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Патент USA US3018791

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Jan. 30, 1962
Filed Dec. 22, 1958
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United States
Patented Jan. 30, 1962
that shown and described in my copending application
Serial No. 780,725 ?led December 16, 1958, entitled
Stress Plane Cutter.
After the air is taken away through pipes 25 and 28,
the tobacco, entering by its own velocity through the stress
plane cutting means 14 and 16, is cut and then discharged
Oswald E. Eissmann, Richmond, Va., assignor to
American Machine 8; Foundry Company
Filed Dec. 22, 1958, Ser. No. 782,005
27 Claims. (Cl. 131-64)
in the direction of arrow 30.
The cutters 14 and 16 may be of the type disclosed in
This invention relates to a cigarette making machine,
copending applications Serial No. 681,280 and Serial No.
and more particularly to an apparatus and method for 10 780,725 and may consist primarily of two parallel shafts
making a cigarette rod and to provide an improved cig
which carry multiple circular disks; each disk being spaced
arette. This application is a continuation in part of a
from the adjoining disks by spacers or as shown in FIG
prior application ?led by me, Oswald E. Eissmann on
URE 2, the cutters may consist of two parallel shafts 13
August 30, 1957, Serial No. 681,280 and also of Serial
and 15, which carry solid cutters 14 and 16 having annular
15 grooves 17 and 19. The stemmed tobacco pieces, which
No. 780,725 ?led December 16, 1958.
Heretofore, cigarette rods were made by individual self
travel between the cutters 14 and 16, are cut into strands
contained machines, which were capable of producing
of desired width, according to the spacing of the disks.
cigarettes at a rate of approximately 1200 cigarettes per
It has been found that during the cutting action of
minute. In these machines, shredded tobacco was show
cutters rotating about an axis at high velocity, for instance
ered at random onto a conveyor or paper tape which in 20 with an edge velocity in excess of 600 feet per second,
turn delivers it to the rod former which ultimately forms
su?icient stress by the boundary layer of air, picked up by
the tobacco into a cigarette rod from which the individual
the high speed blades is created. This stress plane is of
cigarettes are then cut off.
considerably small extension but of high compression so
It is an object of my invention to provide a cigarette
as to represent in some cases pressures in excess of 1,000
machine or more speci?cally a cigarette rod former which 25 pounds per square inch. The stress plane does the cutting
is capable of producing cigarettes in excess of 1200 cig
of the material, so as to prevent the actual cutting edge
arettes per minute,
of the cutter from touching the material, the surfaces of
Another object of this invention is to provide a process
said cutter being covered by thin laminations or bound
and apparatus for manufacturing cigarettes by directing
aries of ‘air which also prevent said surfaces from touch~
the tobacco shreds into an interlocked spiral arrangement
ing the material. It has also been found, that the edge
which will provide a more uniform and better compacted
velocity of the cutter is directly related to the speed of
cigarette, requiring less tobacco.
sound in the material to be cut. This principle of cutting
A further object is, to provide a conveying method that
propels the tobacco through a cyclone separator without
may be referred to as air cutting at high velocities or stress
utilizing air pressure in the cyclone separator.
Another object is to provide a method to meter the ‘air
plane cutting.
The tobacco then travels through pipe 32, without any
appreciable air movement within pipe 32, at a high linear
contained, between the individual strands, in the cigarette
velocity substantially the same as the circumferential ve
locity of the cutting means 14 and 16, Pipe 32 is con~
An additional object is to utilize a centrifugal separating
nected to a cyclone rod-forming device 34 at a tangent
device having a cyclone separator con?guration in com
to the side of the said device and is inclined at an angle
bination with other structure to form a cigarette rod.
