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Jan. 14, 1947.
-r. F. sPAcKMAN
Filed April .17, 11.942>
3 sheets-sheet t1
Jan. 14, 1947.
-r_ F. sPAcKMAN
Filed April 1v, 1942
s shqe'cs-sneei> 2
Jan. 14, 1947.
Filed ,April 17, 1942
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Patented Jan. 14,1947
Thomas F. Spackman, Chicago, Ill., assignor to
Stewart-Warner Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a
corporation of rVirginia
Application April 17, 1942, Serial No. 439,331
5 Claims. (Cl. 280---9)
The present invention relates to vehicles and
is more particularly concerned with the provi
sion of a portableor ground‘type heater carriage,
having novel features which particularlyl adapt it
in two portions. One of these portions comprises
the heater itself, that is, the operating heater
mechanism, while the other portion comprises the
for use on airports and on various types of ter
It is one of the objects `of the present inven
tion to provide a portablel heater carriage par
ticularly Well `adapted for use on airportsand
on varioustypes of terrain.
Yet another object of' the present invention
is to provide a novelcarriage for an airport heater
which is compact and can be moved about with
ease over either hard surfaces or over slush or
mud or deep snow.
Still another object of the present invention is
carriage for the heater. The heating unit per se
is described more particularly in the copending
application of Henry J, De N. McCollum, en,
titled “Heater,” filed on even` date herewith, and
which bears Serial No. 439,342.
The heating unit comprises a small internal
Vcombustion engine 2|) which drives a Roots> blower
22 andan air circulating blower 24. The' Roots
blower 22 supplies a combustible mixture to` a
heater combustion chamber 42 where the mix.
ture is ignited and burned and then passed
through a heat-exchanger 44 and therefrom to
the atmosphere. The hot products of combus
to provide a novel carriage for a portable` heater
of compact design which can be quickly converted
for use either overI hard, surfaces or over deep
tion, in passing through the heat-exchanger 44,
the line 5-5 of Fig. 2;
side walls to reduce its weight and to facilitate
adjustment and servicing of the equipment locat
heat the latter and this heat is transferred
through the walls thereof tothe air circulated
snow or muddy surfaces.
20 ,by the blower 24'. The fresh air thus heated
Still another object of the present invention
passes into` a manifold 46 which is formed with
is to provide a novel carriage for supporting a
an upwardly extending sleeve I.|2 and side sleeves
heating unit to provide easy portability for such
IIB. The side sleeves ||6 are connected to co1
a unit.
lapsible hot air ducts |22, each of which is pro
Other objects and advantages will become Aap 25 vided at its outer end with a nozzle |38. One
parent from the following description of a pre
nozzle |22 is shown, connected to a blanket |94
ferred embodiment of my invention taken in con
stuffed around the engine Cowling, and the other
junction with the accompanying drawings, in
to a cover |96 provided with an opening |98 to
receive the propeller shaft and an opening 200
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a portable airport 30 to receive the nozzle |38. In this way heated air
heater embodying the present invention >shown
may be supplied to warm the airplane engines.
in use for Warming cold airplane motors; '
The sleeve ||2 may be similarly fitted with a col
Fig. 2 `is a detailed view showing >a portion of
lapsible duct. When not. in use the collapsible
the heater carriage on a large scale so as better
ducts are stored in tubes |04 and llllì` mounted
to illustrate features of the present invention.
on the portable carriage.
This view may be considered as a side elevation
Although the truck and other equipment com
of the portion shown with one wheel ‘removed
prising the present invention may be used for
from the structure and is indicated as being taken
other purposes, its particular purpose in the pres
substantially along the line 2'---2` of Fig. 4, looking
ent instance is to provide an arrangement for
in the direction of the arrows;
using a heating unit of the _above described type
Fig. 3 is a detailed view, showing- the portion
in .aneasily portable device which includes neces-A
of'the mechanism illustrated in Fig. 2 with a part
sary equipment for conveying the hot air produced
thereof in an alternative position and in associa
by the heating apparatus to airplane` engines` to
tion with related apparatus;
be heated and for similar purposes.
