Jam-14, 1947. , _ AWEISS ETAL 2,414,217 INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE ‘ Filed NOV. 17, 1942 ' 2 Sheets-Sheet l 79 MM» VaJQ’Ziggb ‘ BY I 4744i ' /)ATTORNEY ‘ 7 Jan- v14, 1947- A.‘WEISS ET AL INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE I 2,414,217 Filed NOV. 17, 1942 ’ 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 O 5.9 56" ‘ v 41 > 4.5" 6' 25 8 @31 ~46 w Wwvwwoai // ~ , > WW Patented Jan. 14, 1947 2,414,217 UNITED STATES PATENT ‘ OFFICE 2,414,217 iNTERNALl-COMBUSTION ENGINE Abraham Weiss and Joseph Weiss, New York, N. Y. Application November 17, 1942, Serial No. 465,928‘ 3 Claims. (Cl. 123-478) 1 This invention. relates to internal combustion engines for motor vehicles and has for its main object the provision of a construction whereby the efliciency of theengine will be considerably en hanoed. 2 derstood that with multiple cylinder engine each‘ cylinder will be of identical construction. Referring in detail ?rst to the modi?cation shown in Figure 1, l0 denotes the conventional main cylinder of a multiple cylinder internal com bustion engine (one cylinder only being shown), It is well known that with such engines, as at with the piston H working therein in the‘usual present in use, the efficiency is limited because of manner, and With the ‘usual intake and exhaust the ?xed volume of the explosion chamben so valves (not shown). Fixed over‘ the inner end that after attaining a maximum ef?ciency by a certain charge of fuel, an increase of the charge 10 of the cylinder in the usual or any suitable man ner is a cylinder head 12, which is provided with will lower the ef?ciency of the engine. This an auxiliary cylindrical chamber‘ [3, arranged drawback is obviated by our present invention ac in axial extension of each main cylinder, and in» cording to which the volume of the combustion which works an auxiliary piston l4 provided with‘ chamber is made automatically expansible in order that varying‘charges of fuel may be com 15 the usual piston rings. An annular rib. l2a is. pressed in the engine cylinders under constant provided at the lower. end of said chamber l3 to pressure. We’ are aware that attempts have been made to serve as a stop for. limiting the outer movementv obtain this result by similar methods, but to our of said auxiliary piston M} The space I3a be hind said auxiliary piston l4.is adapted. to be knowledge none were successful because of the faulty construction of the means for controlling ‘ from a reservoir (not shown) through a passage the variation of the combustion chamber, Other objects of our invention will be apparent ?lled with a non-compressible ?uid, such as oil, 13‘) leading into it at the rear or upper closed end of said chamber. This passageis controlled by a suitable valve l5, such as a spring‘ actuated ball from the detailed description thereof, by refer ring to the accompanying vdrawings in which 25 valve. Another passage l3c leads. from said rear end of chamber I3 back into said reservoir and similar reference characters denotecorrespond is controlled by a needle valve I6 actuated by a ing parts and in which: spring Hia whose force is designed to hold said Figure 1 is a more or less diagrammatic sec valve tightly closed underv any'pressure less than tional elevation of an internal combustion engine having a cylinder provided with an‘ auxiliary re~ 30 that of the effective compression ratio, say 175 lbs. or whatever it may be. H denotes a timing ciprocatory piston‘and means for controlling the cam operated from the main'shaft of the engine movement thereof during compression’ so as to in any suitable manner (not shown) and adapted produce constant pressure after the effective com to force the valve l6 back onto its seat at the pression ratio is reached. 35 instance the main pistonlll has reached the end Figures 2 and 3 are similar elevations of modi of its ‘compression stroke and before the ?ring‘ . ?'ed forms of construction of said engine topro~ duce the same effect as that obtained with the’ construction shown in Figure 1. occurs. . The operation is as follows: ' Normally the space behind the auxiliary pis Figure 4 is a section on line 4—4 of Figure 3. 40 ton is ?lled with the non-compressible ?uid such Figure 5 is a similar sectionof a modi?cation as oil, and the valves"! 5 and‘ [B are closed so that of aninternal combustion engine having a re- ‘ the ?uid is trapped in the chamber Its.