36 to the axis of the device 34. This tangential angular
A further object is to provide a uniform cigarette hav
ing tobacco strands which have been twisted to provide
arrangement lets the tobacco enter the cyclone separator
on one side in such a way that it spirals within the cyclone
a uniform density having a longer draw and a better feel.
separator 34 as indicated by the phantom line 37. This
Other objects and features of the invention will appear 45 spiraling action moves the tobacco forward in the conical
as the description of the particular physical embodiment
section 38 of the cyclone device 34 and at the same time
selected to illustrate the invention progresses. In the ac
twists the tobacco strands in such a way that the tobacco
companying drawings, which form a part of this speci?ca
leaving the outlet 40 of cyclone separator 34 is in the form
tion, like characters of reference have been applied to 50 of a twisted rod somewhat similar to a rope. A funnel
corresponding parts throughout the several views which
shaped rod former reducing tongue 42 compresses the
make up the drawings.
twisted tobacco rope, which is loosely packed when it
FIGURE 1 is a side elevation illustrating an embodi
leaves outlet 40 to its desired density.
ment of my invention.
An endless belt 44 which carries the cigarette paper 46
FIGURE 2 is a section taken on line 2--2 of FIG 55 underneath the rod fonner 42, receives the twisted rod,
URE 1.
discharged through opening 40, compresses it and Wraps
In the embodiment I have employed to illustrate the
the paper around it to form a cigarette rod. Thereafter,
adhesive is applied to the paper by a plaster 41 and the
invention, stemmed tobacco pieces travel in the duct pipe
10 in the direction of arrow 12 toward the rotating cutting
means 14 and 16.
In my copending application, Serial Number 681,280, I
rod is sealed by a rod former 43 in a conventional man
60 ner and cut to lengths by a suitable cutter such as shown
have shown a tobacco conveying system in more detail to
which reference may be made if desired for a more de~
tailed description of how tobacco is fed to the duct 10.
For the purpose of this disclosure I have shown the sec~ 65
tion of tobacco duct 10 which receives the tobacco after
it has been separated centrifugally from the air stream
in which it was conveyed.
The stress plane cutting means 14 and 16 rotate in the
direction shown by arrows 18 and 20, The cutting means
in Patent 2,357,785 granted to I. W. Warren on Septem
ber 5, 1944, US. Patent 2,549,579, granted to George
Dearsley on April 17, 1951 and US. Patent 1,992,722,
granted to E. D. Smith on February 26, 1935.
Moving the paper wrapped rod at substantially high
speed would tend to create a vacuum in the cyclone
separator 34 as there is substantially no air movement
in pipe 32 except a small amount which might pass by
the tobacco while it goes through the cutting means 14
14 and 16 act as an air-sealing door permitting the tobacco 70 and 16. Since the ?nished cigarette is a volumetric
container having a certain amount of air between the
pieces to be cut, to go through them while surplus air is
individual tobacco stands, provision has been made to
removed through pipes 25 and 28 in a manner similar to
supply a controlled and restricted amount of air by
boost its velocity, a longitudinally tapered cyclone separa
means of air intake tube 52.
tor connected to the outlet of said cutters to receive and
form the tobacco ino a rope-like tobacco ?ller, an end
This is su?icient to sup_
ply with air the voids between the tobacco shreds in
the rod.
From the foregoing it will be readily seen that I have
provided a cigarette making machine which is of very
the rod into the cigarette paper and a cutter to cut the
simple construction with relatively few parts and of
rod into cigarette lengths.
less conveyor belt having cigarette paper to form said
tobacco ?ller into a cigarette rod, sealing means to seal
relatively small size. I have also provided a new method
6. A cyclone cigarette machine comprising means to
propel tobacco strands at high velocity in a forward di
to be made at very high rates of speed and in excess 10 rection, a circular cyclone separator into which the to
for making a cigarette rod which will enable cigarettes
of present day cigarette making speeds.
bacco strands are directed to travel circumferentially in
a spiral direction, a tongue to compress the mixture of
air and tobacco into a desired density, a source of ciga
It will also be noted that my present disclosure con
sists of using the inertia of tobacco stands in combina
tion with a spiraling device to form a twisted rope from
which cigarettes are made having spiraled tobacco ?ller.