Fig. 4 is a vertical transverse section-al view
The structure comprises a frame member 52
through a portion of the apparatus and may be
made up of comparatively deep side members 54
considered as taken in the direction ofv the ar
connected at their ends by front and back trans
rows substantially along the line 4-4 of Fig. 2;
verse members 56, these upstanding members be»
ing secured to a bottom 58. This structure may
Fig. 5 is a horizontal' sectional view of a portion
be considered as a shallow tray, having inwardly
o?’the apparatus and Amay be considered as taken
extending ñanges Eil at its upper edge and several
in the direction of the arrows substantially along
large openings 62 both in the bottom and in the
TheV portable heater illustrated: inthe accom
l panying~drawingsmay conveniently- be‘fconsid'ered
ed Within the frame.
It can be constructed by
welding together flat iianged plates or by other
suitable means.
bolted to the upper ends of the vertical members
80 and 84. Each of the cross members |00 has
At its forward end the frame member 52 is
bolted at each side to a downwardly extending
side plate 6d, and near its rearward end to similar
faces shaped therein adapted to embrace and
support the three longitudinally extending tubes
downwardly extending side plaœs 66. To help
distribute the load to these plates, L-shaped pieces
standing members |00 by rivets or other suitable
61 are welded against their inner faces with the
means to form a rigid structure.A '
projecting portion of the pieces lying against the
The tube |04 and the two tubes |66 may be
formed integrally with each other from sheet
lower edges‘of the frame members 54. These
plates 64 and 66 at their lower ends are secured
to the webs of T-shaped rails or runners 68
which extend from a position somewhat rear
three transversely spaced semi-circular reentrant
|04'and |06. These tubes are secured to the up
metal in any suitable manner, those shown be
ing comprised of two sheets, each having `three
parallel heini-cylindrical depressions formed
wardly of the plates 65 to a position ahead of
therein which register and match when the two
the forward plates 64. The forward ends of the 15 sheets are placed face to face. At their oppo
runners 68 are curved upwardly gradually, while
site edges the sheets are connected together as
the rearward ends are bent up rather sharply. A
indicated at |46 (Fig. 1) by rolling one sheet over
sheet of metal 10 extends from end to end and
the other, while between the depressions>I they
between these runners and thus encloses the space
are secured by spotwelds. These tubes are some
therebetween. At its edges it is bent over'the run 20 what larger in diameter than the largest por
,ners and is secured thereto at intervals by ap
tions of the nozzles |38 or the ducts |22, so that
`propriete fastening elements such as the rivets
the nozzles and collapsed ducts can slide therein
12, while at its ends, the sheet is folded over and
from the front ends.
A handle |08, by which the device is manipu
25 lated, comprises a U-shaped portion which ex
gan type structure having an upwardly swept
tends well forward of the manifold 46, having
front end. Thus the lower surface of this sled
_downwardly and rearwardly inclined arms which
welded to the runner ends. The sheet 10, to
gether with the runners 68, forms a sled or tobog
vwhen in contact with the ground distributes the
are secured by means of bolts ||0 to the side
members 80 at an intermediate point and to the
,To stiffen the bottom sheet 10 in the center, a 30 frame 52 at their lower> ends. This handle can
third runner 13 extends longitudinally between
be formed from a length of metal tube bent as
the runners 68 and is secured to the sheet by rivets
described, with the lower portions of` the arms
_12 inserted through the sheet and the runner
fiattened‘where they are secured to the frame.V
flanges and by welding the sheet to the runner
Just inside the downwardly inclined armsof the
35 handle |08, a U-shaped bracket ||| _is secured to
_ The internalcombustion engine 20 and associ
the frame at its ends while its. midv portion ex
Vweight of the apparatus over a considerable area.
