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Presentation of Jesus at the Temple

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Предмет: английский язык, история религии;
Задачи разработки :познакомить учащихся с новыми лексическими единицами
Автор разработки: Дегтярева Елена Александровна
Областное государственное общеобразовательное учреждение «Верхотурская гимназия» города Верхотурья.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Presentation of Jesus at the Temple
The Feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple
, which falls on 2 February, celebrates an early episode in the life of Jesus
. In the Eastern Orthodox Church
, it is one of the twelve Great Feasts
, and is sometimes called Hypapante
(lit., 'Meeting' in Greek). Other traditional names include Candlemas
, the Feast of the Purification of the Virgin
, La Fête de la Chandeleur
, and the Meeting of the Lord
. In many Western liturgical churches, Vespers
(or Compline
) on the Feast of the Presentation marks the end of the Epiphany season
. In the Church of England
, the Presentation of Christ in the Temple is a Principal Feast
celebrated either on 2 February or on the Sunday between 28 January and 3 February.
In the Latin Rite
of the Catholic Church
, the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple is the fourth Joyful Mystery
of the Rosary
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
The event is described in the Gospel of Luke
. According to the gospel, Mary
and Joseph
took the baby Jesus
to the Temple
in Jerusalem
forty days after his birth to complete Mary's ritual purification
after childbirth, and to perform the redemption of the firstborn
, in obedience to the Law of Moses
Leviticus 12
, Exodus 13:12
, etc.). Luke explicitly says that Joseph and Mary take the option provided for poor people (those who could not afford a lamb) in Leviticus 12:8
, sacrificing "a pair of doves or two young pigeons."
Upon bringing Jesus into the temple, they encountered Simeon the Righteous
. The Gospel records that Simeon had been promised that "he should not see death before he had seen the Messiah
of the Lord."
(Luke 2:26) Simeon prayed the prayer that would become known as the Nunc Dimittis
, or Canticle of Simeon, which prophesied the redemption
of the world by Jesus:
"Lord, now you are letting your servant go in peace, just as you said. 30 I have seen with my own eyes the one you have sent to save people. 31 You have made this way for all peoples to be saved. 32 He is a light which will shine for those who do not know God. He is the one who will bring praise to your people Israel." (Luke 2:29
Simeon then prophesied to Mary: "34 . . . 'He will be a sign that people do not believe in. He will make many people in Israel fall and rise. 35 (Yes, a long knife will cut your heart too.) What people think will be made known." (Luke 2:34
The elderly prophetess
was also in the Temple, and offered prayers and praise to God for Jesus, and spoke to everyone there about Jesus and his role in the redemption of Israel (Luke 2:36
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Name of the celebration
In addition to being known as the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, other traditional names include Candlemas, the Feast of the Purification
of the Virgin, and the Meeting of the Lord.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church
and the Greek
Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
which use the Byzantine rite
), it is known
as the "Feast of the Presentation of our Lord, God, and Savior Jesus Christ
in the Temple" or as "The Meeting of Our Lord, God and Saviour Jesus Christ". In the Roman Catholic Church, it is known as the "Presentation of the Lord" in the liturgical books first issued by Paul VI
, and as the "Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary" in earlier editions
In the churches of the Anglican Communion
, it is known by various names, including: The Presentation of Our Lord Jesus Christ in The Temple (Candlemas) (
Episcopal Church
), The Presentation of Christ in the Temple, and The Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary (
Anglican Church of Canada
), The Presentation of Christ in the Temple (Candlemas) (
Church of England
), and The Presentation of Christ in the Temple (
Anglican Church of Australia
It is known as the Presentation of Our Lord in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
. In some Protestant
churches, the feast is known as the Naming of Jesus (though historically he would have been named on the eighth day after the Nativity, when he was circumcised
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Eastern Christianity
In the Byzantine tradition
(Eastern Orthodox and Greek
), the Meeting of the Lord is unique in that it combines elements of both a Great Feast
of the Lord and a Great Feast of the Theotokos
Mother of God
). It has a forefeast
of one day, and an afterfeast
of seven days. However, if the feast falls during Cheesefare Week
or Great Lent
, the afterfeast is either shortened or eliminated altogether.
