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Патент USA US3018811

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Jan. 30, 1962
G. v. COON ETAL
3,018,801
LOOM» FOR CIRCULAR WEAVING
Filed June 20, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTORS
GERTRUDE ll COO/V
BY
HOWARD A. C 00”
W 6‘ 27
A 7' TORNE V
Jan. 30, 1962
G. v. COON ETAL
3,018,801
LOOM FOR CIRCULAR WEAVING
Filed June 20, 1957
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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GERTRJDNE'EIILTOESOON
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Jan. 30, 1962
G. v. COON ETAL
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3,018,801.
LOOM FOR CIRCULAR wmvmc
Filed June 20, 1957
4 Sheets-sheet a
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EN TORS
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BY
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HOVMRD A. COON
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A T TO/PNEY
Jan. 30, 1962
G. v. COON ETAL
3,018,801
LOOM FOR CIRCULAR WEAVING
Filed June 20, 1957
4 Sheets-‘Sheet 4
INVENTORS
GERTRUDE V. COON
BY
HOWARD A. COON
?.
ATTO
EYS
Ut
States
te
3,618,8dl
Patented Jan. 30, 1962
1
3,018,801
LOOM FOR CIRCULAR WEAVING
Gertrude V. Coon and Howard A. Coon, Los Gatos,
Calif, assignors to Coon Development Company, Los
Gatos, Calif, a corporation of California
Filed June 20, 1957, Ser. No. 666,838
12 Claims. (Cl. 139-29)
This invention relates to a loom. More particularly it
relates to a loom adapted for circular weaving of fabric.
2
to FIGURES 1 and 2, the loom is generally designated by
the reference numeral 10 and it comprises a frame 11
and certain more or less conventional elements which will
be described first. Thus, the frame 11 has a loom up
right 12 which carries the heddles 13, any suitable num
ber of which may be employed. At the rear of the loom,
which is shown at the right in FIGURE 1, a warp holder
14 is provided which is not conventional and whose
construction and particular features will be described here
inafter.
Also shown are a reed 15 and a beam 16 at the
Although the invention has particular application to hand
looms, the principles thereof may be applied to power
forward end of the loom, which is shown at the left in
FIGURE 1. Also shown in FIGURE 2 is the shuttle
weaving by various expedients. By “circular weaving” is
20 (an operation which is called “shedding”), to permit
looms.
shelf or race 17. Warp threads are shown at 18 in FIG
In weaving cloth on handlooms in accordance with the
URES l and 2 and Weft threads at 19 in FIGURE 1.
presenteday technique, only a straight piece of cloth can 15
As is well known, the warp threads 18 are threaded
be woven. If an article such as a ladies skirt is to be
through the heddles 13 in the desired pattern and through
made from the woven cloth, considerable cutting and
the reed 15. By means of the treadles, one of which
waste of material are necessarily involved.
is shown at 20 in FIGURE 2, the heddles 13 are operated
Heretofore it has been proposed to accomplish circular
to separate certain of the warp threads 18 from others
meant weaving cloth on a radius or curve such that both
passage of the shuttle. The shuttle is, of course, thrown
across the transverse dimension of the loom along the
other. To accomplish circular weaving, it is necessary
shelf 17, and the reed 15 is operated to move or beat
that the length of warp threads increase from the one
each of the weft threads to its appointed position. The
side of the cloth to the other. It has been proposed, 25 reed has a novel mounting which is best shown in FIG
for example, to employ cones on which the warp threads
URE 2. Thus, sides ‘21 extend downwardly to the bottom
are wound before weaving and from which they unwind
of the frame 11 and are carried by a pivot rod 22 which
during weaving. As each cone is rotated the wide end
extends through slots 23 formed in the bottom of the
of the cone will feed a greater length of warp thread than
‘frame. It will be apparent that, by this means, the reed
the narrow end of the cone. However, this method of
15 can be pivoted rearwardly and then forwardly, or to
solving the problem is not satisfactory. Among other
the left as viewed in FIGURE 2, to beat the weft threads
reasons, it is unsatisfactory because, when it is desired to
to their appointed positions. It will also be apparent that
change the radius of curvature, it is necessary to employ
by reason of the slotted mounting the reed can be ro
different cones.
