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' Jall- 14, 1947-
R._ R. HAYs ETAL
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2,414,258
,CONTROL MEANS FOR HELICOPTERS
Filed Oct. 8, 1943
5 Sheets-Sheét 1
‘.1
3mm
/?(/556’// R Hays,
Char/c5 A’. ?’azaK,
Jan. 14, 1947.
R. R. HAYS E'YI'AL
~ \
2,414,258
¢QNTROL MEANS FOR HELICOPTERS
.
Filed Oct‘. 8-, 1945
5 ‘Sheets-Sheet 2
A“
'
.
2
"
Jan. 14, 1947.
_
I
2,414,258
R..R. HAYS ETAL
CONTROL‘MEANS FOR HELICOPTERS
Filed Oct. 8, 1943
YSSheets-Shget 3
FUJscV/7RT-ZVGy-F, '
Char/es
15,4206:
‘2,414,258
Patented Jan. 14, 1947
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,414,258
CONTROL MEAN FOR HELICOPTERS
Russell R. Hays, Lawrence, and Charles Kenneth
Razak, Wichita, Kane; said Bazak assignor to
said Hays
Application October 8, 1943, Serial No. 505,526
13 Claims.
(Cl. 244-47)
This invention relates ‘*to control means for
helicopters and more particularly to improve
ments in tension panel controls such as those
described in co-pendinq application Serial~ No.
491,977, ?led June 23, 1943, by Russell R/Hays,
one of the present applicants.
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2
1
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solution, however, added considerable structure
and did nothing to simplify the control since a
dual control carried inside the elongated panels
was now called for. Wing tip rudders also failed
' to supply a solution to the problem.
Real progress was'not made until it was ob
served that with the three panel arrangement,
Tests of control panels operative in the slip
using self aligning 'or ?oating panels, a de?nite
stream of a lifting propeller revealed that devices
sluggishness to rotational movement developed
‘such as drag ?aps, when mounted on opposite
panels and differentially operated to provide a 10 when, contrary to previous conceptions, one
panel was aligned rearwardly with the airstream.
rolling moment, had the effect of decreasing the
Investigation revealed that this sluggishness de
sensitivity of the same panels when utilized to
rived from two sources: one, the two‘ panels
produce pitching moments and hence introduced
athwart the airstream, being free to align them
confusion in the degree of operation of the con
trol column. This led to the testing of panel ar 15 selves with it,‘ had the direction of action ‘of
the lift effective upon them shifted from a direc
rangements symmetrically disposed about the
tion approaching the horizontal to ‘a ‘direction
rotor axis and rigged to a conventional control
approaching the vertical, Whereas the dominant
stick so that movement in a desired direction
forces effective upon the trailing panel continued
varied the pitch of panels transverse to this di
act largely in a horizontal direction; and two,
rection and thus produced a control moment of 20 to
because the forward panels were “?oating,” there
the same order as sectional feathering controls
now used on several fullscale machines. Fur
ther investigation revealed however that conven
tional arrangements of similar panels such as
was a slight tendency toward rearward shifting
of their centers of pressure.
As ‘the ?rst source plainly was an inherent
those having radial spacings of 60°, 90°, 120°, and 25 characteristic of the three panel-floating panel
combination, the second, as‘ plainly offered the
180° were not in themselves directionally stable
greatest promise of increasing this characteristic
with transition to translational ?ight. While‘
through further, testing and study.- A secondary
it was of course obvious that by varying the rel
problem which arose with such study was one
ative size of the panels and arranging them with
of keeping the panels clear of the lifting propel-l
different radial spacings, this handicap could in 30 lers
at all phases of‘operation when positioned
part be circumvented, it was equally obvious that
adjacent these propellers which was most advan
simplicity of operation during hovering ?ight to
provide the equivalent of a sectional control was
tageous for a control of thistype. These and»
otherconsiderations eventually led to the mount
of the panels on stub‘ spars ‘or shafts, whose
The value of tension panels in making the 35 ing
axes are diagonal or oblique to the panel span'
transition from hovering to translational ?ight
axes, (the term “span axis” is to be understood
having already been determined, a detailed‘study
as substantially the locus of aerodynamic centers
was made of the adaptation of similar, sym
of
the panel sections) with the centers of pres
metrically disposed panels to obtain inherent di
sures of the panels slightly below or rearwardly
rectional stability during translational ?ight. 40 of the shafts during translational ?ight. Such a
That three such panels were the minimum which
mounting is particularlyadvantageous in that it
could be used to provide a complete sectional
acts to shift the tips of the panels rearwardly
control during hovering was of course self evi
with forward travel and at the same time pro
dent. The problem thus became one of develop
vides a substantial ~ symmetrically disposed
thereby lost.
