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Jam-14, 1947.
Filed NOV. 17, 1942
2 Sheets-Sheet l
MM» VaJQ’Ziggb ‘
4744i ' /)ATTORNEY
Jan- v14, 1947-
I 2,414,217
Filed NOV. 17, 1942 ’
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
56" ‘ v
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Patented Jan. 14, 1947
Abraham Weiss and Joseph Weiss,
New York, N. Y.
Application November 17, 1942, Serial No. 465,928‘
3 Claims. (Cl. 123-478)
This invention. relates to internal combustion
engines for motor vehicles and has for its main
object the provision of a construction whereby the
efliciency of theengine will be considerably en
derstood that with multiple cylinder engine each‘
cylinder will be of identical construction.
Referring in detail ?rst to the modi?cation
shown in Figure 1, l0 denotes the conventional
main cylinder of a multiple cylinder internal com
bustion engine (one cylinder only being shown),
It is well known that with such engines, as at
with the piston H working therein in the‘usual
present in use, the efficiency is limited because of
manner, and With the ‘usual intake and exhaust
the ?xed volume of the explosion chamben so
valves (not shown). Fixed over‘ the inner end
that after attaining a maximum ef?ciency by a
certain charge of fuel, an increase of the charge 10 of the cylinder in the usual or any suitable man
ner is a cylinder head 12, which is provided with
will lower the ef?ciency of the engine. This
an auxiliary cylindrical chamber‘ [3, arranged
drawback is obviated by our present invention ac
in axial extension of each main cylinder, and in»
cording to which the volume of the combustion
which works an auxiliary piston l4 provided with‘
chamber is made automatically expansible in
order that varying‘charges of fuel may be com 15 the usual piston rings. An annular rib. l2a is.
pressed in the engine cylinders under constant
provided at the lower. end of said chamber l3 to
We’ are aware that attempts have been made to
serve as a stop for. limiting the outer movementv
obtain this result by similar methods, but to our
of said auxiliary piston M} The space I3a be
hind said auxiliary piston adapted. to be
knowledge none were successful because of the
faulty construction of the means for controlling
‘ from a reservoir (not shown) through a passage
the variation of the combustion chamber,
Other objects of our invention will be apparent
?lled with a non-compressible ?uid, such as oil,
13‘) leading into it at the rear or upper closed end
of said chamber. This passageis controlled by a
suitable valve l5, such as a spring‘ actuated ball
from the detailed description thereof, by refer
ring to the accompanying vdrawings in which 25 valve. Another passage l3c leads. from said rear
end of chamber I3 back into said reservoir and
similar reference characters denotecorrespond
is controlled by a needle valve I6 actuated by a
ing parts and in which:
spring Hia whose force is designed to hold said
Figure 1 is a more or less diagrammatic sec
valve tightly closed underv any'pressure less than
tional elevation of an internal combustion engine
having a cylinder provided with an‘ auxiliary re~ 30 that of the effective compression ratio, say 175
lbs. or whatever it may be. H denotes a timing
ciprocatory piston‘and means for controlling the
cam operated from the main'shaft of the engine
movement thereof during compression’ so as to
in any suitable manner (not shown) and adapted
produce constant pressure after the effective com
to force the valve l6 back onto its seat at the
pression ratio is reached.
35 instance the main pistonlll has reached the end
Figures 2 and 3 are similar elevations of modi
of its ‘compression stroke and before the ?ring‘
. ?'ed forms of construction of said engine topro~
duce the same effect as that obtained with the’
construction shown in Figure 1.
The operation is as follows: '
Normally the space behind the auxiliary pis
Figure 4 is a section on line 4—4 of Figure 3.
40 ton is ?lled with the non-compressible ?uid such
Figure 5 is a similar sectionof a modi?cation
as oil, and the valves"! 5 and‘ [B are closed so that
of aninternal combustion engine having a re- ‘
the ?uid is trapped in the chamber Its.‘ Asa re
ciprocatory pistonvand means for controlling the
sult thereof the auxiliary piston I4 is heldat the
movement thereof to enlarge the intake volume
forward or lower end of chamber I3; during the
of the fuel during intake and to compress the 453 intake stroke and part of‘the compression stroke
same to an extent causing self-ignition.
of the main piston Hi. When the effective com
Figure 6 is a similar sectional elevation of
modi?cation of an internal combustion engine
pression‘ratio is reached the corresponding. press 7
sure‘ of the trapped ?uid will overcome‘ the spring
having two independently reciprocating pistons
force of the needle valve 16; permitting the ?uid
and means for controlling themovements there 50 to escape through‘passage 13”, so that the aux
iliary piston‘ l 4 will now move inwardly in cham
of so asito enlarge the intake volume of ‘the fuel
during intake, and to. compressthe same‘ to an
bar It, thereby maintaining constant, the ef
extent causing self-ignition.