‘ Asa re ciprocatory pistonvand means for controlling the sult thereof the auxiliary piston I4 is heldat the movement thereof to enlarge the intake volume forward or lower end of chamber I3; during the of the fuel during intake and to compress the 453 intake stroke and part of‘the compression stroke same to an extent causing self-ignition. of the main piston Hi. When the effective com Figure 6 is a similar sectional elevation of modi?cation of an internal combustion engine pression‘ratio is reached the corresponding. press 7 sure‘ of the trapped ?uid will overcome‘ the spring having two independently reciprocating pistons force of the needle valve 16; permitting the ?uid and means for controlling themovements there 50 to escape through‘passage 13”, so that the aux iliary piston‘ l 4 will now move inwardly in cham of so asito enlarge the intake volume of ‘the fuel during intake, and to. compressthe same‘ to an bar It, thereby maintaining constant, the ef extent causing self-ignition. Inthe drawings We; have shown- only one cylin» fective compression ratio up to the instant the - piston H1 arrives at the end of its‘, compression den of’ an internal combustion‘ engine. ‘ It: is un- 55 stroke._ At that instant the‘cam' ll: acts1onthe‘ 2,414,217 3 valve l5 reseating it, and arresting the auxiliary piston during the ?ring. After the expansion stroke the cam l1 unlocks the valve l6, which, however, remains closed under its spring force until the eifective compression ratio is reached in the succeeding cycle. After expansion and during exhaust, the ?uid. will be permitted to enter the chamber I38 through the passage I31’, whose check valve I5» will open under pressure of the ?uid in the reser voir, so that the auxiliary piston M will be caused -> to move back to the forward or initial position thereby aiding in the expulsion of the exhaust gases. It will be seen from the foregoing description of operation of the engine, that the e?iciency of ' the latter can be considerably enhanced by con structingit in accordance with our invention. The construction may however, be modi?ed in various ways without departing from the prin— ciple on which our invention is based. Thus, for instance, according to the modi?ca tion shown, in Figure 2, the auxiliary piston l4,1 normally is held in initial or forward end of the chamber I31 by a spring l8 which may be mount- ' ed in an annular groove Ma thereof’ to bear against a ?ange l3d of the chamber I31. The ball valve l5 controlling the inlet passage |3b may be actuated automatically by the nose I9“ of a rock lever |9 pivoted’ to a movable member 2|! sup~ ' ported by a pull spring 2|)a on the rear wall of said chamber I31. The opposite end of said rock lever may be operatively connected to a spring actuated plunger 2| slidably mounted in a chan nel 22 opening in said chamber |31. When the fluid contained in the space of the chamber l 31 4 then be permitted to move inwardly under con stant compression pressure. At the instant the main piston || reaches the end of the compression stroke or the ?ring posi tion, the solenoid 23 will be energized. This will ‘cause the member 20 to be attracted thereby dis placing the fulcrum I9b of rock lever I9 and re leasing the valve l5 permitting the latter to close under its spring vforce and trapping the ?uid in said chamber [31. The fluid thus trapped will act as brake against the auxiliary piston I41 pre venting its further movement. After the firing stroke the solenoid 23 will be disenergized and member 20 return to normal position. During the exhaust and subsequent intake the relatively weak spring it will move the piston M1 to its initial end position. In the modi?cation according to Figure 3~the auxiliary chamber I32 movably bears a piston 24 provided with a central inwardly projecting ex tension 24“. This extension projects into and movably bears in a liquid chamber 25 provided in the rear or upper closed wall or lid 26 of the chamber |32. Leading from the ?uid reservoir into this liquid chamber is the passage 25Bi con trolled by a spring actuated inlet valve l5. An other passage 25b leads from said chamber back into said reservoir. This passage is controlled by a valve 21. This valve is adapted to be held nor mally closed by a spring 28 and its stem 29 serves as armature of solenoid 23, At its free end this stem is provided. with-a catch 29a.