Jan. 14, 1947. E, BORSTING 2,414,187 ROTARY COMPRESSOR OR SUPERCHARGER Filed April` 19. 1943 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 ¿imam l / 7 ¿Ni/ENTOR Er'llng Borshng. Jan. 14, 1947.” E‘. BORSTING 2,414,187 ROTARY COMPRESSOR OR SUPERGHARGER Filed April 19, 1943 ' 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 l acl . Fig. 11 ¿_ l /N VENTO/e BY CœbJK'W Erhn Bors l `. 1g ng A TTO‘RNE V5 Patented Jan. 14, 1947 2,414,187 UNITED STATES " PATENT NoFFicE Erling Borsting, Mount Vernon, Ohio Application April 19, 1943, Serial No. 483,589 .(cl. 23o-152)> 2 Claims. l ‘ My invention relates to a rotary compressor or 2 the reversal of rotation of _the power plant or other instrumentality to which it is connected. Generally speaking, the compressor, blower or .supercharger embodying my invention, as shown, It has to do particularly with a reversible compressor or supercharger adapted to >use as a scavenging blower for two-cycleinternal combustion engines, although its use is not nec l supercharger. consists of a housing or casing; one side thereof essarily so limited since it »is equally well adapted having an intake opening and the other side anl , for use as a supercharger for two-cycle or four cycle engines, as well as a rotary pump for-liq exhaust or discharge opening. A drive shaft is mounted in suitable` bearings carried by hangers located within the housing and carries a rotor uids, such, for example, as oil. ` _ The reciprocating type of scavenging blowers 10 provided with a plurality of preferably linedvpock of the prior art which are used on two-cycle en ets in which slidable vanes or blades are located. gines are directly reversible and therefore are’ The shaft and the rotor are arranged eccentrical suitable for reversible engines. This type of blow- ' ly within the housing. Interposed between the er is necessarily very large and therefore not ‘housing and the rotor is a cylindrical member suitable for use with high speed engines. «Here 15 or cylinder having a plurality of ports'formed tofore, high speed engines have used some form therein and with which the vanes coopera-te to of rotary compressors or blowers, usually the Roots compress the air or other fluid entering through type.` , the intake opening. The ports in the cylinder ' Rotary compressors or blowers are not reversi are adapted to align or register with the intake ‘ ble for the reason that if their _direction of ro 20 and exhaust openings and since the cylinder is tation is reversed the air flow is also reversed and free to be rotated automatically through approxi therefore the blower could not be used with a mately 180 degrees at predetermined times, it will reversible engine because the air must always be be seen that diiîerent ports therein align or reg pumped or forced into the engine. Such blow ister with the intake and exhaust openings de ers have thus necessarily been equipped with re 25 pendent upon the position of the cylinder with versing valves of large size because of the larg’e relation to the housing. Regardless of the posi volume of air which the blower had to handle. tion of the- cylinder, however, the air is always Reversing gears have also been employed but admitted through theV intake openingand dis - such gears add materially to the cost and sub charged through the " exhaust opening of _the stantially increase the size of the unit. There 30 housing. fore, there is a distinct need for a directly re versible rotary compressor for use with reversible The exhaust side of the housing is provided with a plurality of longitudinally spaced ribs high speed engines, particularly marine engines. which align with and at certain times cover some,Í My present invention makes it possible to re of the ports in the cylinder so as to always dis verse the slidingvane type of rotary compressor 35 charge the compressed air through the exhaust without materially increasing the size ofthe unit. opening in the housing regardless of the direction of rotation of the rotor. The sliding vane type of rotary compressor can be made to compress the air before discharge To reduce friction and consequent wear and which makes for high efiiciency’and quietness of overheating, the vanes of the rotor are main-` 40 tained out of direct contact with the wall of the operation. cylinder. For this purpose I preferably provide One of the objects of my invention is to pro the opposite ends of the vanes with notched-out vide an improved rotary compressor, blower, or portions which support rockable bearing blocks supercharger which is capable -of being driven in which may be made from some suitable self-1u either direction. 