Inthe drawings We; have shown- only one cylin»
fective compression ratio up to the instant the -
piston H1 arrives at the end of its‘, compression
den of’ an internal combustion‘ engine. ‘ It: is un- 55 stroke._ At that instant the‘cam' ll: acts1onthe‘
valve l5 reseating it, and arresting the auxiliary
piston during the ?ring. After the expansion
stroke the cam l1 unlocks the valve l6, which,
however, remains closed under its spring force
until the eifective compression ratio is reached
in the succeeding cycle.
After expansion and during exhaust, the ?uid.
will be permitted to enter the chamber I38
through the passage I31’, whose check valve I5»
will open under pressure of the ?uid in the reser
voir, so that the auxiliary piston M will be caused ->
to move back to the forward or initial position
thereby aiding in the expulsion of the exhaust
It will be seen from the foregoing description
of operation of the engine, that the e?iciency of '
the latter can be considerably enhanced by con
structingit in accordance with our invention.
The construction may however, be modi?ed in
various ways without departing from the prin—
ciple on which our invention is based.
Thus, for instance, according to the modi?ca
tion shown, in Figure 2, the auxiliary piston l4,1
normally is held in initial or forward end of the
chamber I31 by a spring l8 which may be mount- '
ed in an annular groove Ma thereof’ to bear
against a ?ange l3d of the chamber I31. The ball
valve l5 controlling the inlet passage |3b may be
actuated automatically by the nose I9“ of a rock
lever |9 pivoted’ to a movable member 2|! sup~ '
ported by a pull spring 2|)a on the rear wall of
said chamber I31. The opposite end of said rock
lever may be operatively connected to a spring
actuated plunger 2| slidably mounted in a chan
nel 22 opening in said chamber |31. When the
fluid contained in the space of the chamber l 31
then be permitted to move inwardly under con
stant compression pressure.
At the instant the main piston || reaches the
end of the compression stroke or the ?ring posi
tion, the solenoid 23 will be energized. This will
‘cause the member 20 to be attracted thereby dis
placing the fulcrum I9b of rock lever I9 and re
leasing the valve l5 permitting the latter to close
under its spring vforce and trapping the ?uid in
said chamber [31. The fluid thus trapped will
act as brake against the auxiliary piston I41 pre
venting its further movement. After the firing
stroke the solenoid 23 will be disenergized and
member 20 return to normal position.
During the exhaust and subsequent intake the
relatively weak spring it will move the piston M1
to its initial end position.
In the modi?cation according to Figure 3~the
auxiliary chamber I32 movably bears a piston 24
provided with a central inwardly projecting ex
tension 24“. This extension projects into and
movably bears in a liquid chamber 25 provided
in the rear or upper closed wall or lid 26 of the
chamber |32. Leading from the ?uid reservoir
into this liquid chamber is the passage 25Bi con
trolled by a spring actuated inlet valve l5. An
other passage 25b leads from said chamber back
into said reservoir. This passage is controlled by
a valve 21. This valve is adapted to be held nor
mally closed by a spring 28 and its stem 29 serves
as armature of solenoid 23, At its free end this
stem is provided. with-a catch 29a.‘ Movably sup
ported by spring 30 on the upper or rear wall or
lid of the chamber It2 is a yoke shaped member
3| which is provided with a central projection or
boss 3|“. The free ends of said yoke project into
the chamber l32 and slidably engage slotted pro~~
jections 24b of the piston 24 arranged near the
under the pressure of the e?’ective compression
periphery of the latter. >When moved upwardly
ratio, the spring Zia of the plunger 2| will yield
and said plunger 2| will move inwardly in chan 10 or rearwardly this yoke is capable of moving said
piston along with it as will be hereinafter denel 22 and thereby swing the rock lever |9 so as
to unseat the valve l5 and permit the fluid to'be
lever 32 pivoted at 32a is suit
forced back into the reservoir, so that the auxil
ably connected to a rod 33 which is actuated from
iary piston I41 will be allowed to move in syn
a suitable timing cam 34. The free end of said
chronism with the main piston I0 under constant
double armed lever when swung toward the yoke
3| is adapted to act against, the boss 3|?and~
The outer end of- member 20 is adapted to act
move said yoke forwardly or downwardly. Pivot
as armature of a solenoid 23. This solenoid is
ally suspended from said lever 32 is a looped
adapted to be energized by an electric circuit con 50 member or hook 33 adapted to operatively engage
trolled through a time controlled make and break
said catch 29a when said lever 32 is swung away
mechanism similar to the conventional spark dis
from said yoke 3| and unseat the valve 21 against ‘
tributor mechanism (not shown). When this
the tension of its spring 28.
