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Jan. 14, 1947.
G. A. ._Ewls Y
2,414,232
TRANSFORMER
Filed Jan.- 2, 1945
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INVENTOR. '
Jan. 14, >1947.
G, A, LEWS
2,414,232
TRANSFORMER
.Filed Jan. 2, 1945
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Patente-d Jan. 14, 1947
2,414,232
y UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,414,232
'rRANsFoRMER
Glover A. Lewis, Houston, Tex.
Application January 2, 1945, serial No. 571,053
` 15 claims. (cl. 17a-119)
1
This application is-in part a continuation of
my prior copending _application Serial No. 408,008,
ñled August 23, 1941.-
'
This invention relates to transformers and has
for its general object the provision of a trans
former in .which the output current and voltage
can be morej'accurately controlled than in pre
vious types of transformers.
In various types of work, and particularly the
electrical welding service, it is essential that a
transformer for producing the current to be used
be capable of very accurate control in so far as
its current and voltage characteristics are con
2
provide means whereby said reactance may be
adjusted.
Other objects and advantages of this invention
will become apparent from the following descrip
tion taken in connection with the accompanying
drawings, wherein is illustrated one embodiment
of this invention.
In the drawings:
.
Fig. 1 shows a side elevation of a welding ma
chine including a transformer constructed in ac
cordance with this invention.
_
Fig. 2 is a horizontal transverse section sub
stantially on the line 3-3 of Fig. 3.
cerned. Various attempts have been made in the
' Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the same machine
past to provide transformers having the desired 15 with
the guard removed, showing the relative po
characteristics, but in every instance certain un
sitions
of the various parts of the transformer.
desirable characteristics have accompanied the
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 2, but with the
guard removed.
it has not been possible with previous construc
Fígfä is a side elevation showing the coil ar- tions to provide for a substantially constant cur 20
rangement
of the transformer, the other parts
rent output from the secondary coil of the trans
thereof being removed for the purpose of simpli
former without the characteristics of the output
fying the illustration.
current with respect to its wave form, etc. chang
Fig.` 6 shows an elevation of the same structure
ing greatly as the load changes. It has also been
as illustrated in Fig. 5 taken at right angles
impossible with previous known transformer con
thereto.
'
structions to alter the open circuit voltage of the 25
Fig. 7 is a top plan view of the structure shown
secondary coil.
desirable characteristics obtained. For example,
in Fi‘g. 5.
Fig. 8 shows the electrical diagram and illus
provide a transformer in which the voltage of
the secondary coil may be controlled to vary as 30 trates the connectionsbetween the various coils
shown in Figs. 5 to 7 inclusive.
desired as the current in the secondary coil varies.
~ Fig. 9 is a top plan view of the secondary coil
It is an object of this invention, therefore, to
It is a further and more specific object of this
invention to provide a transformer in which the
voltage supplied by the secondary coil will drop
as the current flowing in the secondary coil in
35
creases in value so that by an increase in the
current flowing in the secondary coil, the voltage `
across the secondary coil may be made to vary
from a maximum to substantially‘zero.
,
It is a further object of this invention to pro 40
vide a transformer of the type referred to in which
_the open circuit voltage of the secondary coil
may be adjusted to whatever value ma.v be desired.
forming a part of this invention, parts of the
covering for the same having been broken away
and shown in cross section for the purpose of
illustration.
Fig. 10 is a fragmentarywgiew illustrating the
manner of arranging the windings of the sec
ondary coil shown in Fig. 9.
Fig. 11 shows a longitudinal cross section of
the composite winding illustrated in Fig. 10.
' Although a transformer constructed in accord
ance with this invention may be mounted in any
desired manner most convenient for the use to
which it is to be put, one desired form is illustrat
It is a further object of this invention to pro
vide a transformer ofthe type referred to in which 45 ed in Figs. l to 4 inclusive. In these figures it
will be seen that the, transformer is built on a
the secondary coil will provide a substantially
frame presently to be described, and that this '
constant current output over a wide range of
frame adjacent one end carries an axle I, on the
resistance in the secondary coil circuit.
opposite ends of which are mounted wheels 2.