,
tated in the plane of the warp, from a position which is
Heretofore to our knowledge there has not been pro
parallel to the ends of the frame (shown in solid lines in
vided a simple method of circular weaving on handlooms,
FIGURE 3) to a slanting position (shown in dot-dash lines
selvages are curved and one of them is longer than the
which lends itself to amateur use, which does not re~
quire a great amount of time and skill in setting up a
loom and making adjustments, and which is simple to 0p
crate.
It is an object of the present invention to provide im
provements upon looms.
It is another object of the invention to provide im
proved means for circular weaving on looms.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a
modi?cation of conventional handlooms which is easily
added to or built‘ into a loom and which accomplishes
circular weaving, such modi?cation being simple in its
design, easily installed and easily manipulated.
in FIGURE 3). The purpose of such rotating movement
will be explained hereinafter.
‘
Referring to FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, the novel warp
40 holder 14 will now be described.
It is supported on
brackets 23a which are ?xed to and extend rearwardly
from the frame (to the right as viewed in FIGURES l,
2 and 3), and it comprises a plurality of ‘warp reels 24
which are freely rotatable on a rod 25 which extends be
tween and through and is carried by the brackets 23a.
Each of the warp reels 24 is preferably about 3" wide,
such narrow width having an advantage which will be
pointed out hereinafter.
‘
‘
brackets 23a serve an additional function, which
A further object of the invention is to provide a modi 50 is The
to carry or support lease rods 26 during the weaving
?cation of conventional handlooms which permits circu
operation ‘for a purpose which is explained hereinafter.
lar weaving and which facilitates adjustments so that
At the rear of the loom, i.e., to the right as viewed
changes in curvature can be accomplished with ease.
in FIGURES l, 2 and 3, there is provided a warp holder
These and other objects of the invention will be appar
clamp which is generally designated by the reference, nu
ent from the ensuing description and the appended claims. 55 meral 27 and which comprises an upper bar 28 and a
One form of the invention is illustrated by way of
lower bar 29. The two bars 28 and 29 are clamped to
example in the accompanying drawings, in which
gether by any suitable means such as ‘screws 30 and wing
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a loom embodying
nuts 31, and their opposing surfaces are preferably cov
the improvements of the invention.
FIGURE 2 is a view in side elevation of the loom of 60 ered with rubber or other suitable frictional material
(not shown) which is adapted to make a firm contact with
FIGURE 1.
the warp threads. To provide a secure grip on the warp
threads, the lower bar 29 is formed with a groove 32
which receives a tongue 33 formed on the upper bar 28.
FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary, perspective view of the
To the left of the warp holder clamp 27 as viewed in
front end of the loom of FIGURE 1.
65
FIGURE 3 is a top plan view of the loom of FIGURE
1.
FIGURE 5 is a plan view of a cloth woven on a
curvature by the loom of the invention. '
FIGURES 6 and 7 are plan views of two cloths woven
FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, there is provided a warp feed clamp
which is generally designated by the reference numeral
4%}. The warp feed clamp 4b comprises an upper bar '41
by the loom of the invention which illustrate how ad
and a lower bar 42, the opposing surfaces of which are
vantage can be taken of the characteristics of the loom 70 preferably coated or covered with rubber or other suit
to weave interesting and attractive patterns into the cloth.
able frictional material (not shown) which is adapted to
Referring now to the drawings and more particularly
form a good contact with the warp threads. The bars
3,018,801
3
41 and 42 are clamped together by suitable means such
as screws 43 and wing nuts 43a.
As is best shown in FIGURE 3, horizontal frame mem—
bers or beams 44 are provided on opposite sides of the
frame and are drilled at uniform intervals with holes 45.
At each end the lower bar 42 or warp feed clamp 40 is
drilled through to receive a bolt '47. The bolts 47 not
only pass through the bar 42 but are also received in
the holes 45.
Referring now more particularly to FIGURES l, 2 and
4, at the forward end of the loom, which is shown in
detail and in perspective in FIGURE 4, and which is
shown at the left in FIGURES 1, 2 and 3, a cloth clamp
55 is provided which includes a top bar 56, a bottom bar
57 and an intermediate bar 5614. Adjacent faces of the
bars 56, 57 and 56a are preferably coated or covered with
rubber or other suitable frictional material (not shown)
which is adapted to form a good grip with the woven
material. C clamps 58 are provided to clamp the bars
56, 57 and 56a together. A hinge support and clamping
member 59 is hinged to the frame at each end of the
cloth clamp 55, such hinge supports being drilled at 65‘
to receive bolts 61 (seeFIGURE 1). Brackets 62 are
also provided which are hinged to the beam 16.
