Jan. 14, 1947. -r. F. sPAcKMAN CONVERTIBLE VEHICLE Filed April .17, 11.942> 2,414,214 3 sheets-sheet t1 ,QN W5_.wN%wWwN101 Jan. 14, 1947. -r_ F. sPAcKMAN 2,414,214 CONVERTIBLE VEHICLE Filed April 1v, 1942 s shqe'cs-sneei> 2 Jan. 14, 1947. 11F. A_SPACKMAN 2,414,214 CONVERTIBLE VEHICLE Filed ,April 17, 1942 2+» ,60' <75'. ` I l 46,2,I‘ v‘ 5 sheds-sheet s _ ` I’ l~ ¿6 l l l" -‘ uw* w' “1d), Óâ _ _______ __ \ _____ n ~ || Il ‘_ w" 62) Il‘ uw'' 67 .[79 ZZ 70 "17? l @922 Patented Jan. 14,1947 2,414,214 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,414,214 CONVERTIBLE VEHICLE Thomas F. Spackman, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Stewart-Warner Corporation, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of rVirginia Application April 17, 1942, Serial No. 439,331 5 Claims. (Cl. 280---9) l` 2 The present invention relates to vehicles and is more particularly concerned with the provi sion of a portableor ground‘type heater carriage, having novel features which particularlyl adapt it in two portions. One of these portions comprises the heater itself, that is, the operating heater mechanism, while the other portion comprises the for use on airports and on various types of ter rain. ' It is one of the objects `of the present inven tion to provide a portablel heater carriage par ticularly Well `adapted for use on airportsand on varioustypes of terrain. ' , Yet another object of' the present invention is to provide a novelcarriage for an airport heater which is compact and can be moved about with ease over either hard surfaces or over slush or mud or deep snow. , Still another object of the present invention is carriage for the heater. The heating unit per se is described more particularly in the copending application of Henry J, De N. McCollum, en, titled “Heater,” filed on even` date herewith, and which bears Serial No. 439,342. The heating unit comprises a small internal Vcombustion engine 2|) which drives a Roots> blower 22 andan air circulating blower 24. The' Roots blower 22 supplies a combustible mixture to` a heater combustion chamber 42 where the mix. ture is ignited and burned and then passed through a heat-exchanger 44 and therefrom to the atmosphere. The hot products of combus to provide a novel carriage for a portable` heater of compact design which can be quickly converted for use either overI hard, surfaces or over deep tion, in passing through the heat-exchanger 44, the line 5-5 of Fig. 2; side walls to reduce its weight and to facilitate adjustment and servicing of the equipment locat heat the latter and this heat is transferred through the walls thereof tothe air circulated snow or muddy surfaces. 20 ,by the blower 24'. The fresh air thus heated Still another object of the present invention passes into` a manifold 46 which is formed with is to provide a novel carriage for supporting a an upwardly extending sleeve I.|2 and side sleeves heating unit to provide easy portability for such IIB. The side sleeves ||6 are connected to co1 a unit. ' ' lapsible hot air ducts |22, each of which is pro Other objects and advantages will become Aap 25 vided at its outer end with a nozzle |38. One parent from the following description of a pre nozzle |22 is shown, connected to a blanket |94 ferred embodiment of my invention taken in con stuffed around the engine Cowling, and the other junction with the accompanying drawings, in to a cover |96 provided with an opening |98 to which: ` receive the propeller shaft and an opening 200 Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a portable airport 30 to receive the nozzle |38. In this way heated air heater embodying the present invention >shown may be supplied to warm the airplane engines. in use for Warming cold airplane motors; ' The sleeve ||2 may be similarly fitted with a col Fig. 2 `is a detailed view showing >a portion of lapsible duct. When not. in use the collapsible the heater carriage on a large scale so as better ducts are stored in tubes |04 and llllì` mounted to illustrate features of the present invention. on the portable carriage. This view may be considered as a side elevation Although the truck and other equipment com of the portion shown with one wheel ‘removed prising the present invention may be used for from the structure and is indicated as being taken other purposes, its particular purpose in the pres substantially along the line 2'---2` of Fig. 4, looking ent instance is to provide an arrangement for in the direction of the arrows; using a heating unit of the _above described type Fig. 3 is a detailed