45 bricating metal. These blocks engage floating Another Objectis to provide an improved com pressor, blower, or supercharger which, regard less'of the direction of rotation of the rotor or " rings at opposite ends of the rotor and the rings are free to rotate on suitable bearings. Due to the contact of bearing blocks carried by the end portions of the blades with the rings, these rings such as air, through the intake opening, com 50 are forced to rotate although there will be some press it,l and discharge it through the exhaust slippage and the rings and the rotor will not op opening. erate at the same speeds. The net results of 'this Another nobject is to provide an improved com will be that only a small fraction of slippage will pressor of the foregoing character which auto occur as compared to the amount of slippage matically reverses its direction of rotation upon which would result from the‘use of a stationary impeller thereof, will always draw in the iluid, 9,414.1” Figure 14 ia a. sideelevational view of an in ring or rings. The free edges of the varies are maintained spaced slightly away from the cylin ternal combustion engine, shown diagrammati der' wall. If it should appear to be desirable to prevent one of the rotary compressors. blowers, or super--V cally, and illustrating the application thereto o! f chargers embodying the invention. leakage of the indrawn air or other fluid, I may provide each of the rotor vanes with a strip-like member or piece of some suitable material such, for example, as fiber, hard rubber, Bakelite or other suitable material. These members engage the inner wall of the cylinder and upon opera Referring now to the drawings. the improved rotary compressor.v blower or supercharger of my invention is shown as a whole at I6 and com prises a housing or casing composed of an intake section ,or portion I6 and an outlet or exhaust section or portionv I1. The two sections are se-~ tion of the rotor, wear themselves in so as to fol low the contour of said inner wall. The invention, therefore. comprises a relatively cured together by a plurality of bolts and nuts I8. A longitudinally extending drive shaft I9 ’ is located within the housing and is journaled at small, compact and simply constructed reversible one end in bearings 20 and at its opposite -end 'in bearings 2|'. The end of the shaft I9 shown, .at the left of Figure 1 carries a gear 22 which is _keyed to the shaft. This gear isfin mesh with an internally toothed Ygear v23 mounted upon a rotary compressor, blower or superdharger in which friction is reduced to a minimum by virtue of my improved manner of> lubrication of the parts. Due to thereduction of friction and the proper lubrication of the parts, there 'is virtually no wear',l thus the life of the unit is greatly pro longed. These features having to `do Vwith the support of the vanes and the lubrication, would apply equally well if the compressor were cap'able of operation in one direction only» The above and other objects and advantages will'appear from the following description and appended claims when considered in connection 20 shaft 24 journaled in bearings “25 provided in the hubportion 26 of the housing end. The use of the internally toothed driving gear 23 is im VAportant since by using such a driving gear, which follows the pitch of the internal >or driven gear 25 22, which latter is always in mesh with the driv ing gear 23, the cylinder-and rotor can be turned through 180 degrees to permit the rotor to be driven in the opposite direction. The shaft ‘24 with the accompanying drawings forming a part extends through a closure plate 21 and an oil of this specification wherein like reference char acters designate corresponding parts in the sev 30 seal or packing 21a which is carried _by the plate. The plate is secured to the hub 26 by means of eral views. . bolts 28'. The shaft> 24 is drivingly connected In said drawings: with a drive shaft 30 from a power-plant, such Figure l is a vertical longitudinal sectional view as a two-cycle or four-cycle `internal combustion through my improved rotary compressor or super charger, taken substantially along the line l-l 35 engine shown diagrammatically at 3l, by means of a coupling 29. of Figure 2, looking in the direction of the arrows. The driven shaft I9, it is to be noted, is eccenf . Figure 2 is a transverse vertical sectional view trically mounted in hangers* located within the taken substantially along the line 2-2 of Figure housing and carries a rotor 33. This rotor is 1, looking in the direction of the arrows. provided with a plurality of radially extending 40 Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 and show pockets or slots 34 each of which is provided with ing the' rotor in a position opposite to that in which it is shown _in Figure 2. . Figure 4 is a horizontal longitudinal sectional ' a lining formed from some suitable wself-lubricat ing material such as sìntered brass or bronze 35. view, partly in elevation and partly broken away, The linings could be welded, brazed or bolted to _ of the rotary compressor or supercharger of the 45 the rotor or the rotor itself'v could be made of sinte'red bronze in which case no linings would preceding views. be required. Located within each of the lined Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view of the drive pockets and capable of sliding movement therein is a blade or vane 36 having a straight outer or of Figure 4, looking in the direction of the arrows. lFigure 6 is a vertical section taken substan 50 free edge 36a. Theopposite end edges of the y blade 38 are notched out at 31 toreceive and sup tially‘ along the line 6-6 of Figure 4, looking inport substantially cylindrical members or pins 33 the direction of the arrows. _ which are secured to the blade by rivets or the Fig. 