'
ing a mounting and control means for such an 45 mounting for the'panels which is required only
arrangement which with translation would auto
matically change the character of such a sym
to extend outward from the mast for less than
metrical disposition of similar parts that they
would assume directional stability characteristics
half the span of the panels.
ward speeds were ‘achieved. This, attempted
translation.‘
‘
Accordingly, the object-of, this invention may
50 thus be broadly stated to be the provision of
substantially those of the tail plane.
symmetrically disposed control panels in the slip
In the beginning, an effort was made to add
stream of lifting propellers which become direcs
to the span of two of the panels so that the tips,_
tionally stable by .re'asonoflalignment,of the in
being outside the slipstream of they propellers
dividual‘ panels‘ With'lthe airstream resultant to’
during hovering, would not be effective until for-'
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2,414,258
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4
A further object of the invention is the pro
stub spars or shafts which extend diagonally or
obliquely relative to the span axes of the panels,
vision of “floating” control panels s0 mounted on
‘ stub spars the axes of which lie diagonally or
whereby with translation the character of the
symmetrical disposition of the similar panels is
changed automatically to one in which the panels
obliquely to the span axes of the panels that the
plan form of symmetrical and similar panels
when seen from above changes from a symmet—
rical pattern to an asymmetrical pattern with a
change from hovering to translational ?ight.
Another object is the provision of a cable con
trol to three symmetrically disposed similar con
, trol panels, this control extending to a conven
provide stability characteristics substantially
those of a tail plane.
Such a panel mounting is:illustrated in Figs. 1
and 4 wherein it will be observed that the axes
10 X—X of the stub shafts 25, 28 and 21, carrying
tional universally mounted control vcolumn so
that movement of the stick in any direction actu
ates the panels to provide a control moment in
the same direction.
Yet another object is the provision of a tension
panel control for lifting propellers in which only ,
the panels 29, 2| and 22, respectively, are dis
posed at an oblique angle Z relative to the span
axes Y—Y of the panels. With the centers of
pressure of the panels being disposed below (rear
wardly) of the shaft axes, it will be evident that
in their aligning movement, the panel tips travel
in an orbital are about the extended axes X-X,
three similar panels are used and in which the
and that the tips of the front panels shift rear;
arrangement of the panels relative .to mast of the
Wardly with forward travel of the machine. The
machine is such that one of the panels lies be 20 diagonal disposition of ‘the stub: shafts relative
hind the mast and is aligned with the direction
to the span axes as aforesaid moreover provides
of travel, whereas 'the other two panels lie
a substantially symmetrically disposed mounting"
athwart the direction of travel.
for the panels according to which the stub shafts
Ancillary objectives such as simplicity of parts
are required to extend outwardly of the mast l3
and ruggednessof construction will be apparent 25 for less than half the span of the panels as
from the following description takenwith the ac
measured in Fig. 1 for example.
7
;
companying drawings in which:
With the rear panel .23 aligned rearwardly with
Fig. 1 is .a plan view of a helicopter provided
the airstream and with the right and left panels.
with control panels arranged and mounted in
free
to align themselves»individually‘with the air
accordance with the present invention.