view, showing- the portion in .aneasily portable device which includes neces-A of'the mechanism illustrated in Fig. 2 with a part sary equipment for conveying the hot air produced thereof in an alternative position and in associa by the heating apparatus to airplane` engines` to tion with related apparatus; be heated and for similar purposes. Fig. 4 is a vertical transverse section-al view The structure comprises a frame member 52 through a portion of the apparatus and may be made up of comparatively deep side members 54 considered as taken in the direction ofv the ar connected at their ends by front and back trans rows substantially along the line 4-4 of Fig. 2; verse members 56, these upstanding members be» and ing secured to a bottom 58. This structure may Fig. 5 is a horizontal' sectional view of a portion be considered as a shallow tray, having inwardly o?’the apparatus and Amay be considered as taken extending ñanges Eil at its upper edge and several in the direction of the arrows substantially along large openings 62 both in the bottom and in the > TheV portable heater illustrated: inthe accom l panying~drawingsmay conveniently- be‘fconsid'ered ed Within the frame. It can be constructed by 2,414,214 3 welding together flat iianged plates or by other 4 suitable means. bolted to the upper ends of the vertical members 80 and 84. Each of the cross members |00 has At its forward end the frame member 52 is bolted at each side to a downwardly extending side plate 6d, and near its rearward end to similar faces shaped therein adapted to embrace and support the three longitudinally extending tubes downwardly extending side plaœs 66. To help distribute the load to these plates, L-shaped pieces standing members |00 by rivets or other suitable 61 are welded against their inner faces with the means to form a rigid structure.A ' projecting portion of the pieces lying against the The tube |04 and the two tubes |66 may be formed integrally with each other from sheet lower edges‘of the frame members 54. These plates 64 and 66 at their lower ends are secured to the webs of T-shaped rails or runners 68 which extend from a position somewhat rear three transversely spaced semi-circular reentrant |04'and |06. These tubes are secured to the up metal in any suitable manner, those shown be ing comprised of two sheets, each having `three parallel heini-cylindrical depressions formed wardly of the plates 65 to a position ahead of therein which register and match when the two the forward plates 64. The forward ends of the 15 sheets are placed face to face. At their oppo runners 68 are curved upwardly gradually, while site edges the sheets are connected together as the rearward ends are bent up rather sharply. A indicated at |46 (Fig. 1) by rolling one sheet over sheet of metal 10 extends from end to end and the other, while between the depressions>I they between these runners and thus encloses the space are secured by spotwelds. These tubes are some therebetween. At its edges it is bent over'the run 20 what larger in diameter than the largest por ,ners and is secured thereto at intervals by ap tions of the nozzles |38 or the ducts |22, so that `propriete fastening elements such as the rivets the nozzles and collapsed ducts can slide therein 12, while at its ends, the sheet is folded over and from the front ends. A handle |08, by which the device is manipu 25 lated, comprises a U-shaped portion which ex gan type structure having an upwardly swept tends well forward of the manifold 46, having front end. Thus the lower surface of this sled _downwardly and rearwardly inclined arms which welded to the runner ends. The sheet 10, to gether with the runners 68, forms a sled or tobog vwhen in contact with the ground distributes the are secured by means of bolts ||0 to the side members 80 at an intermediate point and to the ,To stiffen the bottom sheet 10 in the center, a 30 frame 52 at their lower> ends. This handle can third runner 13 extends longitudinally between be formed from a length of metal tube bent as the runners 68 and is secured to the sheet by rivets described, with the lower portions of` the arms _12 inserted through the sheet and the runner fiattened‘where they are secured to the frame.V flanges and by welding the sheet to the runner Just inside the downwardly inclined armsof the ends. 35 handle |08, a U-shaped bracket ||| _is secured to _ The internalcombustion engine 20 and associ the frame at its ends while its. midv portion ex Vweight of the apparatus over a considerable area. ated mechanism, including