It will be appreciated that cigarettes made in this way
rette paper to be wrapped around said tobacco ?ller, seal
' ing means to seal the tobacco into said cigarette paper
to form a cigarette rod and a cutter to cut said cigarette
can be made at higher rates of speed, with more uni
rod into cigarette lengths.
form density and which will provide a larger draw and
have more ?rmness without resorting to the addition
7. A centrifugal cigarette maker comprising an air con
veying pipe, a source of tobacco to feed tobacco into
of more tobacco.
said pipe, the tobacco being moved forwardly by the air
The invention hereinabove described may therefore
be varied in construction within the scope of the claims,
for the particular device selected to illustrate the in
vention is but one of many possible embodiments of
through said pipe, another pipe attached at an acute angle
to said ?rst pipe to divert the air in a different direction,
rotating cutting means downstream to said ?rst pipe to
trap the oncoming tobacco and propel it forward pre
venting some of the entrained air from mixing with said
out tobacco, a cyclone separator mounted at the other
the same.
The invention, therefore, is not to be re‘
stricted to the precise details of the structure shown and
What is claimed is:
side of said cutters to receive tobacco at an angle
to its circumference and to twist the tobacco in a rope
1. An apparatus for cigarette ?ller forming compris 30 like tobacco ?ller, an air inlet tube at the large end of
ing means to propel tobacco forwardly, means to shred
said cyclone separator to receive metered air to ?ll in
and boost the tobacco forward, stationary means for
the spaces between the tobacco strands as the tobacco is
spiralling the forward movement of said shredded to~
braided into a rope-like ?ller; and means to ?nish said
bacco to cause the tobacco to twist into a spirally formed
tobacco ?ller into cigarette lengths.
cigarette ?ller, and means for discharging the so formed 35
8. A cigarette forming device comprising an air duct
cigarette ?ller.
2. The method of forming a tobacco ?ller comprising
propelling tobacco stands forwardly, diverting the di
in which tobacco is moving forwardly, a separator sec
tion attached at the end of said duct to separate the air
from the tobacco, cutters to capture the forwardly mov
rection of the tobacco strands circumferentially at an
ing tobacco, to cut it in tobacco strands and thrust the
angle to the circumferential axis, spiraling the tobacco
tobacco strands forward in the same direction the to
strands in a gradual reducing circumference, and dis
bacco was traveling, a cyclone rod forming device con
charging the tobacco strands as a twisted tobacco ?ller.
nected tangentially-angularly to the outlet of said cut
3. An apparatus for forming a cigarette rod compris
ters to receive the tobacco strands and transfer their for
ing means to propel the tobacco forwardly, means to cut
ward movement to a circumferential spiral movement to
the tobacco into strands and boost its forward move
twist the tobacco strands into a rope-like tobacco ?ller,
ment, a cyclone separator attached to said cutting means
a funnel shaped rod former connected to the cyclone de
to receive the tobacco circumferentially and twist it into
vice to receive, compress and convey the twisted tobacco
a rope-like tobacco ?ller, a rod-forming tape at the end
strands, an endless belt carrying cigarette paper located
of said cyclone separator to receive and densify said
next to said rod former to receive the twisted tobacco
rope-like ?ller and form it into a tobacco rod, and a
discharged from said rod former, adhesive means located
cutter, mounted transverse to said rod, to cut the tobacco
downstream to said rod former to seal the tobacco rod
rod as required for individual cigarettes.
within the cigarette paper and a cutter located trans
4. A cyclone separator type rod forming device com
versely of the tobacco rod to cut the cigarette rod in
prising a tube through which tobacco is forwardly pro
required individual cigarette lengths.
pelled by air, another tube mounted‘ at a sharp angle 55 9. The method of forming tobacco ?ller for cigarettes
to the said ?rst tube to divert the air while the tobacco
which consists in imparting an advancing spiral motion
continues to travel in the forward direction, cutters
to a stream of decreasing diameter of tobacco shreds to
mounted at the junction of said tubes to trap, cut and
cause said tobacco shreds to twist together spirally to form
force the tobacco to continue travelling in the same for
a continuous cigarette ?ller rod, and discharging said
ward direction, a housing supporting said cutters, a cy 60 formed tobacco rod.