Also provided are horizontal brackets 65 which are
?xed to the upright 12 and are formed with aligned holes
66 to receive the lease rods 26 (see FIGURE 3).
In setting up the loom, warp threads are wound on
the reels 24 which are then mounted on the rod 25.
The warp threads are, of course. selected in accordance
with the desired warp pattern. Thus, if a uniform warp
is desired the same thread will be wound on all of the
4
Assuming that it is desired to weave a straight cloth,
and referring more particularly to FIGURE 3, the warp
feed clamp 41} is located parallel to the warp holder
clamp 27, as shown in solid lines in FIGURE 3. Weav
ing proceeds in the usual manner by operation of the
heddles 13, reed 15 and the various shuttles (not shown).
When a suitable increment of cloth has been woven, the
nuts 31 will be loosened, the warp feed clamp 40 will be‘
advanced a suitable distance to the left as viewed in FiG-'
URES l, 2 and 3 (e.g., four holes), thereby unwinding‘
an equal length of warp threads 18 from each of the’
reels 24. Then the wing nuts 31 are tightened to hold
this increment of warp thread. The warp feed 40 may
be returned to its original position adjacent and parallel
to the warp holder clamp 27. The wing nuts 43a may be
tightened, or they may be left loose until the next incre
ment of warp feed. The cloth holder clamp 55 is placed
in the position shown in FIGURE 4, the C clamps 58
are loosened and a like amount of woven cloth is pulled
between the intermediate bar 56:: and the upper and
lower bars 56 and 57. The C clamps 58 are again tight
ened and the cloth clamp 55 is restored to and clamped
in the vertical position shown in FIGURE 1. The loom
is now in readiness for the next increment of weaving}
By repetition of this weaving-warp advancement cycle, a
straight piece of cloth is woven.
Suppose that, instead of straight weaving, it is desired
to weave on a curvature, e.g., to weave a cloth Whose
outside radius is approximately four times its inside ra“
dius. Referring to FIGURE 5, a cloth is shown at 74},
which is formed by warp threads 18 and weft threads 19.v
The “right-hand” selvage 71 (as viewed in FIGURE 5)
has a radius (or a length of are) which is approximately
reels 24, but if a particular warp pattern is desired, for
four times the radius (or length of arc) of the “left;
example, a striped effect, the warp threads will be se
lected accordingly. If reels 3" wide are employed, and 35 hand” selvage 72. To weave a cloth of this character,
the same operations would be performed as described
assuming a warp thread of conventional diameter and a
above except that, when the warp feed clamp 40 is ad
conventional tightness of warp weaving, about 45 to 9%
vanced it is also rotated in the plane of the warp. Thus,
lengths of thread will be wound on each of the reels 24.
the warp feed clamp 48 would be moved four holes or
That is to say, 45 to 20 strands of warp thread will un~
spaces forwardly on the left-hand side of the loom (i.c.,
wind simultaneously from each of the reels 24.
the left-hand as viewed by an operator sitting or standing
The wing nuts 31 and 43a are removed and the upper
at the left—hand end of the loom, as viewed in FIGURES
bars 28 and 41 of the warp holder clamp 27 and warp
l, 2 and 3), and it would be moved only one hole or
feed clamp '40, respectively, are removed, thereby ex
space
at the other side. It will be understood that the
posing the respective lower bars 29 and 42. The warp
threads are laid across the lower bars 29 and 42 and are 45 holes 45 in the beams 44 and/or the holes (not shown)
in the lower bar 42 of warp feed clamp 40 will be suf?
threaded through the heddles 13 and the reed 15 in the
ciently elongated to compensate for the fact that in weav
usual manner. To facilitate this operation, the lease rods
ing on a curvature, the warp feed clamp is rotated as
26 will have been removed from the brackets 23, placed
well as advanced. Then the wing nuts 31 would be
in the brackets 65 and employed in the usual manner to
tightened to secure the warp threads and the warp feed
assist in threading the heddles 13 in accordance with the
40 may be moved back to its original position parallel
desired pattern.
and adjacent to the warp holder clamp 27. It will be
Referring now to FIGURE 4, the hinge supports 59 are
apparent that a precise 4-to-1 ratio is not achieved but
unbolted and rotated outwardly from the clamping posi
an approximation is achieved.
tion shown in FIGURE 1 and the cloth clamp 55 and
It will be apparent that by continuing in this manner,
brackets 62 are rotated to the horizontal position shown 55
the warp threads will be differentially fed and the cloth
in FIGURE 4, in which they are supported by the hinge
will have a circular or, more precisely, a helical shape.
supports 59. The C clamps 58 are removed and the warp
The selvage 71 will be approximately four times as long
threads are passed over and then under the intermediate
as the selvage 72.
bar 56a.