30 flow resultant to translation, a substantial degree
Figs. 2 and 3 are front andside elevations, re
of directional stability is provided duringtransh
spectively, of the machine and controls therefor
tion to forward ?ight due to the change of direcillustrated in Fig. 1.v
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tion of the'resultant forces on the forward panels
Fig‘. 4 is'a perspective‘view of the panel mount
lying athwart the direction (of motion as ‘the
ing, and ‘which further illustrates one form of
- latter swing rearwardly with forward travel .to
cable control for the panels, the'fuselage and mast
form an asymmetrical pattern relative ‘to rear.
of the machine being shown in dotted lines for
panel, as seen in plan view (Fig. l).
clarity.
.
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~
Referring now tothe drawings; reference char“
acter Ill represents a, more or less conventional
fuselage having a vertical tail plane H extending
aft, provided with laterally extending stabilizers
I2. The fuselage carries a mast I53 through which
extend oppositely turning concentric drive shafts
(not shown) which drive the coaxial rotors l4,
l5 in opposite directions and with equal torque,
as is well known.
According to the invention, three similar con
trol panels are mounted as shown in the slip
The invention further incorporates°means for
movingthe controlpanels to provide forsectional
control through the panels, that is, a moment at
any section of a disc toward which .a universally
mounted control stick ‘is moved. Such an ar
rangernent is more or less diagrammaticallyillus
trated in Fig. 4, wherein a control stickil? is uni
versally mounted in a bearing '35 disposed in~
termediate upper and lower points of connection
with cable sets extending to pulleys fast on the
stub shafts on which the panels turn. One cable
set for the rear panel comprises upper and lower"
stream of the propellers, being substantially sym 501 cables 35, 35, respectively, passing over sheaves
metrically disposed about ‘the vertical axis of the
35a, 36a and. 35b, 35b, and being connected
mast l3,_and arranged relative thereto :so that
through multiplying bell cranks 35c, 3Bc>and dis~
one of the panels (the rear panel‘w) lies behind
aligning tension springs 35d, Mid-with a loop .31‘
the mast and is aligned with the direction of
wrapped around a pulley 38 fast on stub shaft'
translational travel, whereas the other two panels, :2 25 mounting the rear panel ‘2E1. It will boundar
i. e., the right forward panel 2| and the left for~
ward panel 22, lie athwart the direction ‘of travel.
Due ‘to the aforesaid disposition of the 'two for
Ward panels and their mounting, to be described,
stcod that the tension of springs 35d, ‘35d ‘is cal
culated both to maintain ‘the cable set under
requisite tension and at the same time to permit
the panel to disalign relative to the airstream in
which permits them to swing back relative to the ‘= 2., response'to movement of the stickthereby to'ap
direction of travel ‘from the broken to the ‘full line
ply a control moment. A similar cable set, con
position as seen in‘Fig. ‘1, a'high degree of visi
sisting of upper and lower cables 65, 46, is con-'
bility for the pilot, ‘whose view would otherwise
nected to a loop til wrapped around a pulley 48
be obstructed is accordingly provided.
fast on stub shaft 26 mounting the right forward
The similar panels are of the “?oating” type 85 panel 21.
In like manner, an upper and lower
disclosed andclaimed in the aforesaid Hays ap
cable set 55, 56 is connected to -a loop 51 wrapped q
plicati0n,_Serial ‘No. 491.977, ‘so-that theyarie free
around-pulley 58 fast on stubsha-ft 27 mountingv
to align themselves with the resultant .airstream.
the
left forward panel. By 'theafcresaid arrange
Such floating panels arecharacterized'by a slight
ment, movement of the stick ‘in any direction:
tendency toward rearward shifting of their cen
ters .of pressure which lie ‘to the rear or down
wardly of ‘the axes relative ‘to-‘which the panels
are. mounted for turning movement. According
to the ‘present invention, this tendency ‘is :in-.
creased by mounting the panels on the :axis .of
disaligns the panels, ‘i. e., moves-the panels about >
the,aXesX-—X from a positionrm' which they are
in- alignment with the resultant airstream, thus
to ‘provide a control 'moment in the direction of;
stick movement.