'I is a vertical sectional view taken sub like 39. Each of these members 38 carries a rock stantially along the line 1--1 of Figure 4, looking 55 able block or contact member 40 provided with a ' in the direction of the arrows. socket or recess which has a relatively snug fitr Figure 8 is `an enlarged transverse sectional with the member 38 yet‘which has suillclent free view of the rotor and cylinder assembly. dom of movement to allow it to be oscillated or Figure 9 is an enlarged elevational view, partly rocked relative to the member 38. The part 40 is in section, of the rotor, illustrating the arrange ment of the lubricating means. 4 60 preferably formed from material similar to the lining material35 such, for example, as sintered . Figure 10 is a fragmentary «sectional view, on gearing taken substantially along the line 5-5 I an enlarged scale, illustrating a modified form of rotor vane or blade. brass or bronze. , ' .Y ' It will be understood that as the rotor 33 re volves and as the successive vanes 33 are moved Figure 11 is a fragmentary perspective view, partly‘broken away,`looking at the exhaust side 65 into their respective sockets or pockets 34, in , gf the rotary compressor embodying the inven ion. Figure l2 is a perspective view of one of the vane's or blades of the rotor, partly broken away, showing the rockable bearing blocks attached to 70 its opposite ends. ' Figure 13 is a perspective view of a portion of the cylindrical member of the compressor, show' îrlig thâ arrangement of the slots or ports there which position they are shown at the bottom of Fig. 2 and at the top of Fig. 3, the contact blocks 40 carried at the ends of the vanes move - into their respective recesses 40a.,see particularly Figs. 8 and 1l. . Mounted concentrically within the housing or casing I5, is a cylinder or cylindrical member 42 provided with a plurality of longitudinally and circumferentially spaced slots or ports to be de scribed hereinafter. This cylinder is, as shown, 2,414,187 , mental-like projection 55a.- The opposite end provided at opposite ends with flanges `which edges 55h of the projectionare adapted to en carriers or members 43 to which the cylinder is ' gage the adjacent end edge-.of the block 53 as the cylinder 42 rotates a half revolution crap secured by means of bolts 44. The hangers \43 proximately 180 degrees-` The ring 55 at the right are supported by the outer housing in bearings engage and aresupported by so-called cylinder i541 and Ila, respectively. end of Figures `1 or 4- is held in fixed position > against the end of the housing by a cover plate 56 and bolts 56. The ring 55 at the left end of Annular internal flanges on the hanger members 43 support, at the right-hand end of Figure 1, a bearing 4assembly the cylinder 42 in Figures l and 4 is preferably 45 and at the left end, `a bearing assembly 45a. These bearing assemblies 45 and 45asupport a 10 fastened to the web’or partition wall lla of the housing by bolts or cap screws 60. Atthis left pair of similar guide rings 46 having inwardly ` end there is not provided a. cover plate such as directed annular _ilanges with which the outer ‘surfaces of the bearing Vblocks 40 are in contact. It is to be noted, see particularly Figure 8 of plate 58 described above, because of the presence of the shaft end i9 and the gearing 22, 23 at this ` the drawings, that‘the outer or free edges 362i 15 end of the housing. ' - I The exhaust side or section i1 of the housing- _ of the vanes are located in proximity tothe inner surface or wall of the cylinder 42 but are maintained out of contact therewith by virtue of ls'provided with a plurality of longitudinally spaced transversely extending ribs 54. These ribs I - the provision of the rings 46 and the contact . may be of any desired shape in cross section so blocks_4ll.- Rings 46 are free to rotate on bear 20 long as their inner faces are ilat or straight across ings 45 and 45a. Rings 46 are driven by friction y from contact blocks. The contact blocks, there the rings 46 but only’the difference of the length are in engagement, see especially Figures 2, 3 and ll. In cases where it is not desirable to com of the arc at the outer and inner position of the contact blocks. Since the contactv blocks are eliminated. fore, do not travel the whole circumference of I and the general over-all shape of the rib conforms to the contour `of the cylinder 42 with which they press the fluid before discharge, the ribs can be Y - » mounted for rocking movement relative' to'their Referring particularly to Figures 11 and 13, the supporting vanes, these blocks will conform to the y cylinder 42 is provided with two series of slots or ports 56, vv56 in` onehalf thereof and with two contour of the inner surface of the„rings 46 dur series of somewhat longer slots or ports,` 51, 51 ing rotation of the rotor and vanes. ¿By main taining the outer edges 36a of the varies out of " in its other half. Ity will be seen that the series actual contact with the cylinder, friction and l 56, 56 are staggered with relation to the series 51, v,51, i. e.