing- _
of the vanes are located in proximity tothe
inner surface or wall of the cylinder 42 but are
maintained out of contact therewith by virtue of
ls'provided with a plurality of longitudinally
spaced transversely extending ribs 54. These ribs
I - the provision of the rings 46 and the contact
. may be of any desired shape in cross section so
blocks_4ll.- Rings 46 are free to rotate on bear 20 long as their inner faces are ilat or straight across
ings 45 and 45a. Rings 46 are driven by friction y
from contact blocks. The contact blocks, there
the rings 46 but only’the difference of the length
are in engagement, see especially Figures 2, 3
and ll. In cases where it is not desirable to com
of the arc at the outer and inner position of the
contact blocks. Since the contactv blocks are
eliminated.
fore, do not travel the whole circumference of
I
and the general over-all shape of the rib conforms
to the contour `of the cylinder 42 with which they
press the fluid before discharge, the ribs can be
Y
-
» mounted for rocking movement relative' to'their
Referring particularly to Figures 11 and 13, the
supporting vanes, these blocks will conform to the
y cylinder 42 is provided with two series of slots
or ports 56, vv56 in` onehalf thereof and with two
contour of the inner surface of the„rings 46 dur
series of somewhat longer slots or ports,` 51, 51
ing rotation of the rotor and vanes. ¿By main
taining the outer edges 36a of the varies out of " in its other half. Ity will be seen that the series
actual contact with the cylinder, friction and l 56, 56 are staggered with relation to the series
51, v,51, i. e.„the slots 56 are located at points
in the cylindrical member which are between the
slots 51. Thus, when the cylinder 42 is in its "po
sition of Figures l1 and 13, the series of smaller
slots or ports 56 will be behind and thus »covered
and sealed by the ribs 54, whereas the larger or
longer slots or ports 51 will be located between
the ribs 46 and thus open or exposed."
wear are reduced to a minimum.
Referring particularly to Figure 10 of the draw
ings, I have shown a somewhat modiñed form
of rotor vane or blade 41.
As in the previous
form, this vane is> provided with notches at its
opposite end edges to receive and support a sub
stantially cylindrical member or pin 48 which is
adapted toreceive and support a contact bloclrA
or member 46. As in the previous form of in
vention, the member 46 Vmay be formed from some
suitable- self-lubricating material such, for exam
ple, as sintered brass or bronze. 'I‘lie particular
form of blade structure shown in Figure 10 com
prises a blade whose outer or freeedge between
the notched ends thereof is provided with a lon`
>In, accordance with my invention, the working `
parts of the compressor which are normally sub
jected to frictibn and consequent wear are pro
'
tected by the application thereto of lubricant in
just sufllcient quantity to eliminate friction and
prevent wear.
‘
f
`
'
,«
"The varies 36 slide in the self-lubricating pocket
lining metal 35 , and,Ñ the contact members or
strip or piece 50 of-preferably non-metallic ma.- , blocks 40, also being formed from self-lubricat
terial such, for example, as hard rubber, fiber, 50 ing metal cause only slight wear`on the floating
gitudinal slot or kerf to receive and support a
Bakelite or othersuitable material. 4The strip,
as shown, is secured in place by rivets 5I. The
purpose of yproviding the strip 56 is to ffill'the
space between _the outer edge of the blade ,or vane
` 41 and the adjacent wall of the cylinder `42 to
thus prevent leakage of ‘the~ air or'other fluid in
the compressor. When the lparts are assembled
the strips 56 have a relatively snug bearing flt
with the wall of the cylinder 42 but as the rotor
is driven, the strip will wear itself in and thus
run free in the cylinder.v By virtue of the pro
vision of such a strip it is not necessary to ma
chine the cylinder to a close diametertolerance,
but a close ñt will be maintained at all times.
rings 46 on which they travel when the corn
pressor is in operation.
>
'
-
The shaft i6 extends throughout the length of Á
the rotor 33 and has adJacent‘its opposite ends
annular recesses or grooves 6I which receive and
support annular bands or‘strips 62 of some suit- `
able packing material, suchl as felt, which engage
'the surfaceof the shaft I9. Shaft I6 is drilled
to provide an axial bore or passage 63 through
' which lubricant may flow and into transversely
extending bores or passages 64` and 65 also formed`v`
therein. One such passage or bore 64 communi
cates with a longitudinal pocket or recess 66
formed at the base of each of the pockets 34»
65 formed in the rotor body 33, see particularly Fig
sary to provide an accurately machined cylinder ` ; ure 8. The transverse passages 65 feed lubricant
Moreover, by employing said strip is not neces
to the- packing rings 62 which become saturated
wall; nor is it necessary that the outer edge of
so that some small quantity of the lubricant is
the vane 42 be accurately machined and smooth.
supplied by centrifugal force through passages
The outer face of each of the cylinder hangers
43 is provided with a >segmental stop block 53 70 61 to the contact blocks 40 to properly lubricate
these blocks which are formed from a ysuitable*
which, as shown, is bolted at 53a to the hanger
although, if desired, these stop blocks may be
formed integral with the hangers'.` ' Each of the
opposite ends of the housing I5 supports a ring
self-lubricating metal, as previously described.
The ball or roller bearing assemblies of the com
pressor are properly lubricated in more or less
55 provided with an inwardly extending seg 75 conventional manner and thus all working parts
angie? .