clone separator mounted on an outlet of said housing,
10. An apparatus for cigarette rod forming compris
to form the tobacco into a ?ller in the form of a spiral
ing a source of stemmed tobacco pieces feeding tobacco
braid, a funnel shaped reducer attached to the end of
pieces by air, means to divert the air while the tobacco
said cyclone separator to receive and compress the braided
pieces continue in substantially straight direction, cutters
tobacco ?ller and discharge it through its opening, ciga
to receive the tobacco pieces between them, cut the to
bacco pieces into strands of desired width and propel the
rette paper located below said reducer to be wrapped
strands at a high linear velocity substantially the same as
around said discharged tobacco ?ller, a sealer to seal said
the circumferential velocity of the cutters, a cyclone rod
cigarette paper to form a cigarette rod and a cutter lo
forming device receiving the strands at a tangent to the
cated transverse to said rod to cut the rod into cigarette
70 side of said cyclone device and at an inclined angle to
5. A cigarette machine comprising a duct through
which tobacco is propelled by air, a plurality of other ducts
wardly and a conical section to twist the tobacco strands
connected at a sharp angle upstream to the ?rst of said
ducts to separate the air from the tobacco, air sealing ro
tating cutters to receive the traveling tobacco, to cut and
into the form of a twisted rope-like cigarette rod.
11. A cigarette rod former comprising a stress plane
cutting means to receive tobacco pieces, cut them and
the axis of said cyclone device to spiral said ‘strands for
direct them at a high linear speed, a duct to receive and
convey said cut tobacco from said cutting means, a
cyclone formed duct located at a tangential angular ar
rangement to said ?rst duct to receive the cut tobacco
and cause it to spiral within said cyclone duct, a conical
section of the cyclone formed duct to continue twisting
the cut tobacco until it is formed into a twisted rod simi
move some of the admixed air and propel the cut to
bacco forward at high speeds, a cyclone shaped duct
having a progressively decreased diameter to deflect the
forwardly moving cut tobacco into ‘a spiral path, while
continuing the forward movement, to give the strands a
forward spiral movement to compact the tobacco into a
twisted cigarette rod ?ller and an air intake tube to re
lease a controlled amount of air into the body of said
lar to a rope, a funnel shaped rod former to receive and
compress the twisted tobacco rope, a source of supply of
cigarette rod ?ller.
cigarette paper to feed paper to said rod former, means 10
‘18. An apparatus for forming tobacco rod ?llers for
to wrap the paper around the tobacco rod to form a
cigarettes, comprising a hollow cone-shaped member,
cigarette rod and a source of adhesive to be applied and
means for delivering a stream of shredded or cut tobac
seal the cigarette rod in a conventional manner.
c-o at ‘a predetermined velocity into the large diameter
12. A cigarette machine comprising high speed air
end of said member tangentially to the wall of and
cutters to cut tobacco fed to said cigarette machine by 15 obliquely of the axis of said member, whereby the mo
a thin lamination of air formed around said cutters, a
pipe to convey said cut tobacco at a high linear speed, a
mentum of the tobacco stream causes the latter to spiral
cyclone shaped duct to receive said moving tobacco at
end thereof, the tobacco strands being thereby twisted
a tangent to the side of and inclined at an angle to the
axis of the cyclone device, said cut tobacco moving for
ward within said cyclone device in a spiraling action to
together into a continuous rod, the small diameter end
of the member having an opening through which the to
bacco rod is delivered to cigarette forming means.
be formed into a twisted'tobacco ?ller similar to a rope,
a rod former to receive and compress said twisted ?ller,
‘a source of cigarette paper, an endless belt which carries
means to compact the tobacco rod as the latter is de
along the Wall of said member toward the small diameter
19. An apparatus ‘according to claim 18, including
livered from the cone-shaped forming member.
20. An apparatus according to claim 18, including
said cigarette paper, located under the rod former, to
receive said twisted ?ller and with said rod former to
form the tobacco ?ller and cigarette paper into a ciga
rette rod, and another cutter to cut the cigarette rod into
means to add as much air as is required in the ?nal
cigarette lengths.
delivery means for the cut tobacco includes a tobacco
formed tobacco rod.