ated mechanism, including the blowers 22 and 24,
theicombustion chamber 42, and the connecting
piping are securedto the frame 52 substantially
,directly over the back side plates 66. The heat
exchanger 44 is cylindrical and extends forwardly
.from the combustion chamber 42 through an
>opening 14 in the forward cross member 56 of the
tendsforwardly and has aninwardly bowedvfface
formed therein which rests against the rearward
cylindrical surface of the vertically extending out
let sleeve | l2 of the hot air manifold 46. A strap
||4 embraces the forward'faceof the sleeve ||2
at this point and is bolted at its ends to the
bracket || I so that by tightening the bolts se
frame 52 and has its opposite end fitted into an
cured to the ends of this strap, the manifold-46
inlet sleeve of the hot air manifold 46.
can be drawn into position with its inlet sleeve
At the point where the heat exchanger 44 passes
slid over the outlet end of the heat exchanger 44.
_through the forward cross member 56, it is sup
The portable heater as just described is jexcel
ported by. a pair of straps 16 which embrace the
lently adapted for use over deep snow, muddy
heat exchanger and are bolted at their ends to
ground or other soft surfaces where the consid
_a pair of brackets10 welded to the front face 50 erable area of the sheet 10 will prevent the device
of the cross member 56. A pair of upstanding
from sinking into the soft surface.y It handles
members 80, which pass along the sides of a fuelv
like a sled or toboggan, thus making it easy for
tank 4B, are welded to the forward face of the
an operator to pull the device about by means
cross member 56, while a similar se't of upstand
of the handle |08. Such a sled type base is not,
ing members 84 are welded to an intermediate 55 however, particularly well adaptable for use on
frame cross member 96 located adjacent the rear
rend of the heat exchanger 44. This intermediate
cross member is similar to the end member 56
hard surfaces, such as concrete runways or 'the
like. I have, therefore, provided a pair of rubber
tired wheels |68 mounted upon an axle |10 Vwhich
_andìsimilarly has anopening through which the
extends transversely` through the ‘plates 66 in a
heat exchanger passes. ,
60 position just above the rails 68, a portion of the
The fuel tank 48 is positioned horizontally be
web of the rails being cut away, as indicated- at
tween the upstanding members 80 and 84 and is
|12, to permitthe axle to be brought as -low aspos
supported by arcuate bands which pass therebe
lsible relative to the sheet 10. This axle extends
neath and are welded at their ends to the upright
through slots |14 in the plates 66 and a pair of
members 80 and B4, and at their central points to 65 enlargements or collars |19 formed `upon the
the upper faces of the cross members 56 and 90. v
axle just inside the plates, as shown in Figs. 4
The tank 48 is held tightly in this cradle by other
and 5, prevent the axle from moving longitudi
and complementary bands which cverlie the up
nally. Each of these slots, as shown particularly
per portion of the tank and are bolted at their
in Figs. 2 and 3, comprises a vertically extending '
ends to the upper ends of the first mentioned 70 portion |16 which-curves into a forwardly extend
ing portion |18 at its lower end and into a for
ì ` The upright members 84 and 80 extend into po.
sition above the top of the tank 43 and at their
upper ends are secured to a pair of cross members
|60. These cross members have loWel‘ .flanges
wardly and downwardly extending portion |80 at
its upper end.
, ~
A pair of locking arms |82 are pivoted by loose
rivets |84 or other suitable means- to the plates> 66 .
in. a` position rearwardly of the slots |14'„ and
these rivets areso located. that they are equidisi
device whereupon` the axle |10.wil1 automatically
move downwardly in the slots |14 until it reaches
tant` from the lowerends |18 and the upper ends
the bottoms thereof, whereupon it will roll for
`|80 of the slots |14. At its forward. end; each
wardly against the lower‘ends of the slots as soon
o‘f the locking arms |82 is provided with a notch ix as the wheels are lifted from the ground. Assoon
|86 which is adapted to ñt over. the upper ‘face of
as the axle is in this positon, the bar |88 can be
the axle |18 when the axle is against the lower
released to permit the springs |90 to latch the
end of the slot |18. Likewise, since the upper
notches |86 atV the forward ends of the -locking
end of the slot |88 is the same distance from the
arms |82 over the axle. |10.
pivot point |84 as the lower end |18, the notch
A typical use to. which the present device. may
|86 ‘will also ñt over the axle |10 when theaxle
be. put is that of warming cold airplane motors.
is located in the upper end |88 of the slot |14.