' ly well adapted for use as a supercharger for two
of the apparatus are euppliedwith the proper
quantity of lubricant to provide quiet operation.
l cycle or four-cycle engines. or, with the proper
arrangement of the slots I6 and 51, as a rotary
pump for liquids. such as oil. In fact, it has '
many useful and utilitarian purposes which are
eliminate friction andl to minimiza wear on the
parts.
'
Operation
not mentioned in the foregoing descriptive mat
ter. Moreover. the novel features of my present
When power is applied to the driven shaft I3
oi' the compressor C fro'm the drive shaft 30 of
invention, such as the lubricating features, the
use of self~lubricating metal, etc., are equally well
the coupling 29, shaft 24 and gearing 23, 22, the
adapted for use in connection with a compressor`
10
` rotor 33 will be driven in a clockwise direction as
of the vane type which operates in one direction t*
indicated by the arrows in Figure 2. With the
cylinder I2 in the position of Figures 2, 11 and 13,
Having thus described my invention, what I
air or other fluid is drawn or sucked in through
claim is:
ports or slots 56 and 51 at the left of Figure 2,
1. A rotary compressor comprising a housing
compressed by the vanes 36, and discharged 15 having
intake and vexhaust openings formed
through the -port or slot 51 at the right of Figure
therein, a drive shaft eccentrically mounted in
2 tothe internal combustion engine or other
said housing, a rotor provided with slidable radial
power plant E to which it is attached. During
vanes keyed to said shaft, a cylindrical member
the power plant or engine E (Figure 14) through '
only.
.
,
`
this operation, the ports or slots 56 at the right
having a plurality of ports formed therein inter- ' t
side of cylinder 42 are covered and thus sealed by 20. posed between the housing and rotor and'capable
the ribs 54 and thus permits the air to be com
of oscillating movement within a limited range, '
pressed until vane 36 reaches the opening 51.
bearings in said housing for supporting the drive
If the engine E should be stopped and then
shaft, guide rings free to rotate within and lo
run in the reverse direction, the rotor 33 is caused
25 cated at opposite ends of said sleeve for main
*to rotate in a counterclockwise direction as
shown by the arrow in Figure 3. 'Such reversev
rotation of the engine and rotor causes the cyl
inder 42 with the cylinder carriers 43 which have
` bearings 20 and 2| eccentrically mounted, to ro
tate 180 degrees on the bearings |641A and I1a to
the position shown in Figure 3 and thus change
or reverse the position of the rotor 33, drive shaft
I9 and gear 22. The gear 22 at all times engages
the internally toothed driving gear`23 and the
taining the edges'of the vanes out of contact with
the sleeve, anda plurality of longitudinally spaced
transverse ribs located Within the housing at one
' side of said rotor, said ribsproviding means for
30 covering certain òf said ports when the cylindri- `
cal member is in one position relative to the in
take and exhaust openings and others of said
ports when said member is in another position.
2. In a rotary compressor of the sliding vane
type for connection to a source of motive power, .
unit turns until the stop block or segment 53 35 the combination of a stationary housing having
(see Figure 7) engages the stop or shoulder 55h
bearings adjacent the opposite ends thereof and
at the bottom of Figure 7 in which position it
having inlet and outlet openings, a cylindrical>
remains. As the rotor 33 revolves i_n a counter
sleeve member located within the housing and`
clockwise direction air or other fluid is sucked or
having end plates mounted in said housing bear
drawn in through ports or slots 51 and 56 at the 40
l ing`s,'bearing formed in saidV endv plates, a rotor
left of Figure 3, is compressed by the vanes 36
shaft mounted in the end plate bearings an'd hav
and discharged through ports‘or slots. 51 at the
ing a portion extending outwardly beyond one of
right of Figure 3. The ports or slots 56 at the
said bearings, a rotor mounted upon and rotat
right side of the cylinder 42 are closed or sealed 45 able with said shaft and provided with a plurality
by the ribs 54. If now the engine E is again
of slidable vanes, said rotor and shaft being ec-l
stopped and then run in the opposite direction,
centrically mounted with relation to said cylin
the cylinder 42 and rotor 33 will again» shift
drical sleeve, spaced stops located at opposite
through approximately 180 degrees until the op
ends of said housing, a pinion carried by the ex
posite end of the stop block 53 contacts the stop
tended portion of said rotor shaft, and an in
‘ _ portion or shoulder 55b of the ring 55 at the right.
ternally toothed gear rotatably mounted in an
of Figure 7 so that the parts again assume their
end wall of the housing constantly in mesh with
positions as shown in this figure.
`
said pinion and operatively connected with the
It will be understood that by varying the num
power source whereby to revolve the rotor and
ber of vanes 36 of the rotor and the length of
vanes in either direction and at predetermined
the slots or ports 56 and 51 of the cylinder, it is
times to shift said cylindrical sleeve member and'
possible to obtain different air pressures from
end plates in opposite directions through approx
the apparatus.
y
It is to be understood further that my inven
tion while adapted for use as a rotary compressor
or blower, particularly as a scavenging blower for
two-cycle internal combustion engines, it is equal
imately 180 degrees between said spaced stops
upon the reversal of rotation of said internally
toothed gear.
-
`
ERLING BORSTING.
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