solenoid is energized. which will occur at the in
The operation is as follows:
stant the piston it reaches the ?ring position,
At the end of the exhaust and before the com
the member 20 will be attracted i. e. moved from
mencement of the intake stroke the timing cam
its normal position against the tension of its
34 causes lever 32 to press down the yoke 3|
behind the auxiliary piston I41 is compressed 7
pull spring. By that movement the fulcrum |9b
of the rock lever will be displaced so that the
against its springs 30. The valve 217 will close
under the tension of spring 28 and the plunger
movement of the plunger 2| in the channel 22 60 24a under the pressure» of the ?uid from the res
will not a?ect the valve l5 which will instanta
ervoir entering the chamber 25 will be caused
neously close trapping the ?uid in chamber I31
to move outwardly forcing the auxiliary piston 24
and arresting the auxiliary piston HP.
to move down toward the main piston |!. As
The operation is as follows 2‘
soon as intake commences, the cam 34 will swing I
During the compression stroke of the main 65 the lever 32 away from the yoke 3| as a result'of
piston H‘ in the cylinder ID the auxiliary piston
which the looped member 33 in cooperation with
I41 will at ‘?rst be stationary, because of the ?uid
catch 29 will raise the valve‘Z'l from its seat.
being trapped Within the ~chamber I31 by the
Simultaneously the released yoke 3| will rise un
closed valve 15.’ At the instant the effective com
der the action'of its springs 30, and when the
vpression ratio for the maximum ef?ciencyfis
lower ends thereof engage the upper ends of the ‘
reached, the spring 2|“ will yield allowing the
plunger’ 2|v to‘ move inwardly. This movement
will‘cause the rock lever 19 to unseat the ball‘
guides 24b will move the piston 24 inwardly, the ’
valve | 5 permitting the ?uid 'to be forced back
take, while the piston | |' in the main cylinder
will move'downwardly or outwardly the auxiliary "
into‘its" reservoir; The" auxiliary piston ‘ M1 will
fluid being now allowed to return to the ?uid
reservoir through passage 25*’. ‘Thus during in- ‘
piston "24. will“ move: upwardly or' inwardly“ in
chamber‘ l32 thereby=enlarging:the vacuum space
fortheintake of fuelmixture.
At.the*end of? intakeand commencementtof
compressionlever 32 again. is swung. down,- press
ing yoke 31 down. This. releases valve 21. which
solid or: other-section. 35. along with'it by the
collar ory?ange35b; therebyv enlarging ‘the intake
space of theiengine; During'that movement the
passage“!l will becomeexposed so that fluid that
may havebeenpreviously expelled may be re
plenished in chamber'38 betweenthe two sec
will close under-pressureof its spring 28. This
tions of the auxiliary piston;
traps the' ?uid under pressure which is entering
- Atthe end of the intake stroke andat the com
the chamber. 25', through‘ valve I5 to move-the
mencement of . the" compression. stroke the rock
plunger 724a and therefore the :auxiliary piston‘ 24 10 lever will be swung to act‘ against the boss 39
outwardly’ before piston‘ H has actually ‘started
and force the hollow. sectiont? outwardly, clos
to move inwardly and compress the fuel. At the
ing the passage 38a and causing the other section
end. of. itsuoutward stroke, the‘ auxiliary piston
35 to move‘v outwardly. under the pressure of the
will: remain stationary until the compression of
?uid trapped ,betweenxthe two‘sections. At the
the fuel in the intake chamber if! has reached the 15 same time the push member 44 will reach the
e?ective ratio. At‘ that instant. the force of
free end of the‘stem 42“i of valve 42. Owing to
spring 28 ‘will yield. under. the pressure of the
resiliency of the plunger 45 of the push rod 44,
?uid inchamber 25 causing valve 21 to. open.