21. An apparatus according to claim 18, in which the
13. A cigarette machine comprising a tobacco cutter 30 cutting and accelerating device, means for feeding tobac
to cut tobacco, exclude some of the admixed air and
co to the cutting device, and a duct connecting an outlet
propel the cut tobacco linearly at high speeds, a cyclone
of said cutting device to the cone-shaped member to‘ de
shaped duct to receive said out tobacco at a high tan
liver the cut tobacco to the member in a stream.
gential speed and to spiral the cut tobacco within the
22. An apparatus according to claim 21, in which the
cyclone, a supply of controlled and restricted amount of 35 cutting device includes cutters which eject the tobacco in
metered air to ?ll the spaces between the cut tobacco, a
conical section in said cyclone to twist the spiraling to
‘23. An apparatus according to claim 22, in which the
bacco into a rod of tobacco ?ller, a supply of cigarette
cutters are of the rotating type, the peripheral speed of
paper, a cigarette rod former to receive said tobacco rod
the cutters imparting the necessary velocity to the ejected
and the cigarette paper and adapted to form an endless 40 tobacco strands.
length of cigarette rod and a cutter to cut the rod into
24. An apparatus according to claim 23, in which the
cigarette lengths.
cutters are of the stress plane type.
14. A cigarette machine comprising an air severing de
25. Apparatus for forming a cigarette rod, compris
vice to cut tobacco into strands, remove some of the ad
ing means to propel tobacco forwardly, a shredder to re
mixed ‘air and propel the cut tobacco at high speeds, a 45 ceive and shred said tobacco and discharge same, a
cyclone rod former to receive said linearly traveling to
curved wall, enclosing decreasing cross-sectional areas,
bacco strands and twist it into a rope like con?guration,
to which said shredded tobacco is discharged tangential
an air intake tube to supply the cyclone rod former with
ly to concentrate the shreds into a continuous ?ller, a rod
metered air, to fill air between the tobacco strands, a sup
former to receive and form said concentrated ?ller into a
ply of cigarette paper, a rod former to form the tobacco 50 continuous rod, and means to deliver said rod.
rope ‘like con?guration and the cigarette paper into a
26. A method of forming tobacco ?ller for cigarettes,
cigarette rod and another cutter to cut the cigarette rod
comprising the steps of propelling tobacco strands for
into cigarettes.
wardly, guiding said tobacco strands spirally along a
curved surface of axially decreasing diameter to simul
comprises the steps of propelling tobacco strands for 55 taneously twist and to gather the strands together, form
wardly, de?ecting the forwardly moving strands into a
ing said gathered strands into a rope, and then forming
spiral path, while continuing the forward movement, to
said rope into a rod.
give the strands a forward spiral movement, and progres
27. A method according to claim 26, which includes
sively decreasing the diameter of the spiral to compact
the steps of delivering tobacco to cutters, and then pro
60 pelling the cut tobacco strands forwardly to the curved
tobacco into a twisted cigarette rod ?ller.
16. The method of forming a cigarette rod ?ller which
guide surface to gather and twist the strands together.
comprises the steps of propelling tobacco strands for
wardly, de?ecting the forwardly moving strands into a
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
spiral path, while continuing the forward movement, to
give the strands a forward spiral movement, progressive
ly decreasing the diameter of the spiral to compact to
Norris _______________ __ Mar. 6, 1934
15. The method of forming a cigarette rod ?ller which
bacco into a twisted cigarette rod ?ller and then releas
ing a controlled amount of air into the body of said
?ller to provide a ?ller of the density desired.
17. An ‘apparatus for a cigarette rod ?ller comprising 70
an air severing device to cut tobacco into strands, re!
Claus _______________ __ Nov. 30, 1937,
Mayo _______________ __ Oct. 19, 1948
Blackwell ____________ __ Dec. 12, 1950
Kloss s__,,___,_______t___..- Oct. 29, 1957
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