Another and more specific object is to provide
50 Adjacent the opposite end the frame is provided
a transformer which will supply a substantially
constant current to an arc of varying length.
with a swivel mounting 3 on which is carried a~
caster wheel ê. Thus, a three-wheel support is
Another object of this invention is to provide
provided for the device so that it may be readily
a transformer in which a predetermined reactance
transported to any location desired.
will be present in the secondary circuit and to 55
For further ease in transporting the machine,
asi-gasa
.
ê
I
able current. The primary coil is supported by
.it is provided with a pair of upwardly and rear
wardly inclined bars 5 adjacent one end, these
bars being joined at their upper and -rear-most
means of a pair of insulating beams 3G, which
are in turn carried on the brackets 3i and these
brackets are welded or otherwise suitably secured
ends by means of a cross bar t. The bars 5 are
secured by a suitable means, such as welding or Cl to the straps 2 I , as shown at 32.
The secondary coil 33 ofthe transformer like
the like, to the frame of the transformer at
their lower ends ‘l and at some intermediate point.
wise surrounds the center leg 2l of the core and is
such as the point 3.
carried on insulating beams 3G, which are in turn
'
supported by bars 35 extending through the in
The transformer may be handled and trans
ported from one place to another by means of a 10 terior of the secondary coil. These bars are se
cured at their upper ends to the lower ends oiîav
crane or a hoist and for this purpose there is pro
pair of cables 36, which are in turn carried by the
vided a Abail 9 adapted to be engaged by a hook or
sheaves 31 on the gear box 25. The sheaves 3l
other connecting member carried by such hoist.
are adapted to be rotated to raise or lower the
For the purpose of protecting workmen against
secondary coil 33 by means of a crank 38 that
accidental contact with parts of the transformer,
serves to actuate the gears within the gear box`
which might be charged with high vo1tage,~and
25 for this purpose. By the means just described,
for the purpose of protecting the transformer '
the secondary coil may be located at any level
desired between its lowermost position, inwhich
it rests upon the angle supports I5, and its upper
position, in which it would contact the beams 30.
The terminals 39 and til of the secondary coil
are connected through flexible conductors di and
¿l2 with suitable binding posts 53 and @it on the
terminal board 45, which is provided for this pur
against accidental damage caused by heavy» or
sharp objects being brought into contact there
with, the entire body of the transformer is pref
erably enclosed by panels 9 of sheet metal, or any
other desirable material, and part of this enclo
sure preferably is in the form of a wire mesh I0, so
as to provide ample circulation of air for the pur
pose of cooling the transformer. Also, a door II
may be provided for the purpose of permitting
access to the terminal board of the secondary coil,
as will be presently described. On the outside
pose. ‘ The terminal board 55 is mountedin a sta
tionary positionv by means of suitable brackets 46,
welded or otherwise suitably secured to the straps
of the housing, and preferably adjacent the han-`
die bars 5, will be located the main switch I2, con
trolling the supply to the primary of the trans
former.
-
Referring now more particularly to Figs. 3 and '
4, it will be seen that> the frame members I3 and
‘ i4, which are directly supportedby the wheels 2
and ê, serve in turn as supports for the angle
irons I5, which extend from one of these frame
. members I3 to the other member I3.
There are
two such vangle irons I5 which are clamped to the
opposite sides of the core I6 of the transformer
by means of bolts I'I, or the like.
The core I6 is shown as comprising a rectangu
lar frame, having end portions, side portions 20,
and a center leg 2l, thus forming two windows I8
and I9 therethrough. The frame and windows
are vertically disposed. 'I'he aggregate cross-sec
tional area of the side portions 2l! of the core is
the same as the cross-‘sectional area of the center
leg 21, as best shown „in Fig. 2. 'I'he same is true
of the aggregate cross-sectional*` area of the end
portions. Thus the side and end portions of the
core have a joint flux-carrying capacity equalto that of the center leg. Hence the core pro
vides a closed magnetic circuit of substantially i
uniform íiux-carrying capacity throughout, or,
in. other words, the flux density, under no load
conditions, is the same in all parts of the core.