the valve 42 will, at ?rst, thereby not become
The lost motion provided between the lower ends
locked, so that when the effective compression
of the yoke and the upper ends of the guides 24
ratio is reached the spring 43 of the valve 42 may
will permit the ‘piston. 24 to move inwardly in
yield, to permit the escape‘ of the ?uid through
synchronism with the main‘ piston in under con
the passage 33b. At that instant the auxiliary
stant pressure, until the end of the. compression
piston will be permitted to move inwardly there
stroke of the main-piston. At’ thatxinstant' the
by maintaining the compression pressure con
distributor'switch (not shown) closes‘ ‘the elec
stant until the end of the compression stroke or
trio circuit through the solenoid 23, which/‘causes
the ?ring. At that instant the cam 41 will im
valve 2'! to close again and the ?uid to enter.
part a slight'further downward movement to the
chamber 25‘ and move the piston 24‘ outwardly
rock lever 49, forcing section 36 outwardly to
to initial position.
raise the compression to self-ignition, and
Immediately after the ?ring the solenoid is dis» 30 whereby ‘the plunger 45 will be completely forced
energized, but the lever 32. is held down till the
down against the valve stem 42a and thereby lock 7
end, of . exhaust. The cycle thereupon repeats
said valve 42 in closed position. The trapped
?uid will instantaneously arrest the piston. The
In the modi?cation shown in Figure 5 the aux
valve42 will remain closed and locked until after
iliary piston is composed'of two movably interen- ‘ the exhaust, whenthe lever 40' will again swing
gaging sections 35, 35. Section 35, constitutingv
away from the' boss 39 permitting spring 39 to
pull the-auxiliary'piston‘ inwardly as hereinbe
the auxiliaryv piston‘ proper, is formedwith‘ a~cen-.
tral‘neck portion 33a which projects into the ‘per-i
fore described, repeating the cycle. '
forated bottom of the hollow section 39. The
In the modi?cation according to Figure 6, we
inner end of the neck 35a is formed with a ?ange 40 provideitwo auxiliary chambers 45, 4'! in which
35‘), which prevents the disengagement of the two _ reciprocate. independently of one another aux
iliary pistons 48, 49 respectively. An annular rib
sections 35, 36 from one another and between
which and the rear or inner end wall of the
41b is provided at the lower end of chamber 41 to
section 36 is mounted a spring 3‘! normally tend
serve as a stop for limiting the outer movement
ing to hold the two sections extended. The sec 45 of said auxiliary piston 43. The chamber 41 be
tion 36 is provided with a central rearwardly
hind the auxiliary piston 49 is adapted to be
projecting boss 33a having a flange 36b between
?lled with non-compressible ?uid from a reser
which and the closed end of the chamber 38 is
voir (not shown) through a passage 41%, con
mounted a spring 39 which normally tends to
trolled by ball valve l5, and. has a second passage
move the hollow section 33 upwardly or inwardly. 60 47b leading back into said reservoir and controlled
Adapted to act against the free end of said boss
by a needle valve 21 acted upon by spring 28 and
39 is a rock lever 40 which as in the modi?ca
whose stem 29 serves as armature of a solenoid
tion shown in Figure 3 is adapted to be actuated
23 similar to the modi?cation shown in Figure
in suitable manner by a timing cam 4! impelled
3. The second auxiliary piston 43 'is provided
from the main shaft of the engine. The chamber 55 with a piston rod 48a and is adapted to normally
38 is provided with two passages 38% and 38b, the
move inwardly under the tension of spring 59
former leading from and the latter leading back
mounted between the closed rear end of the
into a non-compressible ?uid reservoir (not
chamber 46 and a collar 48*’. The free end of said
shown). The passage 33*’ is controlled by a
piston rod is adapted to be acted upon by the rock
needle valve 42 which under the tension of a 60 lever 40 operated by a timing cam 5l,.as will be
spring 43 normally holds said valve closed. The
presently described. The operation is as follows:
perforations 35“ in the bottom of the hollow sec~
During intake the cam 5| swings lever 49 away
from piston rod 482“ permitting auxiliary piston
tion 36 permit the passage of the ?uid into the
48 to move inwardly under action of its spring
Suspended from the rock lever 49 is a push 65 '50, thereby enlarging intake volume of the fuel
mixture. During that period the valves I5 and
member 44 which at its free end carries a spring
actuated plunger 45 capable when the lever is in
32'! being closed in chamber 41 trap the ?uid be
active position to engage the free end of the
hind the auxiliary piston 49 and hold it in its
lower end position. Duringa portion of the com
stem 423 of the needle valve 42 and to lock the
70 pression stroke the piston 49 remains stationary
same, as will be presently described.