Such use is shown in Fig. 1. The device is; moved
The ends of the locking arms |82 opposite from
into position either upon its wheelsA or upon the
the notches |86 are connected by a transversely
flat bottom surface of the sled and the required
-extending rod |88, and a pair of coil springs |98
number of hoses andnozzles are pulled from their
are hooked to this rod adjacent each end thereof
cylinders. If only' one ofA these ducts is used, itY
and extend upwardly' and are connected at their
shouldbe the ductl connected to the. central sleeve
upper ends to the upper flanges 80 of the frame
|`l2 of the manifold 46, since the upper sleeve
side members 54. The springs |98, therefore,
of the manifold to which this> duct- is connected
continuously urge the bar |88 upwardly, thus 20 has no damper (dampers being provided in the
tending to rotate the forward ends of the locking
sleeves H6, operable by handles |28). If only
arms |82 downwardly.
the duct connected to the central sleeve is used,
In Fig. 3 the axle |10 is shown located at the
the dampers in the other two sleeves are closed,
lower ends |18 of the slots |14 with` the notches
thus preventing waste of heat. The reason why
|86 of the locking arms embracing the upper face
only two dampers are provided is that this insures
of the axle. With the axle in this position the
the heater not being started under such condi
wheels |68 project well below the bottom sheet 18,
thus tilting the carriage forwardly with the
rounded forward portion of the sheet 18 against
the ground surface. inasmuch as the weight
of the apparatus is transferred to the axle` |18
principally by the plates 66 at the top edges of
the slot portions | 18, there will be very little
tendency for the axle to slip rearwardly in the
lower portions |18 of these slots. However, such
tendency as there is for the axle to move in this
direction will be offset by the locking members
|82, since any tendency of the axle to move in
this direction will be directed substantially toward
the pivot points at the rivets |84. Thus, only
comparatively little tension in the springs |90
will be necessary to insure the axle being locked
against the ends of the lower portions |18 of the
slots |14,
When it is desired to move the apparatus on
its supporting wheels over a hard surface, the
operator grasps the handle |88 and lifts the for
ward portion of the sheet 1|! clear of the ground.
The apparatus can then be pulled about by the
operator, or it can be pushed like a wheelbarrow. ,
When the operator encounters a soft surface into
which the wheels |68 will sink to an undesirable
extent, the operator depresses the bar |88, thus
lifting the forward ends of the locking arms |82
and, if necessary, gives the device a slight for
ward push sufliciently to move the axle |18 rear
wardly into the vertical portions |16 of the slots
|14. The carriage is then lowered with the axle
|10 moving relatively upwardly through the ver
tical portions |16 of the slots |14 until the bot
tom sheet 10 rests flat upon the ground or snow.
The axle |10 is then raised slightly more and
pushed forwardly into the position where it drops
into the downwardly inclined forward portions
|80 of the slots |14. The bar |88 is then released
to permit the springs |98 to return the locking
arms |82 into locking position. The positions of
the several elements with the device thus adapted
for use over deep snow or muddy surfaces is
shown in Fig. 2.
To return the wheels to operating position, the
bar |88 is again depressed to release the locking
arms |82 and the wheels are lifted slightly and
pulled rearwardly so that the axle |18 is located
in the vertical portions |16 of the slots |14. The
operator then lifts the rearward portion of the
tions that no hot air can escape, since under
these conditions the heater would be likelyl to burn
out or become otherwise injured. AnotherV rea
son, of course, is that whenever the heater is op
erating, at last one of the ducts will be used.