the blowers 22 and 24, theicombustion chamber 42, and the connecting piping are securedto the frame 52 substantially ,directly over the back side plates 66. The heat exchanger 44 is cylindrical and extends forwardly .from the combustion chamber 42 through an >opening 14 in the forward cross member 56 of the tendsforwardly and has aninwardly bowedvfface formed therein which rests against the rearward cylindrical surface of the vertically extending out let sleeve | l2 of the hot air manifold 46. A strap ||4 embraces the forward'faceof the sleeve ||2 at this point and is bolted at its ends to the bracket || I so that by tightening the bolts se frame 52 and has its opposite end fitted into an cured to the ends of this strap, the manifold-46 inlet sleeve of the hot air manifold 46. can be drawn into position with its inlet sleeve At the point where the heat exchanger 44 passes slid over the outlet end of the heat exchanger 44. _through the forward cross member 56, it is sup The portable heater as just described is jexcel ported by. a pair of straps 16 which embrace the lently adapted for use over deep snow, muddy heat exchanger and are bolted at their ends to ground or other soft surfaces where the consid _a pair of brackets10 welded to the front face 50 erable area of the sheet 10 will prevent the device of the cross member 56. A pair of upstanding from sinking into the soft surface.y It handles members 80, which pass along the sides of a fuelv like a sled or toboggan, thus making it easy for tank 4B, are welded to the forward face of the an operator to pull the device about by means cross member 56, while a similar se't of upstand of the handle |08. Such a sled type base is not, ing members 84 are welded to an intermediate 55 however, particularly well adaptable for use on frame cross member 96 located adjacent the rear rend of the heat exchanger 44. This intermediate cross member is similar to the end member 56 hard surfaces, such as concrete runways or 'the like. I have, therefore, provided a pair of rubber tired wheels |68 mounted upon an axle |10 Vwhich _andìsimilarly has anopening through which the extends transversely` through the ‘plates 66 in a heat exchanger passes. , 60 position just above the rails 68, a portion of the The fuel tank 48 is positioned horizontally be web of the rails being cut away, as indicated- at tween the upstanding members 80 and 84 and is |12, to permitthe axle to be brought as -low aspos supported by arcuate bands which pass therebe lsible relative to the sheet 10. This axle extends neath and are welded at their ends to the upright through slots |14 in the plates 66 and a pair of members 80 and B4, and at their central points to 65 enlargements or collars |19 formed `upon the the upper faces of the cross members 56 and 90. v axle just inside the plates, as shown in Figs. 4 The tank 48 is held tightly in this cradle by other and 5, prevent the axle from moving longitudi and complementary bands which cverlie the up nally. Each of these slots, as shown particularly per portion of the tank and are bolted at their in Figs. 2 and 3, comprises a vertically extending ' ends to the upper ends of the first mentioned 70 portion |16 which-curves into a forwardly extend bands. ' ing portion |18 at its lower end and into a for ì ` The upright members 84 and 80 extend into po. sition above the top of the tank 43 and at their upper ends are secured to a pair of cross members |60. These cross members have loWel‘ .flanges wardly and downwardly extending portion |80 at its upper end. ' . , ~ A pair of locking arms |82 are pivoted by loose rivets |84 or other suitable means- to the plates> 66 . 5 .2,414,214 in. a` position rearwardly of the slots |14'„ and these rivets areso located. that they are equidisi 6 device whereupon` the axle |10.wil1 automatically move downwardly in the slots |14 until it reaches tant` from the lowerends |18 and the upper ends the bottoms thereof, whereupon it will roll for `|80 of the slots |14. At its forward. end; each wardly against the lower‘ends of the slots as soon o‘f the locking arms |82 is provided with a notch ix as the wheels are lifted from the ground. Assoon |86 which is adapted to ñt over. the upper ‘face of as the axle is in this positon, the bar |88 can be the axle |18 when the axle is against the lower released to permit the springs |90 to latch the end of the slot |18. Likewise, since the upper notches |86 atV the forward ends of the -locking end of the slot |88 is the same distance from the arms |82 over the axle. |10. pivot point |84 as the lower end |18, the notch A typical use to. which the present device. may |86 ‘will also ñt over the axle |10 when theaxle be. put is that of warming cold airplane motors. is located in the upper end |88 of the slot |14. Such use is shown in Fig. 1. The device is; moved The ends of the locking arms |82 opposite from into position either upon its wheelsA or upon the the notches |86 are connected by a transversely flat bottom surface of the sled and the required -extending rod |88, and a pair of coil springs |98 number of hoses andnozzles are pulled from their are hooked to this rod adjacent each end thereof cylinders. If only' one ofA these ducts is used, itY and extend upwardly' and are connected at their shouldbe the ductl connected to the. central sleeve upper ends to the upper flanges 80 of the frame |`l2 of the manifold 46, since the upper sleeve side members 54. The springs |98, therefore, of the manifold to which this> duct- is connected continuously urge the bar |88 upwardly, thus 20 has no damper (dampers being provided in the tending to rotate the forward ends of the locking sleeves H6, operable by handles |28). If only arms |82 downwardly. the duct connected to the central sleeve is used, In Fig. 3 the axle |10 is shown located at the the dampers in the other two sleeves are closed, lower ends |18 of the slots |14 with` the notches thus preventing waste of heat. The reason why |86 of the locking arms embracing the upper face only two dampers are provided is that this insures of the axle. With the axle in this position the the heater not being started under such condi wheels |68 project well below the bottom sheet 18, thus tilting the carriage forwardly with the rounded forward portion of the sheet 18 against the ground surface. inasmuch as the weight of the apparatus is transferred to the axle` |18 principally by the plates 66 at the top edges of the slot portions | 18, there will be very little tendency for the axle to slip rearwardly in the lower portions |18 of these slots. However, such tendency as there is for the axle to move in this direction will be offset by the locking members |82, since any tendency of the axle to move in this direction will be directed substantially toward the pivot points at the rivets |84. Thus, only comparatively little tension in the springs |90 will be necessary to insure the axle being locked against the ends of the lower portions |18 of the slots |14, When it is desired to move the apparatus on its supporting wheels over a hard surface, the operator grasps the handle |88 and lifts the for ward portion of the sheet 1|! clear of the ground. The apparatus can then be pulled about by the operator, or it can be pushed like a wheelbarrow. , When the operator encounters a soft surface into which the wheels |68 will sink to an undesirable extent, the operator depresses the bar |88, thus lifting the forward ends of the locking arms |82 and, if necessary, gives the device a slight for ward push sufliciently to move the axle |18 rear wardly into the vertical portions |16 of the slots |14. The carriage is then lowered with the axle |10 moving relatively upwardly through the ver tical portions |16 of the slots |14 until the bot tom sheet 10 rests flat upon the ground or snow. The axle |10 is then raised slightly more and pushed forwardly into the position where it drops into the downwardly inclined forward portions |80 of the slots |14. The bar |88 is then released to permit the springs |98 to return the locking arms |82 into locking position. The positions of the several elements with the device thus adapted for use over deep snow or muddy surfaces is shown in Fig. 2. To return the wheels to operating position, the bar |88 is again depressed to release the locking arms |82 and the wheels are lifted slightly and pulled rearwardly so that the axle |18 is located in the vertical portions |16 of the slots |14. The operator then lifts the rearward portion of the tions that no hot air can escape, since under these conditions the heater would be likelyl to burn out or become otherwise injured. AnotherV rea son, of course, is that whenever the heater is op erating, at last one of the ducts will be used. Therefore, no Vmore than two dampers are neces sary and the cost of providing three dampers is thus unwarranted. From the above description of a preferred em bodiment of my invention, it will be seen that a device constructed according to this invention is admirably adapted for use about airports or other places where portability is desirable, and further, that