„the slots 56 are located at points in the cylindrical member which are between the slots 51. Thus, when the cylinder 42 is in its "po sition of Figures l1 and 13, the series of smaller slots or ports 56 will be behind and thus »covered and sealed by the ribs 54, whereas the larger or longer slots or ports 51 will be located between the ribs 46 and thus open or exposed." wear are reduced to a minimum. Referring particularly to Figure 10 of the draw ings, I have shown a somewhat modiñed form of rotor vane or blade 41. As in the previous form, this vane is> provided with notches at its opposite end edges to receive and support a sub stantially cylindrical member or pin 48 which is adapted toreceive and support a contact bloclrA or member 46. As in the previous form of in vention, the member 46 Vmay be formed from some suitable- self-lubricating material such, for exam ple, as sintered brass or bronze. 'I‘lie particular form of blade structure shown in Figure 10 com prises a blade whose outer or freeedge between the notched ends thereof is provided with a lon` >In, accordance with my invention, the working ` parts of the compressor which are normally sub jected to frictibn and consequent wear are pro ' tected by the application thereto of lubricant in just sufllcient quantity to eliminate friction and prevent wear. ‘ f ` ' ,« "The varies 36 slide in the self-lubricating pocket lining metal 35 , and,Ñ the contact members or strip or piece 50 of-preferably non-metallic ma.- , blocks 40, also being formed from self-lubricat terial such, for example, as hard rubber, fiber, 50 ing metal cause only slight wear`on the floating gitudinal slot or kerf to receive and support a Bakelite or othersuitable material. 4The strip, as shown, is secured in place by rivets 5I. The purpose of yproviding the strip 56 is to ffill'the space between _the outer edge of the blade ,or vane ` 41 and the adjacent wall of the cylinder `42 to thus prevent leakage of ‘the~ air or'other fluid in the compressor. When the lparts are assembled the strips 56 have a relatively snug bearing flt with the wall of the cylinder 42 but as the rotor is driven, the strip will wear itself in and thus run free in the cylinder.v By virtue of the pro vision of such a strip it is not necessary to ma chine the cylinder to a close diametertolerance, but a close ñt will be maintained at all times. rings 46 on which they travel when the corn pressor is in operation. > ' - The shaft i6 extends throughout the length of Á the rotor 33 and has adJacent‘its opposite ends annular recesses or grooves 6I which receive and support annular bands or‘strips 62 of some suit- ` able packing material, suchl as felt, which engage 'the surfaceof the shaft I9. Shaft I6 is drilled to provide an axial bore or passage 63 through ' which lubricant may flow and into transversely extending bores or passages 64` and 65 also formed`v` therein. One such passage or bore 64 communi cates with a longitudinal pocket or recess 66 formed at the base of each of the pockets 34» 65 formed in the rotor body 33, see particularly Fig sary to provide an accurately machined cylinder ` ; ure 8. The transverse passages 65 feed lubricant Moreover, by employing said strip is not neces to the- packing rings 62 which become saturated wall; nor is it necessary that the outer edge of so that some small quantity of the lubricant is the vane 42 be accurately machined and smooth. supplied by centrifugal force through passages The outer face of each of the cylinder hangers 43 is provided with a >segmental stop block 53 70 61 to the contact blocks 40 to properly lubricate these blocks which are formed from a ysuitable* which, as shown, is bolted at 53a to the hanger although, if desired, these stop blocks may be formed integral with the hangers'.` ' Each of the opposite ends of the housing I5 supports a ring self-lubricating metal, as previously described. The ball or roller bearing assemblies of the com pressor are properly lubricated in more or less 55 provided with an inwardly extending seg 75 conventional manner and thus all working parts angie? . ' ly well adapted for use as a supercharger for two of the apparatus are euppliedwith the proper quantity of lubricant to provide quiet operation. l cycle or four-cycle engines. or, with the proper arrangement of the slots I6 and 51, as a rotary pump for liquids. such as oil. In fact, it has ' many useful and utilitarian purposes which are eliminate friction andl to minimiza wear on the parts. ' Operation not mentioned in the foregoing descriptive mat ter. Moreover. the novel features of my present When power is applied to the driven shaft I3 oi' the compressor C fro'm the drive shaft 30 of invention, such