The side upright portions 20 of the core are pro
‘vided on their opposite faces with metallic straps
2l secured thereto by bolts 22 for the purpose of
holding the core together, these straps being
welded at 23 to the upper edges of the angle irons
I5. At their upper ends these straps are bolted
to the downwardly extended flanges of the angle
irons 24., the upper flanges of which extend toward
each other across the top of the core. The angle
irons 24 extend along the entire length of the
upper cross member of the core and serve as a
support for the gear box 25, the same being se
cured thereto by cap-screws 26.
30
20, or to any other suitable stationary portion of
the frame of the transformer.
'I'he secondary coil 33 is of a special construc
tion illustrated in Figs. 9 to 1l inclusive, as will
be presently described.
Disposed inside the windows I8 and I9 and ex
tending through these windows, but in a substan
tially vertical position, are auxiliary coils 47 and
38. These coils are adapted to control the leak
age flux between the primary and secondary coils
of the transformer when under load, as hereini
after explained, so as to control the output volt
age of the transformer under load. -“Leakage
flux” as here used, is that ñux which links the pri->
mary or the secondary coil but not both, and
which is due toand exists only during the loading
of the secondary. These auxiliary coils are pref
erably wound ñat in the form ordinarily called
' "pan-cake” coils and are not provided with a
magnetic core. Instead they are merely coils
withv an air core. These two auxiliary coils have
their similar ends connected by means of the con
ductor Q9, which may be integral with the con
ductors forming the two coils. The other like
ends of these coils are connected by conductors
50 and 5I respectively with suitable binding posts.
43 and 52 on the terminal board 45. It will be
noted thatthe binding pbst 43 serves as the ter
minal both for one end of the'secondary coil 33
and for one end of the auxiliary coil 48. The load
may then be taken from the binding posts 4B and
52, which will place the secondary coil 33 in series
with the two auxiliary coils. 1f it be desired to
use the transformer without the two auxiliary
coils, the load may be taken from the binding
posts 33 and ¿34. Access to the terminal board 45
may be had as heretofore stated through the door
Il in the housing. It should be noted also that
the frame outside the housing is provided with a
pair of upstanding posts 53 of any suitable formupon which the leads for connecting the second
ary coil to the work may be wound when not in
-Surrounding the center leg 2l of the core and ' 70 use.
extending through the windows I8 and I9 there
of, adjacent their upper ends, is the primary coil
28. This primary coil may be of any. desired form
and the leads 29 therefrom extend to the switch
The secondary coil is preferably formed as in
dicated in Figs. 9, 10 and 11 of the drawings. In
these figures it will be seen that the coil is made
up of a plurality of turns, such as designated by
I2, through'which this coil is supplied with suit 75 the numeral 5d. These turns are individually
aangaan y ~
_
insulatedfromeachotherbyßnysuitable insulat
,
6
duce a stabilizing effect on the -current supplicav
_ ing covering. such as the tape il, 'or any enamel
to an arc employed'in welding. By .making it
or any other form of insulation that may be found
possible to lreduce the open circuit voltage of
desirable. The -turns - themselves are each made
the -secondary coil, and by providing. a leakage
up of ltwo parallel ribbons 56 of copper or other
path between the turnsof the secondary coil both
good electrical conducting material which is pref
when
it is loaded and when it is open, they assist
erably non-magnetic. Interposed between’ the .
in preventing a great surge of current whe'n strik
copper ribbons along those portions ot the coil
ing an arc, and as-the arc is maintained in the
extending> through the windows of the trans
course of welding it has been found through much
former core there are interposed a pair of soft 10 actual experience that the presence-of thesesoft
iron sheets 51. 'I‘hese -soft iron sheets are of
iron sheets or laminationsftends to stabilize the
slightly less width than the copper ribbons but -i-alnount of current ñowi'ng from the secondary
extend a substantial distance axially of the coil ' j and prevents fluctuations in ~that -current which
and parallel -with the leg 21 of the core. These
would impair the quality of' the weld produced. _
iron sheets preferably extend only along those - The reasons for this are -not fully known, but it
portions of the coil which areto be disposed
within or closely adjacent tothe core windows.