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‘
Withou-tjsubstantial modi?cation, it isalso' 56s‘- ‘I:
2,414,258
'5
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sibleito‘lock the forward panels in their‘ swept ,
back pos‘ition‘for the purpose of providing stub
wings acting to ‘decrease the rate of descent in
gliding flight with a dead engine. This and other
variants of the use of only three control panels
‘athwart the direction of'travel ‘shift rearwardly
with forward travel, and ‘means for positively
turning said panels about'the stub‘ shaft axes
thereby to‘ produce ‘control moments.
6. Control means for aircraft having a con
ventional fuselage, a mast carried thereby and
mounted on diagonal axes to provide directional
sustaining propellers therefor‘ mounted for rota
stability ‘during transition to forward travel are
tion above the mast comprising the combination
inte‘nded‘to be includedwithin the scope of the
of three similar control panelsdisposed in the
invention. It is further intended that all matter
slipstream of the propellers, of which one panel
contained in the above description‘or. shown in 10 is longitudinally aligned and rearwardly disposed
the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted
with respect to the direction of travel and means
as illustrative and not‘ in a limiting sense. ‘
radially mounting said panels for turning move
We claim:
‘
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i
ment‘ about axes which‘ are symmetrically‘ dis
1."Control ‘means for aircraft having a con
posed about the mast and extend diagonally to
15
ventional fuselage, a mast‘ carried thereby and
the span axes of the panels.
sustaining propellers therefor mounted for rota
ti'onl'above the mast comprising the combination
7. Control means for aircraft having a con
ventional fuselage, a mast carried thereby and
of three similar control panels, means radially
sustaining propellers therefor mounted for rota
mounting said panels from the mast in the slip
stream of the propellers including axis structures 20 tion above the mast comprising the combination
of three similar control panels disposed in the
symmetrically disposed about the mast and pro
slipstream of the propellers, of which one panel is
viding axes‘ on which the panels are mounted for
longitudinally aligned‘ and rearwardly disposed
relatively free turning movement and which ex
with respect to the direction of travel and the
tend diagonally to‘ the span axes of the panels,
two remaining‘ panels lie athwart the direction
and means for positively turning the panels about
of travel, and means radially mounting said two
said axes, thereby to produce control moments.
panels for turning movement about axes which
2. Control means for aircraft as set forth in
are symmetrically disposed about the mast and
claim 1, wherein the arrangement of panels rela
extend diagonally to‘the span ‘axes of the panels,
tive to mast is such that one of the panels lies
the relation of said axes being such that tips ‘of
behind the mast and is aligned with the direc 30 said two panels ‘shiftrearwardly with forward
tion ‘of travel and the remaining panels lie
travel.
athwart the direction of travel.
8. Control means for aircraft having a con
3. Control means for aircraft having a con
ventional fuselage, a mast carried thereby and
ventional fuselage, a mast carried thereby and
sustaining propellers therefor mounted for rota
_ sustaining propellers therefor mounted for rota- '
tion above the mast, comprising three similar
tion above the mast comprising the combination
control panels disposed in the slipstream of the
of three similar control panels, means mounting
propellers, of which one panel is longitudinally
said paneds in the slipstream of the propellers
aligned andrearwardly disposed with respect to
comprising stub shaftssymmetrically arranged 40 the
direction of travel and the two remaining
about the mast and extending therefrom so as to
panels
lie athwart the direction of travel, means
dispose one panel behind the mast in alignment
whereby said panels may individually align them
with the direction of travel and the remaining
selves with the airstream, a universally mounted
panels athwart the direction of travel, and means
control member, and connections between said
for differentially turning the panels about the
member and each of the panels operative upon
axes of the stub shafts thereby to produce control
movement of the control member in any direction
moments.
to effect disalignment of the panels with the rela
4. Control means for aircraft having a con
tive airstream thereby to produce a control
ventional fuselage, a mast carried thereby and
moment in the same direction.