as the lubricating features, the use of self~lubricating metal, etc., are equally well the coupling 29, shaft 24 and gearing 23, 22, the adapted for use in connection with a compressor` 10 ` rotor 33 will be driven in a clockwise direction as of the vane type which operates in one direction t* indicated by the arrows in Figure 2. With the cylinder I2 in the position of Figures 2, 11 and 13, Having thus described my invention, what I air or other fluid is drawn or sucked in through claim is: ports or slots 56 and 51 at the left of Figure 2, 1. A rotary compressor comprising a housing compressed by the vanes 36, and discharged 15 having intake and vexhaust openings formed through the -port or slot 51 at the right of Figure therein, a drive shaft eccentrically mounted in 2 tothe internal combustion engine or other said housing, a rotor provided with slidable radial power plant E to which it is attached. During vanes keyed to said shaft, a cylindrical member the power plant or engine E (Figure 14) through ' only. . , ` this operation, the ports or slots 56 at the right having a plurality of ports formed therein inter- ' t side of cylinder 42 are covered and thus sealed by 20. posed between the housing and rotor and'capable the ribs 54 and thus permits the air to be com of oscillating movement within a limited range, ' pressed until vane 36 reaches the opening 51. bearings in said housing for supporting the drive If the engine E should be stopped and then shaft, guide rings free to rotate within and lo run in the reverse direction, the rotor 33 is caused 25 cated at opposite ends of said sleeve for main *to rotate in a counterclockwise direction as shown by the arrow in Figure 3. 'Such reversev rotation of the engine and rotor causes the cyl inder 42 with the cylinder carriers 43 which have ` bearings 20 and 2| eccentrically mounted, to ro tate 180 degrees on the bearings |641A and I1a to the position shown in Figure 3 and thus change or reverse the position of the rotor 33, drive shaft I9 and gear 22. The gear 22 at all times engages the internally toothed driving gear`23 and the taining the edges'of the vanes out of contact with the sleeve, anda plurality of longitudinally spaced transverse ribs located Within the housing at one ' side of said rotor, said ribsproviding means for 30 covering certain òf said ports when the cylindri- ` cal member is in one position relative to the in take and exhaust openings and others of said ports when said member is in another position. 2. In a rotary compressor of the sliding vane type for connection to a source of motive power, . unit turns until the stop block or segment 53 35 the combination of a stationary housing having (see Figure 7) engages the stop or shoulder 55h bearings adjacent the opposite ends thereof and at the bottom of Figure 7 in which position it having inlet and outlet openings, a cylindrical> remains. As the rotor 33 revolves i_n a counter sleeve member located within the housing and` clockwise direction air or other fluid is sucked or having end plates mounted in said housing bear drawn in through ports or slots 51 and 56 at the 40 l ing`s,'bearing formed in saidV endv plates, a rotor left of Figure 3, is compressed by the vanes 36 shaft mounted in the end plate bearings an'd hav and discharged through ports‘or slots. 51 at the ing a portion extending outwardly beyond one of right of Figure 3. The ports or slots 56 at the said bearings, a rotor mounted upon and rotat right side of the cylinder 42 are closed or sealed 45 able with said shaft and provided with a plurality by the ribs 54. If now the engine E is again of slidable vanes, said rotor and shaft being ec-l stopped and then run in the opposite direction, centrically mounted with relation to said cylin the cylinder 42 and rotor 33 will again» shift drical sleeve, spaced stops located at opposite through approximately 180 degrees until the op ends of said housing, a pinion carried by the ex posite end of the stop block 53 contacts the stop tended portion of said rotor shaft, and an in ‘ _ portion or shoulder 55b of the ring 55 at the right. ternally toothed gear rotatably mounted in an of Figure 7 so that the parts again assume their end wall of the housing constantly in mesh with positions as shown in this figure. ` said pinion and operatively connected with the It will be understood that by varying the num power source whereby to revolve the rotor and ber of vanes 36 of the rotor and the length of vanes in either direction and at predetermined the slots or ports 56 and 51 of the cylinder, it is times to shift said cylindrical sleeve member and' possible to obtain different air pressures from end plates in opposite directions through approx the apparatus. y It is to be understood further that my inven tion while adapted for use as a rotary compressor or blower, particularly as a scavenging blower for two-cycle internal combustion engines, it is equal imately 180 degrees between said spaced stops upon the reversal of rotation of said internally toothed gear. - ` ERLING BORSTING.