It will be apparent that any ratio desired (within the
The warp threads are now in place. The lease bars 60
design limits of the loom) can be achieved. Thus in the
26 are then moved rearwardly while maintained in their
form shown in the drawings ratios of one to one up to
relative positions in relation to the warp threads and are
approximately eight to one may be accomplished. It will
inserted in holes formed in the rear brackets 23a. Nuts
also be apparent that both “left-hand” and “right-hand”
are applied to hold the lease rods in place. The top bars
65 weaving are possible, by using one side or the other of
28 and 41 are replaced on their respective bottom bars
the loom for greater advancement of the warp feed
29 and 42 and the respective clamping members (screws
clamp 40. Also, the curvature may be varied at any
and nuts 30 and 31, and screws and nuts 43 and 43a) are
time during weaving a single piece of cloth. Thus, by
applied and tightened. The bars 56, 57 and 56a are as
sembled in the order indicated in FIGURE 4 and the C 70 operating the warp feed 40 “left-handedly” and then
“right-handedly” in succession, a sinous, wavy or sinu
clamps 58 are applied. Hinge supports 59 are pivoted out
soidal cloth will be weaved. Also a cloth having sections
to clear the cloth clamp 55, the latter and the brackets
of low curvature and other sections of high curvature
62 are dropped and the cloth clamp is clamped in the
vertical position shown in FIGURE 1 by bolts 61, which
are removed from the cloth clamp 55 for the purpose.
may be woven. Thus a lady’s skirt may be woven hav
75 ing a low curvature in front and a high curvature in back,
5
3,018,80i
6
or vice versa, to achieve a plain effect on one side and
a ruffled, folded effect on the other side.
It will be apparent that, as the weft threads 18 are
We claim:
1. In a loom for weaving cloth comprising a heddle as
sembly for manipulating warp threads and a reed for
woven into cloth which is undergoing circular weaving,
beating weft threads into position, the improvement
they wil radiate from the common center of the two
selvages '71 and 72. This means that, unless extra weft
threads are incorporated, the weft threads will be widely
separated on the longer side of the cloth and the weave
will be unduly loose on one side. This is overcome by
incorporating additional weft threads on the longer side
of the cloth. Thus, referring to FIGURE 5 it will be
which comprises a warp feed clamp for clamping warp
seen that certain of the weft threads extend across the
ment which comprises a warp feed clamp for clamp
threads and feeding them forwardly by increments, and
means for adjusting said warp feed clamp to advance
the warp threads differentially across the warp.
2. In a loom for weaving cloth comprising a heddle
assembly for manipulating warp threads and a reed
for beating weft threads into position, the improve
entire width of the cloth; others extend about % of the
distance across (i.e., 1%: short of the selvage 72); others
ing warp threads and feeding them forwardly by incre~
ments, said warp feed clamp being movable in the di
extend halfway across, etc. Thus, a uniform weave is 15 rection of the warp and being also diagonally adjustable
accomplished.
in the plane of the warp.
3. In a loom for circular weaving of cloth compris~
ing a heddle assembly for manipulating warp threads
and a reed for beating weft threads into position, the
by the same reference numeral 70. A very attractive 20 improvement which comprises a differential warp feed
weft pattern, indicated as 75, is woven into the cloth by
comprising a warp holder clamp and a warp feed clamp,
incorporating additional .weft threads in the manner de
said warp feed clamp being located forwardly of the
scribed above.
warp holder clamp to pull warp threads through the
It will, therefore, be apparent that a novel type of
warp holder clamp, said warp feed clamp being mova
loom and weaving technique have been provided which 25 ble forwardly to advance all of the warp threads and
have advantages such as simplicity, ease of adjustment
being diagonally adjustable in the plane of the warp to
to accomplish circular weaving of different ratios, etc.
advance the warp threads differentially from one side
Among other points that may be mentioned are the
of the warp to the other.
following: The modi?cation may be added to a conven
4. A loom of the character described comprising a
This technique of weaving may be employed to achieve
another important advantage, which is illustrated in FIG
URES 6 and 7 in which each piece of cloth is designated
tional loom or it may be built into a loom. The warp
reels 24 unwind the warp threads as needed, those on
frame having a forward end and a rearward end, and
having a reed and a heddle assembly located between
said ends; said loom also comprising a differential warp
feed in the form of a warp holder clamp for clamping
the “inside” or short side of each reel being supplied
more slowly than those on the “outside” or long side.