The operation is as follows:
until the eifective compression ratio is reached.
During the intake stroke of the main piston ID
At that instant the spring 28 of the valve 21 yields
the rock lever 40 will be up or away from the ’ untrapping the ?uid, so that the piston 49 can
boss 39, permitting the hollow section 38 of the ' now move inwardly in synchrony with the piston
auxiliary plunger to move inwardly and pull the 75 II in main cylinder, maintaining the pressure
‘ 1
constant. ‘When the main piston reaches the end
?owpassage for said non-elastic ?uid, the load;
of the compression stroke or the‘ ?ring position,
the solenoid 23 is energized and locks the valve
21 on its seat. At the same instant the lever 40
is rocked to depress the second auxiliary piston
48 in chamber 46 and thereby raise the com
pression‘ pressure to self-ignition; At the end
of the ?ring stroke the solenoid 23 is disener
gized. Due to the drop of pressure in the com
ing'of said valve serving normally to‘ maintain
said valve closed and to preclude return flow
through said second passage until a predeter
mined counter-pressure is exerted upon said re
ciprocatory member from below the closed end
of said chamber, and time controlled means in
timed relation with said engine operable on said
spring loaded valve for closing the latter in oppo
bustion chamber the ?uid entering under a cer 10 sition to said counter-pressure.
tain pressure the chamber 41 through the pas
2. In an internal combustion engine, according
sage 418' will force the piston 49 down thereby
to claim 1, in which means are provided for rais-v
aiding in the expulsion of the exhaust gases.
ing the compression pressure at the end of the
The piston 49 may be properly guided in the
compression stroke to cause self-ignition oi the
15 fuel.
chamber 4‘! by any suitable means.
By this last described modi?cation, spark plugs,
3. In an internal combustion engine, the com
distributor make and break mechanism and other
bination with its cylinder and piston, of a eham->
parts at present required to produce ignition can
her in extension of the inner end of said cylinder
be entirely eliminated.
and divided into two compartments, a reciprocat
To prevent the ?uid from escaping into the 20 ing member in each compartment, means for
combustion chamber or air and gases passing
establishing ?uid pressure behind the recipro
into the fluid chamber and forming bubbles
catory member in one of said compartments so as
therein, suitably controlled escape vents (not
to hold the member therein stationary during a
shown) may be provided in the auxiliary cham
portion of the compression stroke of said piston,
25 means in timed relation with the engine for re
It is, of course, obvious that various other mod
lieving said pressure at the instant the effective
i?cations may be made in the construction of
compression ratio is reached to permit said
internal combustion engines without departing
member to move inwardly under constant pres-v
from the principle of our invention and we there
sure, timing means for reestablishing ?uid pres
fore, do not wish to limit ourselves to the details 30 sure behind said member at the end of the com
described and shown.
pression stroke to again hold said member sta
What we claim is:
tionary during ?ring, means in timed relation with
1. In an internal combustion engine, the com#
the engine tending to move the member in the
bination with its cylinder and piston, of a cham
other compartment inwardly during the intake
ber in extension of the inner end of said cylinder,
stroke so as to enlarge the volume of the fuel‘
a reciprocatory member working in said chamber,
a valve controlled means ,for admitting non-'
elastic ?uid under pressure from a ?ow passage
into the inner end of said chamber, said valve
controlled means preventing return ?ow of said 4.0
?uid, a spring loaded valve controlling a second
charge and timing means for positively moving
said second member outwardly at the end of the
,compression stroke of said piston to raise the
compression of the fuel to self-ignition.
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