Therefore, no Vmore than two dampers are neces
sary and the cost of providing three dampers is
thus unwarranted.
From the above description of a preferred em
bodiment of my invention, it will be seen that a
device constructed according to this invention is
admirably adapted for use about airports or other
places where portability is desirable, and further,
that this invention accomplishes all of the objec
tives set forth for it at an earlier portion of this
While I have shown and described a particular
embodiment of my invention, it will be apparent
to those skilled in the art that my invention is not
limited to the particular construction disclosed.
I, therefore, wish to include within the scope of
the following claims, all constructions by which
substantially the results of my invention are ob
tained by substantially the same or equivalent
I claim:
1. In a device of the type described, a sle
type structure, a pair of side members extending
upwardly from said sled type structure, said side
members having vertical slots therein` each of
said slots having offset slotted portions at the
upper and lower ends thereof, an axle extending
through said slots, wheels carried by said axle,
said axle being adapted to move vertically in said
slots into either of said offset portions, said axle
when in said lower offset portions being posi
tioned with the lower extremities of said wheels
beneath the lower extremity of said sled type
structure, and pivotally mounted arms adapted
by engagement with said axle at opposite sides
of the device to hold the axle releasably in either
the upper or the lower offset portions.
2. In a device of the type described, means
.i providing a supporting surface of considerable
area, a pair of side members extending upwardly
from said means, said side members having ver
tical slots therein, each of said slots having offset
portions at the upper and lower ends thereof,
an axle extending through said slots, wheels car
'siderable size, side portions of said framework
having slots therein eachV comprisinga vertical
portion and top and bottom> portions extending
ried by said axle, said axle being adapted to
move vertically in said slots into either of said
offset portions, said axle when in said lower oiî
set portions being positioned with the lower ex
tremities of said wheels beneath the lower ex
tremityof the surface providing means, a piv
oted locking member adapted to secure said axle
in said lower offset portion, the point about
which said member pivots being substantially
equidistant from said lower offset portion and
said upper offset portion so that said pivoted
locking member will also lock said axle in said
upper offset portion.
substantially horizontally therefrom, an axle ex
tending through said slots, wheels carried by said
axle of a size adapted to extend below the frame
work when the axle is in the bottom slot ex
tensions, and arms pivotally mounted on said
framework in position to engage said axle in
either the top or the bottom slot extensions so
as to block the axle from movement o_ut of the
slot extensions and serving thus to lock the axle
positively in position.
5. Ina device of the type described, the com
bination of a framework, supporting means
therefor having a bottom supporting face of con
3. In a device of the type described, means
providing a supporting surface of considerable
area, a pair of side >members extending upwardly
siderable‘size, side portions of ysaid framework
‘froml said means, said side members having ver~
having slots therein each comprising a vertical
tical slots therein, each of said slots having oil“
portion and top and bottom portions extending
setv portions at the upper and lower ends thereof,
an axle extending through said slots, wheels 20 substantially horizontally therefrom, an axle ex
tending through said slots, wheels carried by said
‘carried by said axle, said axle being adapted to
axle of a size adapted to vextend below the frame;
move vertically in said slots into either ofl said
work when the axle `is in thevbottom slot exten
oiïset portions, said axle when in said lower oiî
sions, arms pivotally mounted on said framework
~setV portions being positioned with the lower ex
tremities of said wheels beneath vthe lower ex 25 in position toengage said axle in either the top
or the `bottom slot extensions so as to block the
tremity of the surface providing means, and
movably mounted arms adapted in adjusted' po
axle from *movement out of the slot extensions
and serving thus to _lock >the axle positivelyvin
sitions to block said axle from movement out of
position, and coiled springs normally holding'
said lower offset portions.
, 4. In a device of the type described, the com
bination of a framework, supporting means
therefor having a bottom supporting face of con
said arms yieldingly in engagement with said
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