Hence the threads on one side (the “inside” or “short
warp threads near the rearward end of the frame and a
side”) will be somewhat slack but not enough to tangle.
warp feed clamp located forwardly of said warp holder
clamp but rearwardly of the heddle assembly, said warp
feed clamp being capable of differential advancement on
The lease rods 26 in the rearward positions shown in
FIGURES 1, 2 and 3 serve to keep the warp threads
opposite sides of the frame.
aligned and untangled. The pivotal mounting of the
reed has the advantage that it allows the operator to
5. A loom of the character described comprising a
rotate the reed into a precise registry with each weft 40 frame having a forward end and a readward end, and
having a reed and a heddle assembly located between
thread as it is beaten into position. The cloth clamp
said ends; said loom also comprising a differential warp
55 protects the woven cloth by reason of the fact that
feed in the form of a warp holder clamp for clamping
the bars 56, 56a and 57 prevent the C clamps 58 from
contacting the cloth. Also the cloth clamp 55, acting
in conjunction with the warp holder clamp 27, holds
the warp threads taut.
‘In conventional handweaving,
the woven cloth is taken up on a beam.
Due to the
curved, spiral shape of the cloth woven on the loom
of our invention, it would be difficult to take up the
cloth on a conventional beam. That problem is nicely
solved by the cloth clamp 55.
warp threads near the rearward end of the frame and a
warp feed clamp located forwardly of said warp holder
clamp but rearwardly of the heddle assembly, said warp
feed clamp being capable of movement longitudinally of
the loom and also being diagonally adjustable in a hori
zontal plane.
6. A loom of the character described comprising a
50
frame having a forward end and a rearward end, and
having a reed and a heddle assembly located between
said ends; said loom also comprising a differential warp
feed in the form of a warp holder clamp for clamping
By reason of the warp holder 14, the warp holder
clamp 27 and the cloth clamp 55, certain difficulties en
countered heretofore, in straight weaving as well as
circular weaving are diminished. In conventional weav
55 warp threads near the rearward end of the frame and a
ing on handlooms difficulties are encountered in keep
ing all of the warp threads uniformly tight. Makesluft
expedients have been employed such as the use of clothes
pins to clamp individual warp threads and pull them
taut.
In our loom, each time an increment of warp
warp feed clamp located forwardly of said warp clamp
but rearwardly of the heddle assembly, said warp feed
clamp being capable of movement longitudinally of the
loom and also being diagonally adjustable in a horizontal
plane; said loom also comprising a cloth clamp at the
forward end for clamping cloth and holding each incre
threads is advanced, the warp threads lying between the
ment of warp threads taut.
warp holder clamp 27 and the cloth clamp 55 may be
7. A warp feed device for differential feeding of warp
inspected. Before the wing nuts 31 on the holder clamp
threads to the weaving elements of a loom for the pur
are tightened, and after the C clamps 58 have been
pose of circular weaving, said warp feed device compris
tightened and the cloth clamp 55 has been clamped in 65 ing a warp holder clamp and a warp feed clamp adapted
vertical position, any loose warp threads may be pulled
to be mounted near the rearward end of the frame of a
back through the loose warp holder clamp 27 until it
loom; said warp holder clamp being adapted, when
is tightened. Then, upon tightening the wing nuts 31,
loosened, to permit advancement of warp threads and,
the warp threads will be uniformly taut. This advan 70 when tightened, to clamp and immobilize the warp
tage, as will be apparent, applies to straight weaving as
well as circular weaving. As is well known, loose warp
threads impede movement of the shuttles and result in
inferior weaving. These difficulties are greatly dimen
ished by our loom.