‘ Movably sup ported by spring 30 on the upper or rear wall or lid of the chamber It2 is a yoke shaped member 3| which is provided with a central projection or boss 3|“. The free ends of said yoke project into the chamber l32 and slidably engage slotted pro~~ jections 24b of the piston 24 arranged near the under the pressure of the e?’ective compression periphery of the latter. >When moved upwardly ratio, the spring Zia of the plunger 2| will yield and said plunger 2| will move inwardly in chan 10 or rearwardly this yoke is capable of moving said piston along with it as will be hereinafter denel 22 and thereby swing the rock lever |9 so as scribed. , to unseat the valve l5 and permit the fluid to'be A double armed lever 32 pivoted at 32a is suit forced back into the reservoir, so that the auxil ably connected to a rod 33 which is actuated from iary piston I41 will be allowed to move in syn a suitable timing cam 34. The free end of said chronism with the main piston I0 under constant double armed lever when swung toward the yoke pressure. _ 3| is adapted to act against, the boss 3|?and~ The outer end of- member 20 is adapted to act move said yoke forwardly or downwardly. Pivot as armature of a solenoid 23. This solenoid is ally suspended from said lever 32 is a looped adapted to be energized by an electric circuit con 50 member or hook 33 adapted to operatively engage trolled through a time controlled make and break said catch 29a when said lever 32 is swung away mechanism similar to the conventional spark dis from said yoke 3| and unseat the valve 21 against ‘ tributor mechanism (not shown). When this the tension of its spring 28. solenoid is energized. which will occur at the in The operation is as follows: stant the piston it reaches the ?ring position, At the end of the exhaust and before the com the member 20 will be attracted i. e. moved from mencement of the intake stroke the timing cam its normal position against the tension of its 34 causes lever 32 to press down the yoke 3| behind the auxiliary piston I41 is compressed 7 pull spring. By that movement the fulcrum |9b of the rock lever will be displaced so that the against its springs 30. The valve 217 will close under the tension of spring 28 and the plunger movement of the plunger 2| in the channel 22 60 24a under the pressure» of the ?uid from the res will not a?ect the valve l5 which will instanta ervoir entering the chamber 25 will be caused neously close trapping the ?uid in chamber I31 to move outwardly forcing the auxiliary piston 24 and arresting the auxiliary piston HP. to move down toward the main piston |!. As The operation is as follows 2‘ soon as intake commences, the cam 34 will swing I During the compression stroke of the main 65 the lever 32 away from the yoke 3| as a result'of piston H‘ in the cylinder ID the auxiliary piston which the looped member 33 in cooperation with I41 will at ‘?rst be stationary, because of the ?uid catch 29 will raise the valve‘Z'l from its seat. being trapped Within the ~chamber I31 by the Simultaneously the released yoke 3| will rise un closed valve 15.’ At the instant the effective com der the action'of its springs 30, and when the vpression ratio for the maximum ef?ciencyfis lower ends thereof engage the upper ends of the ‘ reached, the spring 2|“ will yield allowing the plunger’ 2|v to‘ move inwardly. This movement will‘cause the rock lever 19 to unseat the ball‘ guides 24b will move the piston 24 inwardly, the ’ valve | 5 permitting the ?uid 'to be forced back take, while the piston | |' in the main cylinder will move'downwardly or outwardly the auxiliary " into‘its" reservoir; The" auxiliary piston ‘ M1 will fluid being now allowed to return to the ?uid reservoir through passage 25*’. ‘Thus during in- ‘ axing-arr‘ 6 piston "24. will“ move: upwardly or' inwardly“ in chamber‘ l32 thereby=enlarging:the vacuum space fortheintake of fuelmixture. ' At.the*end of? intakeand commencementtof compressionlever 32 again. is swung. down,- press ing yoke 31 down. This. releases valve 21. which solid or: other-section. 35. along with'it by the collar ory?ange35b; therebyv enlarging ‘the intake space of theiengine; During'that movement the passage“!l will becomeexposed so that fluid that may havebeenpreviously expelled may be re plenished in chamber'38 betweenthe two sec will close under-pressureof its spring 28. This tions of the auxiliary piston; ' traps the' ?uid under pressure which is entering - Atthe end of the intake stroke andat the com the chamber. 25', through‘ valve I5 to move-the mencement of . the" compression. stroke the rock plunger 724a and therefore the :auxiliary piston‘ 24 10 lever will be swung to act‘ against the boss 39 outwardly’ before piston‘ H has actually ‘started and force the hollow. sectiont? outwardly, clos to move inwardly and compress the fuel. At the ing the passage 38a and causing the other section end. of. itsuoutward stroke, the‘ auxiliary piston 35 to move‘v outwardly. under the pressure of the will: remain stationary until the compression of ?uid trapped ,betweenxthe two‘sections. At the the fuel in the intake chamber if! has reached the 15 same time the push member 44 will reach the e?ective ratio. At‘ that instant. the force of free end of the‘stem 42“i of valve 42. Owing to spring 28 ‘will yield. under. the pressure of the resiliency of the plunger 45 of the push rod 44, ?uid inchamber 25 causing valve 21 to. open. the valve 42 will, at ?rst, thereby not become The lost motion provided between the lower ends locked, so that when the effective compression of the yoke and the upper ends of the guides 24 ratio is reached the spring 43 of the valve 42 may will permit the ‘piston. 