The holy day is celebrated with an All
Night Vigil
on the eve of the feast, and a celebration of the Divine Liturgy
the next morning, at which beeswax candles are blessed. This blessing traditionally takes place after the Little Hours
and before the beginning of the Divine Liturgy (though in some places it is done after). The priest reads four prayers, and then a fifth one during which all present bow their heads before God. He then censes
the candles and blesses them with holy water
. The candles are then distributed to the people and the Liturgy begins.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
The services for the Meeting of the Lord contain hymns composed by many of the great Church hymnographers: St. Andrew
, Bishop of Crete
(7th cent.); St. Cosmas
, Bishop of Maiuma; St. John Damascene
; St. Germanus
, Patriarch of Constantinople
(8th cent.); and St. Joseph the Hymnographer
, Archbishop of Thessalonica
(9th cent.)
On the same day, Orthodox Christians also commemorate a wonder
icon of the Theotokos known as "the Softening of Evil Hearts" or "Simeon's Prophecy." It depicts the Virgin Mary with her hands upraised in prayer, and seven swords piercing her heart. This is one of the few Orthodox icons of the Theotokos which do not depict the infant Jesus
It is because of the biblical events recounted in the second chapter of Luke that the Churching of Women
came to be practiced in both Eastern and Western Christianity. Though the usage has mostly died out in the West, the rite is still practiced in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Some Christians observe the practice of leaving Christmas decorations up until Candlemas.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
In the Eastern and Western liturgical calendars
the Presentation of the Lord falls on 2 February, forty days after Christmas
. In the Church of England it may be celebrated on this day, or on the Sunday between 28 January and 3 February.
The date of Candlemas is established by the date set for the Nativity
of Jesus
, for it comes forty days afterwards. Under Mosaic law
as found in the Torah
, a mother who had given birth to a man
child was considered unclean for seven days; moreover she was to remain for three and thirty days "in the blood of her purification." Candlemas therefore corresponds to the day on which Mary, according to Jewish law, should have attended a ceremony of ritual purification
Leviticus 12:2
). The Gospel of Luke 2:22
39 relates that Mary was purified according to the religious law, followed by Jesus' presentation in the Jerusalem
temple, and this explains the formal names given to the festival, as well as its falling 40 days after the Nativity.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
Traditions and superstitions
"Down with the rosemary, and so Down with the bays and mistletoe; Down with the holly, ivy, all, Wherewith ye dress'd the Christmas Hall" —
Robert Herrick
1674), "Ceremony upon Candlemas Eve" •
As the poem by Robert Herrick
records, the eve of Candlemas was the day on which Christmas decorations of greenery were removed from people's homes; for traces of berries, holly
and so forth will bring death among the congregation before another year is out.
citation needed
Another tradition holds that anyone who hears funeral bells tolling on Candlemas will soon hear of the death of a close friend or relative; each toll of the bell represents a day that will pass before the unfortunate news is learned.
citation needed
In Scotland
, until a change in the law in 1991, and in much of northern England until the 18th century, Candlemas was one of the traditional quarter days
when quarterly rents were due for payment, as well as the day or term for various other business transactions, including the hiring of servants.
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
In the United Kingdom
, good weather at Candlemas is taken to •
indicate severe winter weather later: "
If Candlemas Day is clear and bright, /
winter will have another bite. /
If Candlemas Day brings cloud and rain, / winter is gone and will not come again.
It is also alleged to be the date that bears
emerge from hibernation
to inspect the weather as well as wolves
, who if they choose to return to their lairs on this day is interpreted as meaning severe weather will continue for another forty days at least.
citation needed
The same is true in Italy
, where it is called Candelora
The Carmina Gadelica
, a seminal collection of Scottish folklore, refers to a serpent coming out of the mound on Latha Fheill Bride, as the Scots call Candlemas. This rhyme is still used in the West Highlands and Hebrides.
Moch maduinn Bhride, Thig an nimhir as an toll; Cha bhoin mise ris an nimhir, Cha bhoin an nimhir rium. •
(Early on Bride's morn, the serpent will come from the hollow I will not molest the serpent, nor will the serpent molest me) •
Thig an nathair as an toll, la donn Bride Ged robh tri traighean dh' an t
sneachd air leachd an lair. •
(The serpent will come from the hollow on the brown day of Bride Though there should be three feet of snow on the flat surface of the ground) 10
Дегтярева Е А Верхотурье 2010
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jesus, temple, presentation
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