this invention accomplishes all of the objec tives set forth for it at an earlier portion of this specification. While I have shown and described a particular embodiment of my invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that my invention is not limited to the particular construction disclosed. I, therefore, wish to include within the scope of the following claims, all constructions by which substantially the results of my invention are ob tained by substantially the same or equivalent means. I claim: ^ 1. In a device of the type described, a sle type structure, a pair of side members extending upwardly from said sled type structure, said side members having vertical slots therein` each of said slots having offset slotted portions at the upper and lower ends thereof, an axle extending through said slots, wheels carried by said axle, said axle being adapted to move vertically in said slots into either of said offset portions, said axle when in said lower offset portions being posi tioned with the lower extremities of said wheels beneath the lower extremity of said sled type structure, and pivotally mounted arms adapted by engagement with said axle at opposite sides of the device to hold the axle releasably in either the upper or the lower offset portions. 2. In a device of the type described, means .i providing a supporting surface of considerable area, a pair of side members extending upwardly from said means, said side members having ver tical slots therein, each of said slots having offset portions at the upper and lower ends thereof, an axle extending through said slots, wheels car 2,414,214 8 7 'siderable size, side portions of said framework having slots therein eachV comprisinga vertical portion and top and bottom> portions extending ried by said axle, said axle being adapted to move vertically in said slots into either of said offset portions, said axle when in said lower oiî set portions being positioned with the lower ex tremities of said wheels beneath the lower ex tremityof the surface providing means, a piv oted locking member adapted to secure said axle in said lower offset portion, the point about which said member pivots being substantially equidistant from said lower offset portion and said upper offset portion so that said pivoted locking member will also lock said axle in said upper offset portion. substantially horizontally therefrom, an axle ex tending through said slots, wheels carried by said axle of a size adapted to extend below the frame work when the axle is in the bottom slot ex tensions, and arms pivotally mounted on said framework in position to engage said axle in either the top or the bottom slot extensions so as to block the axle from movement o_ut of the slot extensions and serving thus to lock the axle positively in position. ` ` 5. Ina device of the type described, the com bination of a framework, supporting means therefor having a bottom supporting face of con 3. In a device of the type described, means providing a supporting surface of considerable area, a pair of side >members extending upwardly siderable‘size, side portions of ysaid framework ‘froml said means, said side members having ver~ having slots therein each comprising a vertical tical slots therein, each of said slots having oil“ portion and top and bottom portions extending setv portions at the upper and lower ends thereof, an axle extending through said slots, wheels 20 substantially horizontally therefrom, an axle ex tending through said slots, wheels carried by said ‘carried by said axle, said axle being adapted to axle of a size adapted to vextend below the frame; move vertically in said slots into either ofl said work when the axle `is in thevbottom slot exten oiïset portions, said axle when in said lower oiî sions, arms pivotally mounted on said framework ~setV portions being positioned with the lower ex tremities of said wheels beneath vthe lower ex 25 in position toengage said axle in either the top or the `bottom slot extensions so as to block the tremity of the surface providing means, and movably mounted arms adapted in adjusted' po axle from *movement out of the slot extensions and serving thus to _lock >the axle positivelyvin sitions to block said axle from movement out of position, and coiled springs normally holding' said lower offset portions. , 4. In a device of the type described, the com bination of a framework, supporting means therefor having a bottom supporting face of con 30 said arms yieldingly in engagement with said axle. , ' , g 'I'HOMAS F. SPACKMAN.'