24 to move inwardly in yield, to permit the escape‘ of the ?uid through synchronism with the main‘ piston in under con the passage 33b. At that instant the auxiliary stant pressure, until the end of the. compression piston will be permitted to move inwardly there stroke of the main-piston. At’ thatxinstant' the by maintaining the compression pressure con distributor'switch (not shown) closes‘ ‘the elec stant until the end of the compression stroke or trio circuit through the solenoid 23, which/‘causes the ?ring. At that instant the cam 41 will im valve 2'! to close again and the ?uid to enter. part a slight'further downward movement to the chamber 25‘ and move the piston 24‘ outwardly rock lever 49, forcing section 36 outwardly to to initial position. raise the compression to self-ignition, and Immediately after the ?ring the solenoid is dis» 30 whereby ‘the plunger 45 will be completely forced energized, but the lever 32. is held down till the down against the valve stem 42a and thereby lock 7 end, of . exhaust. The cycle thereupon repeats said valve 42 in closed position. The trapped itself. ?uid will instantaneously arrest the piston. The In the modi?cation shown in Figure 5 the aux valve42 will remain closed and locked until after iliary piston is composed'of two movably interen- ‘ the exhaust, whenthe lever 40' will again swing gaging sections 35, 35. Section 35, constitutingv away from the' boss 39 permitting spring 39 to pull the-auxiliary'piston‘ inwardly as hereinbe the auxiliaryv piston‘ proper, is formedwith‘ a~cen-. tral‘neck portion 33a which projects into the ‘per-i fore described, repeating the cycle. ' ‘ forated bottom of the hollow section 39. The In the modi?cation according to Figure 6, we inner end of the neck 35a is formed with a ?ange 40 provideitwo auxiliary chambers 45, 4'! in which 35‘), which prevents the disengagement of the two _ reciprocate. independently of one another aux iliary pistons 48, 49 respectively. An annular rib sections 35, 36 from one another and between which and the rear or inner end wall of the 41b is provided at the lower end of chamber 41 to section 36 is mounted a spring 3‘! normally tend serve as a stop for limiting the outer movement ing to hold the two sections extended. The sec 45 of said auxiliary piston 43. The chamber 41 be tion 36 is provided with a central rearwardly hind the auxiliary piston 49 is adapted to be projecting boss 33a having a flange 36b between ?lled with non-compressible ?uid from a reser which and the closed end of the chamber 38 is voir (not shown) through a passage 41%, con mounted a spring 39 which normally tends to trolled by ball valve l5, and. has a second passage move the hollow section 33 upwardly or inwardly. 60 47b leading back into said reservoir and controlled Adapted to act against the free end of said boss by a needle valve 21 acted upon by spring 28 and 39 is a rock lever 40 which as in the modi?ca whose stem 29 serves as armature of a solenoid tion shown in Figure 3 is adapted to be actuated 23 similar to the modi?cation shown in Figure in suitable manner by a timing cam 4! impelled 3. The second auxiliary piston 43 'is provided from the main shaft of the engine. The chamber 55 with a piston rod 48a and is adapted to normally 38 is provided with two passages 38% and 38b, the move inwardly under the tension of spring 59 former leading from and the latter leading back mounted between the closed rear end of the into a non-compressible ?uid reservoir (not chamber 46 and a collar 48*’. The free end of said shown). The passage 33*’ is controlled by a piston rod is adapted to be acted upon by the rock needle valve 42 which under the tension of a 60 lever 40 operated by a timing cam 5l,.as will be spring 43 normally holds said valve closed. The presently described. The operation is as follows: perforations 35“ in the bottom of the hollow sec~ During intake the cam 5| swings lever 49 away from piston rod 482“ permitting auxiliary piston tion 36 permit the passage of the ?uid into the latter. 