75
threads; said warp feed clamp being capable of clamp
ing and releasing the warp threads and of advancement
in the direction of the warp threads but at an angle 0
in relation to the warp, the angle 0 being variable to per~
mit differential advancement of the warp threads across
_
3,018,801
8
7
11. A loom of the character described comprising a
frame having a rearward end and a forward end, and
having a heddle assembly intermediate said ends for
shedding the warp threads and a reed forwardly of the
heddle assembly to beat the weft threads into position;
said loom comprising a differential Warp feed assembly
the warp and to permit circular weaving on different
radii.
8. A warp feed device for differential feeding of warp
threads to the weaving elements of a loom for the pur~
pose of circular weaving, said warp feed device com
prising a warp holder clamp and a warp feed clamp
adapted to be mounted near the rearward end of the
- at the rearward end of the frame, said warp feed as
sembly comprising a warp holder clamp and a warp feed
frame of a loom; said warp holder clamp being adapted,
clamp each capable of gripping and holding warp threads
when loosened, to permit advancement of warp threads
and, when tightened, to clamp and immobilize the warp 10 when tightened and of releasing warp threads when
loosened, and means mounting the warp feed clamp for
threads; said warp feed clamp being capable of clamp
advancement on the frame in the direction of the warp
ing and releasing the warp threads and of advancement
and for diagonal adjustment in the plane of the warp;
in the direction of the Warp threads but at an angle 6
said loom also comprising a cloth clamp at the forward
in relation to the warp holder clamp, the angle 0 being
end of the frame adapted, when loosened, to permit ad
variable to permit differential advancement of the warp
vancement of woven cloth and, when tightened, to clamp
threads across the warp and to permit circular weaving
the cloth in position and to hold the warp taut.
on different radii; said device also comprising a cloth
12. A loom for weaving cloth which comprises a frame
clamp adapted to be mounted at the forward end of a
loom being adapted, when loosened, of permitting ad~
vancement of woven cloth and, when tightened, of clamp- -
ing the cloth and cooperating with the warp holder
clamp to hold the warp taut.
9. A loom of the character described comprising a
frame having a rearward end and a forward end, and
having a heddle assembly intermediate said ends for
shedding the warp threads and a reed forwardly of the
heddle assembly to beat the weft threads into position;
said loom comprising a differential warp feed assembly
at the rearward end of the frame, said Warp feed assembly
having a rearward end and a forward end, a heddle
assembly and a reed for manipulating warp threads and
beating weft threads into position, respectively, warp
holder means comprising a warp holder clamp mounted
on the rearward end of the frame and a cloth clamp
mounted on the forward end of the frame, each said
clamp being capable of tightening and loosening and of
clamping the warp threads and the woven cloth, respec
tively, when tightened and permitting advancement of
warp threads by increments and removal of correspond
ing increments of woven cloth, respectively, when
comprising a ‘warp holder clamp and a warp feed clamp 30 loosened, said loom also comprising a warp feed clamp
located forwardly of the warp holder clamp and adapted
each capable of gripping and holding warp threads when
to feed warp threads by increments when the warp holder
tightened and of releasing warp threads when loosened,
clamp is loosened.
and means mounting the warp feed clamp for advance
ment on the frame in the direction of the warp at any
of several angles in relation to the warp.
10. A loom of the character described comprising a
frame having a rearward end and a forward end, and
having a heddle assembly intermediate said ends for
shedding the warp threads and a reed forwardly of the
heddle assembly to beat the weft threads into position; 4O
said loom comprising a differential warp feed assembly
at the rearward end of the frame, said warp feed as
sembly comprising a warp holder clamp and a warp
feed clamp each capable of gripping and holding warp
threads when tightened and of releasing warp threads 45
when loosened, and means mounting the warp feed clamp
for advancement on the frame in the direction of the
warp and for rotation in the plane of the warp to any
of several angles in relation to the warp.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
49,589
383,842
504,883
710,458
2,696,838
2,811,175
Hayes ______________ -_ Aug. 22,
Vorwerk ____________ __ May 29,
Lyall ______________ __ Sept. 12,
Horlacher ____________ __ Oct. 7,
\Purrington __________ __ Dec. 14,
Nadeau _____________ __ Oct. 29,
1865
1888
1893
1902
1954
1957
2,817,366
Sakano _____________ __ Dec. 24, 1957
80,042
Norway ______________ __ Apr. 7, 1952
238,986
Switzerland __________ __' Dec. 3, 1956
477,946
Germany _____________ __ Oct. 5, 1929
FOREIGN PATENTS
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