sustaining propellers therefor mounted for rota
tion above the mast comprising the combination
of three similar control panels, means mounting
said panels in the slipstream of the propellers
comprising stub shafts symmetrically arranged
'
9. Control means for aircraft having a con
ventional fuselage, a mast carried thereby and
sustaining propellers therefor mounted for rota
tion above the mast comprising three similar con
trol panels disposed in the slipstream of the pro
about the mast and extending therefrom so as to
pellers, one panel being longitudinally :aligned
dispose one panel behind the mast in alignment 55 and rearwardly disposed with respect to the direc
with the direction of travel and the remaining
tion of travel and the two remaining panels lying
panels athwart the direction of travel, the axes of
athwart the direction of travel, means radially
said stub shafts being diagonal to the span axes
mounting said panels for relatively free turning
of the panels.
movement about axes individual thereto which
5. Control means for aircraft having a con 60 are symmetrically disposed about the mast and
ventional fuselage, a mast carried thereby and
which are diagonal to the span axes of the panels,
sustaining propellers therefor mounted for rota
a universally mounted control member, and con
tion above the mast comprising the combination
nections between said member and each of the
of three similar control panels, means mounting
panels operative upon movement of, the member
said panels in the slipstream of the propellers for ‘
in any direction to effect movement of the panels
movement‘individually into alignment with the
airstream resultant to translation, said means in
cluding stub shafts symmetrically arranged about
the mastof the machine and extending there
from so asito dispose one panel behind the mast
in alignment with the direction of travel and the
' about said diagonal axes as required to produce
7 a control moment in the same direction.
-
10. In a helicopter, the combination of a
fuselage carrying a mast, sustaining propellers
mounted for rotation above the mast, and con
1" trol means comprising three similar control
remaining-panels athwart the direction of travel, ' i
the axes of the stub shafts being diagonal to the
span axes of the panels, and the relation of said
axes being such that the tips of the panels lying
“ panels mounted in the slipstream of ‘the propellers
for turning movement about axes which are sym
metrically disposed about the mast, one axis being
2,414,258
7
.
longitudinally aligned and rearwardly disposed
with respect to the direction of travel, and the
two remaining axes lying athwart the direction
of travel, and means for effecting differential
turning movement of the panels about said axes
thereby to produce control moments.
8
the two‘remaining axes, lying athwart the direc:
tion of travel,’ at least said two last-named axes
being inclined to the span- axes of the panels turm
ing thereon in such manner that rearward turn
ing movement of said panels results in rearward
shift of the panel tips, and means for effecting
11. In a' helicopter, the combination ofla fuse
differential movement of the, panels about their ,
lage carrying a mast, sustaining propellers
turning axes thereby to produce control moments.
mounted for rotation above the mast, and control
13. In a helicopter, the combination of a fuse
means comprising three similar control panels 10 lage I carrying a mast, sustaining propellers
mounted in the slipstream of the propellers for
mounted for rotation above the mast, and control
turning movement aboutaxes which are sym
means
comprising three similar control panels
metrically disposed about the mast, one axis be
mounted in the slipstream of the propellers for
ing longitudinally. aligned and rearwardly dis
posed with respect to the direction of travel, and
the two remaining axes lying athwart the direc
tion of travel, means whereby the control panels
tend to individually align themselves with their
chords parallel to the relative airstream, and
means for effecting differential disalignment of
the panels with the relative airstream thereby to
produce control moments.
12. In a helicopter, the combination of a fuse
lage carrying a mast, sustaining propellers
mounted for rotation above the mast, and control
means comprising three similar control panels
mounted in the slipstream of the propellers for
turning movement about axes which are sym
metrically disposed about the mast, one axis be
ing ‘longitudinally alignedand rearwardly dis
posed with respect to the direction of travel, and
turning movement about axes which are sym
metrically disposed about the mast, one axis be
ing longitudinally aligned and rearwardly dis
posed with respect to the direction of travel, and
the two remaining axes lying athwart the direc
tion of travel, means whereby the control panels
tend to individually align themselves with their
chords parallel to the relative airstream, said
mounting axes being inclined to the span axes
of the panels turning thereon whereby the tips
of the panel lying athwart the direction of travel
r shift rearwardly with forward travel, and means
for effecting differential disalignment of the
panels with the relative airstream thereby to. pro- ,
duce control moments.
RUSSELL R. HAYS.
CHARLES KENNETH RAZAK. ‘
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