48 to move inwardly under action of its spring Suspended from the rock lever 49 is a push 65 '50, thereby enlarging intake volume of the fuel mixture. During that period the valves I5 and member 44 which at its free end carries a spring actuated plunger 45 capable when the lever is in 32'! being closed in chamber 41 trap the ?uid be active position to engage the free end of the hind the auxiliary piston 49 and hold it in its lower end position. Duringa portion of the com stem 423 of the needle valve 42 and to lock the 70 pression stroke the piston 49 remains stationary same, as will be presently described. The operation is as follows: until the eifective compression ratio is reached. During the intake stroke of the main piston ID At that instant the spring 28 of the valve 21 yields the rock lever 40 will be up or away from the ’ untrapping the ?uid, so that the piston 49 can boss 39, permitting the hollow section 38 of the ' now move inwardly in synchrony with the piston auxiliary plunger to move inwardly and pull the 75 II in main cylinder, maintaining the pressure I l I i 1l 7 2,414,217‘ ‘ 1 i 8 constant. ‘When the main piston reaches the end ?owpassage for said non-elastic ?uid, the load; of the compression stroke or the‘ ?ring position, the solenoid 23 is energized and locks the valve 21 on its seat. At the same instant the lever 40 is rocked to depress the second auxiliary piston 48 in chamber 46 and thereby raise the com pression‘ pressure to self-ignition; At the end of the ?ring stroke the solenoid 23 is disener gized. Due to the drop of pressure in the com ing'of said valve serving normally to‘ maintain said valve closed and to preclude return flow through said second passage until a predeter mined counter-pressure is exerted upon said re ciprocatory member from below the closed end of said chamber, and time controlled means in timed relation with said engine operable on said spring loaded valve for closing the latter in oppo bustion chamber the ?uid entering under a cer 10 sition to said counter-pressure. tain pressure the chamber 41 through the pas 2. In an internal combustion engine, according sage 418' will force the piston 49 down thereby to claim 1, in which means are provided for rais-v aiding in the expulsion of the exhaust gases. ing the compression pressure at the end of the The piston 49 may be properly guided in the compression stroke to cause self-ignition oi the 15 fuel. chamber 4‘! by any suitable means. By this last described modi?cation, spark plugs, 3. In an internal combustion engine, the com distributor make and break mechanism and other bination with its cylinder and piston, of a eham-> parts at present required to produce ignition can her in extension of the inner end of said cylinder be entirely eliminated. _ and divided into two compartments, a reciprocat To prevent the ?uid from escaping into the 20 ing member in each compartment, means for combustion chamber or air and gases passing establishing ?uid pressure behind the recipro into the fluid chamber and forming bubbles catory member in one of said compartments so as therein, suitably controlled escape vents (not to hold the member therein stationary during a shown) may be provided in the auxiliary cham portion of the compression stroke of said piston, hers. ' , 25 means in timed relation with the engine for re It is, of course, obvious that various other mod lieving said pressure at the instant the effective i?cations may be made in the construction of compression ratio is reached to permit said internal combustion engines without departing member to move inwardly under constant pres-v from the principle of our invention and we there sure, timing means for reestablishing ?uid pres fore, do not wish to limit ourselves to the details 30 sure behind said member at the end of the com described and shown. pression stroke to again hold said member sta What we claim is: ' tionary during ?ring, means in timed relation with 1. In an internal combustion engine, the com# the engine tending to move the member in the bination with its cylinder and piston, of a cham other compartment inwardly during the intake ber in extension of the inner end of said cylinder, stroke so as to enlarge the volume of the fuel‘ a reciprocatory member working in said chamber, a valve controlled means ,for admitting non-' elastic ?uid under pressure from a ?ow passage into the inner end of said chamber, said valve controlled means preventing return ?ow of said 4.0 ?uid, a spring loaded valve controlling a second charge and timing means for positively moving said second member outwardly at the end of the ,compression stroke of said piston to raise the compression of the fuel to self-ignition. ' ABRAHAM WEISS. JOSEPH WEISS. '