It has been found that if these soft iron lamina
is known that the presence of thes'e .windings
greatly improves the characteristics of the cur
rent iiowing from the secondary coil of a trans--
tions are permitted to extend substantially out
former, such as described, when the same is em- -
side of the core windows they will cause obiec» 20 ployed for arc welding purposes.
tionable heating of the coil. However, such ex
It‘has further been discovered that the pres
tension of the magnetic laminations 51 would not
ence of the soft iron laminations in the secondary
prevent the operation of the device in the manner
causes the secondary to produce,_when loaded, a
hereinafter described.
Y
y
_
current of slightly different frequency from the »
In operation the parts will be assembled as in 25 supply. The reason for this is not known.
dicated in Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive. A source of al
It has been stated that the take-oil leads may
ternating- current, electrical energy of the proper
be attached so as to take off directly from the
frequency and voltage, for which the machine
ends of the secondary coil, or toi/take oil from the
may be designed, is connected to the primary coil
secondary coil in series with the two auxiliary
through the controlling~ switch i2. The leads 30 coils t1 and 4i). If. it be desired to exercise no
which are adapted to conduct electricity from the
control upon the leakage between the primary
secondary coil to the point where it is to be used
and secondary coils during the time.the trans
may be secured either to the binding posts 44
former is loaded, other than the control made
and 52, or to the binding posts I3 and 44, accord
possible by the laminations 51, then the take-off '
ing to the operation desired. .
'
will be directly from the terminals of the sec
At this point the open circuit voltage of the
ondary coil and the take-oli and leads will be
secondary may be adjusted by raising or lower
_ connected to the binding posts 43 and 44,
ing the secondary coil through _the use of the
If on the other hand, it be desired that-the
crank 38, the fgears within the gear box 2i, the
-leakage be controlled by the amount of current
sheaves 31 and‘the wheels 36, which suspend the 40 being drawn from the secondary coil, the take
secondaryl coil, It is noteworthy that ordinarily
oii will be from the binding posts 44 and 52, so
the moving of, the secondary coil, located as this
that the auxiliary coils 41 and 48 will be in series `
secondary coil is located, toward or away from the
with the secondary coil. It will be seen that when
primary coil'would not change its open circuit
this arrangement is employed, no _current will
voltage. However, in the present invention, the . flow in the auxiliary coils when there is no load
open circuit voltage will-change as this coil is
on the secondary. Since the side‘iegs 20 of thé
moved because of the fact that greater leakage is
core have a total capacity for carrying magnetic
provided by the` presence of .the soft iron lamina
flux which is equal to that of the center leg, there
tions 51 interposedin the windings of the sec
will be no leakage flux through the auxiliary coils
ondary. The presence of the laminations pro 50 »when there is no current flowing in them or in
vides a path for a portion of the magnetic ilux
the secondary . except perhaps a very slight
to pass between the successive convolutions of
amount of flux due to self induction. Therefore,
the secondary coil to the bottom cross member
the auxiliary coils will not substantiallyailect
of the core instead ofv passing through the cen
the no load voltage supplied by the transformer.
tral window of the coil following along the leg 21 55 However, when the transformer secondary- is
of the core as would otherwise be the case. 'I’he
loaded at all, any current flowing in the sec-Y
amount of -leakage through these soft iron lami
ondary coil will also ilow through the two aux
nations in the secondary winding changes as the
secondary coil is` moved toward and away fromA
the bottom cross member of the core, because 60
as the coil is moved toward and awayfrom the
bottom cross member of the core, these soft in
iliary coils and this current will tend to promote
leakage ñux through the space between the pri
mary and secondary coils, such flux also linking
either the primary or. the secondary- depending.l
on the direction in which the auxiliary coils are
serts or lamìnations are brought closer to or sep
-wound and connected to the secondary. In other
arated further fromthe iron of the main body
words, if these auxiliary coils 41 and 48 are conof the core. The result is that when this leak 65 -nected with one terminal to the secondary, they
age is great, as when the coil is near the bottom
would, for example, promote leakage in one di
cross member of the core. there will be less volt
rection as the flow of current increases and would
age -generated in the secondary coil than there
- hence lower the closed circuit voltage of the sec
will be when the coil is moved farther from this
ondary coil and limit the amount of current that
bottom cross member and the leakage thus de 70 can now from the secondary coil. 0n the other
creased.
-
' When a transformer of the'type to which this
description relates is employed in connection with '
arc welding, the soft iron lamination; 51 play an
additional advantageous role‘in that they pro
hand, if connected in theopposite direction, the
auxiliary coils would tend to promote leakage in
the opposite directionmore and more as the cur
rent ñowing in the secondary coil increases, and
75 by virtue of this effect would tend to cause the
aaraase '
f
'7
.
closed circuit voltage of the secondary coil not to
drop, but in some instances actually to increase.
. dow, a means for moving said secondary coil to
From the foregoing it will be` seen that a means
ondary coil comprising a wound electrical con
ward and away from said primary coil, said sec
has been provided in a transformer whereby the
ductor of non-magnetic material, and bodies o!
open circuit voltage of the transformer may be 5 magnetic material extending along said conduc
regulated, whereby the working characteristics
tor in electrical contact therewith and interposed
- of the current produced by the secondary of the
`between the windings thereof along those por
transformer may be governed so as’to be more
- tions ofA said coil which extend through said win-v
suitable for welding purposes, and whereby mag
dow, and said bodies of magnetic Vmaterial being
netic iiux leakage can be regulated according to 10 discontinuous along the portions of said coil which
the load placed on the transformer without in l do not extend through said window.
Í
any way affecting the open circuit characteristics
6. A transformer comprisingva core having a
thereof.
Means has thus been provided for carrying out
. window therein, a primary coil having a part
all the objects and advantages sought by this in
vention.
Having described my invention, I claim:
lhaving a part extending through said window
and an auxiliary coil having a core composed en
tirely of non-magnetic material, said ñrst men
_extending through said window,_a secondary coil
1. An electrical transformer having a. core with
a, window therein, a secondary coil comprising a
wound electrical conductor having a portion
thereof passing through said window and.means
tioned core being so proportioned that the flux i .
density is substantially uniform throughout with
substantially no tendency toward the production
of leakage flux by-passing said secondary coil
providing a'path for magnetic ñux between the
windings of said conductor, said last mentioned
during periods of no load on the secondary coil,
said auxiliary coil being disposed within the path
means comprising a body of magnetic material in
of and transversely of the direction ofl any mag
terposed between each of a plurality of adjacent 25 netic leakage ñux between said primary'and sec
portions of said conductor of said Secondary coil
ondary coils, and said auxiliary coil being con
and being continuous along those- portions of the
nected in series with said secondary coil where
secondary coil which pass through the window of
by a load on said secondary coil will induce av
the transformer core, said body being in electri
leakage ñux between said primary and secondary
cal contact substantially throughout its extent 30 coils.
with an adjacent winding ofv said secondary coil.
'7. A transformer having a core providing a
2. An electrical transformer having a core with
closed magnetic circuit of substantially uniform
a window therein, a secondary coil comprising a
cross-sectional area throughout, spaced primary
wound electrical conductor having a portion
and secondary coils surrounding said core, _and p
thereof passing through said window and means 35 an auxiliary coil with an air core surrounding a
providing a path for magnetic ilux between the
portion ofthe path which any leakage-flux be
windings of said conductor, said last mentioned
tween said primary and secondary >coils would
„means comprising a body of magnetic material
tend to take. said auxiliary coil being connected
associated with each of a plurality of the in
in series with said secondary coil. ’
dividual turns of said secondary coil and being 40
8. A transformerl having >a core providing a
continuous along those portions of said second
closed magnetic circuit of substantially uniform
ary coil which pass through the window of the
cross-sectional area throughout, spaced primary
transformer core.
and .secondary coils surrounding said core, and->
-
3. An electrical transformer having a second
ary coil comprising a wound electrical conductor
an auxiliary coil with an air core surrounding a
¿ portion of the path which any leakage iiux be--
and means providing a path for magnetic ñux _,
between the windings of said conductor, said last>
mentioned means comprising a body of magnetic
tween-said primary and secondary coils would
tend to take, and means for passing a current'
through said auxiliary coil toinduce and vary
the amount of magnetic leakage therethrough.
material incorporated in> each of a plurality of
adjacent turns of said secondary coil along those 50 9. A transformer having a core providing a '
portions'of said secondary coil, which‘are dis
closed magnetic circuit of substantially uniform
posed. within a window of the transformer core, -
and said body of magnetic material being dis
continuous along those portions which do not
pass through such window.
d. An electrical transformer having a second
cross-sectional area throughout, spaced primary i
and secondary coils surrounding said core, andan
auxiliary coil with an air core surrounding a por
55 tion of the path which any leakage flux' between ' l
' said primary and secondary coils wouldtend to
ary coil comprising a wound electrical conductor
take, said auxiliary coil being connected in series
and means interposed between the windings of
with said secondary coil, the connection between j
saidv electrical conductor providinga path for
said auxiliary and secondary coils being such as
magnetic flux between said windings, said last @o to cause an increase in the leakage through said
mentioned means comprising a plurality of spaced
vbodies of magnetic material interposed between
adjacent windings of saidsecondary coil, said
' bodies being disposed along those portions of said
auxiliary coil _when the load on said secondary K
coil is increased.'
10. A transformer having a, core including‘an
l I‘SèÓt'-, v
' elongated portion and a cross member 'in
secondary coill which are adapted to be disposed 65 ing said elongated portion, spaced
within a window of a transformer core, and those
‘and ,v
portions of the secondary coil which do not pass `
tion,
secondary
saidsecondary
coils surrounding
coil being'movable,toward@`~
said- elongated
through such window of the. transformer core
having no such magnetic bodies interposed there
andv away from said cross member _of the core@
and means included in said secondarycoil com--„j„`
in.
'
‘
5. In a transformer, a core having a window
therein, and primary coil surrounding saidcore
mprising
betweenathe
body
windings
of magnetic
of the material
secondaryinterposed
"colland' j
forming an increasing leakage path as said sec-1
and having a portion extending through said
.ondary coil is moved toward the cross member. "
window, a secondary coil surrounding said core
ll. A transformer having a core including
and having a portion extending through said win 75 elongated portion'- and a cross member
2,414,232
i
~ ‘ing the same, spaced primary and secondary coils
1o
e
-
surrounding said core, said secondary coil being
mary and'secondary coils would tend to take, said
auxiliary coil being connected in series with said
movable toward and away from said cross mem
« ber of the core, means included in said secondary
a leakage iiux linking said secondary coil-when
secondary coil in such a manner as to promote
coil‘and forming an increasing leakage path as
current ñows through thesecondary and auxiliary>
saidlsecondary coil is moved toward the cross
member, anauxiliary coil with an air core sur
coils.
` - rounding a portion of the- path of- leakage flux
between said primary and secondary coils, said
auxiliary coil being connected in series with said
secondary coil, the connection being in such di
rection as to increase‘the leakage through said
-
14. An electrical transformer having a core
with a window therein, a secondary coil having
a portion thereof passing through said window, »
said coil _being formed of a wound composite con- A
ductor comprising a pair of conducting strips, and '
a body of magnetic material interposed between
auxiliary coil when a load is placed on said sec-said conducting strips along those portions of the v
'- `ondary coil.
coil which pass through the window oi the trans
12. A transformer having a core providing av 15 former core, said body providing a path for mag
closed magnetic circuit of substantially uniform .
netic flux.
cross-sectional area throughout. spaced primary
15. An electrical transformer having a core
constituting a closed magnetic circuit and com
and secondary coils surrounding said core, an
auxiliary coil with a- non-magnetic core sur
rounding a portion of the path which any leakage
flux between said primary and secondary coils
would tend to take, and means for passing a cur-'
vrent through said auxiliary coil.
>
prising a frame having cross-members connected
by a central> leg, primary and secondary coils
surrounding said central leg, said secondary coil
comprising a conducting ribbon, and sheets -of
v . magnetic material interposed between turns of
13. A power distribution transformer having a
core providing a -closed magnetic circuit of sub
said ribbon, said sheets extending a substantial
distance axially of said coil parallel with said leg
stantially uniform cross-sectional area through
out, spaced primary and secondary coils sur
rounding said core, and an' auxiliary coil with a
- and providing leakage paths through said coil over
>which magnetic ñux may pass to or from one oi '
- non-magnetic -core surrounding a portion of the
path which any leakage’fiux between said pri
said cross-members.
y
.
GLDVER A. LEWIS.
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