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Патент USA US3018841

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Jan. 30, 1962
F. M. GIST
3,018,831
WELL BORE SCRATCHER
Filed July 21, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTOR
Fred Morgan Gisl
" » ATTORNEYS
Jan. 30, 1962
F.IM. GIST
3,018,831
WELL BORE SCRATCHER
Filed July 21, 1958
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
,6
'
45
Fig. 8
4/
46
-
INVENTOR
Fred Morgan 6752‘
ATTORNEYS
United States Patent O?ice
1
3,018,831
WELL BORE SCRATCHER
Fred Morgan Gist, 103 V & J Tower, Midland, Tex.
Filed July 21, 1953, Ser. No. 749,705
9 Claims. (Cl. 166-173)
This invention relates to new and useful improve
ments in well bore scratchers.
One object of the invention is to provide an improved
3,018,831
Patented Jan. 30, 1962
2
scratcher includes a support 12, in the form of an annu
lar band or collar, having a plurality of resilient, wall
engaging elements or scratching ?ngers 13 pivotally con
nected thereto in spaced relation to one another. Al
though the collar 12 may be welded or otherwise secured
to the casing 11, said collar is shown slidably con?ned
on said casing between suitable stops, such as the cou
plings 14 which connect the casing sections (FIG. 1).
Of course, when slidably con?ned, the collar is freely
well bore scratcher for mounting on a well pipe or cas 10 rotatable relative to, the casing. It is noted that any de
ing to clean the wall of a ‘well bore by reciprocation
sired number of scratchers may be mounted on the cas
and/or rotation of the well pipe prior to cementing so
ing and that some of said scratchers may be slidably con
as to obtain a more positive bond between the cement
?ned thereon while others may be secured to said casing.
and well bore wall.
As disclosed in my co-pending application, Serial No.
An important object of the invention is to provide an
improved well bore scratcher having resilient wall-en
gaging elements pivotally connected to a collar for mount
ing on a well pipe whereby the elements may undergo
movement relative to the collar as well as deformation
so as to permit the pasage of said elements through a
close well bore or other opening without permanently
distorting said elements.
569,569, ?led March 5, 1956, now Patent No. 2,868,299,
each resilient, wall-engaging element or ?nger 13 is
formed of suitable spring wire ‘of relatively small gauge
and arranged in spaced pairs as shown in FIGS. l-3.
Each pair of resilient ?ngers is formed of a single 'elon
20 gated wire 15 having its medial portion coiled in a helix
16 and con?ned on an upright arm or pin 17 carried by
and extending axially of the collar 12. As shown most
A particular object of the invention is to provide an
clearly in FIGS. 4 and 5, the pins 17 are made integral
improved well bore scratcher, of the character described,
with the collar and are cut therefrom by recessing the
wherein the resilient wall-engaging elements are coiled 25 collar to provide openings 18 therein. Each opening 18
in substantially circular loops extending laterally out
is rectangular or substantially square with the pin pro
ward of the collar and having free end portions for bear
jecting upwardly from the medial portion of its lower
ing against said collar to urge elongated curved portions
margin in parallel relation to the collar. The lower por
of said elements into ?exible engagement with the wall of
tion of each pin is offset radially outward, as shown at
the well bore for more thoroughly cleaning the wall.
30 19, whereby said pin is disposed radially outward. of its
Another object of the invention is to provide an im
opening 18 to prevent binding engagement of the helix
proved well bore scratcher, of the character described,
16 with the casing when the collar is mounted on said
wherein the collar may be slidably con?ned on the well
casing. For the latter purpose, the diameter of the helix
pipe or ?xed thereto and wherein each well-engaging ele
exceeds the greatest transverse dimension of the pin and
ment has relatively loose pivotal connection with the 35 the opening is relatively wide, being approximately three
collar for pivoting about an axis parallel to the longi
times the width of said pin. The pins are bent outwardly
tudinal axis of the well pipe whereby the elements may
from the collar to receive the helices and are then bent
undergo appreciable movement relative to said collar
inwardly to con?ne said helices thereon. It is noted
and have greater ?exibility.
.
that the pins have their upper ends in close proximity to
A construction designed to carry out the invention will 40 the upper margins of the openings whereby the space
be hereinafter described, together with other features of
therebetween is less than the diameter of the wire 15.
the invention.
Each element or ?nger 13 is in the form of a substan
The invention will be more readily understood from
tially circular loop 20 which extends laterally outward
a reading of the following speci?cation and by reference
of the collar 12 and which is formed by coiling the end
to the accompanying drawings, wherein examples of the 45 portions of the wire 15. The ends of the ?ngers or their
invention are shown, and whereini
loops 20 are free and unattached and terminate adjacent
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a well scratcher,
the collar for bearing thereagainst so as to urge the
constructed in accordance with the invention, mounted
medial portions of the loops outwardly into engagement
on a well pipe,
FIG. 2 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on
the line 2-2 of FIG. 1, showing the scratcher in plan,
FIG. 3 is a view, similar to FIG. 2, showing the
scratcher in a well bore Iwith its resilient elements de
formed,
with the wall of a well bore 21 as shown in FIG. 3.
The ?ngers are coiled in the same direction and the loops
20 of each pair are spaced from each other. It is pointed
out that the free ends of the ?ngers or their loops permit
deformation and limited movement of said ?ngers rela
tive to the collar when the casing 11 is rotated or recipro
FIG. 4 is an enlarged, side elevational view showing
cated. Also the free ends prevent the ?ngers from hang
the mounting of one of the elements.
ing on obstructions and being damaged.
FIG. 5 is a horizontal, cross-sectional view, taken on
A modi?ed casing scratcher 40 is shown in FIGS. 6
the line 5-5 of FIG. 4,
through 9 and includes an annular band or collar 41 for
FIG. 6 is an enlarged plan view of a modi?ed scratcher
60 supporting the resilient, wall-engaging elements or
mounted on a well pipe, shown in cross-section,
scratching ?ngers 13. The collar 41 includes a plurality
FIG. 7 is a side elevational view of the joint of the
of outwardly o?iset pins 42 disposed in openings 43,
collar of the modi?ed scratcher,
which are substantially identical to the pins 17 and open
FIG. 8 is an enlarged, horizontal, cross-sectional view,
ing 18, for receiving the helices 16 of the ?ngers to piv
taken on the line 8—-8 of FIG. 7, and
FIG. 9 is an enlarged, sideelevational view of one of 65 otally support the same (FIGS. 7 and 8). As shown by
the serrated portions of the collar for embedding in the
well pipe.
In the drawings, the numeral 10 designates a well bore
scratcher embodying the principles of the invention and
mounted on a conventional well casing or pipe 111. The
the numeral 44, the collar 41 is split and has overlapping
end portions adapted to be fastened by a wedge element
or key 45 for clamping said collar in engagement with
the casing. A pair of diametrically-opposed, serrated or
toothed portions 46 are formed on the inner surface of
8,018,881
3
4
the collar for embedding in the exterior of the casing so
as to positively grip said casing and prevent relative move
ment of said collar. A U-shaped bracket 47 projects
from one of the end portions of the collar for supporting
one of the ?ngers 13 adjacent the joint 44 of said collar.
The well bore scratchers 10 and 40‘ function in sub
2. A well bore scratcher including a collar for mount
ing on a well casing, a plurality of independent pairs of
resilient ?ngers attached to the collar in spaced relation
to one another, each pair of ?ngers having a common
portion therebetween coiled in a relatively small helix,
and a plurality of upright pins on said collar for con?n
stantially the same manner and are adapted to scrape
ing the helices to loosely pivot the pairs of ?ngers for
movement relative to one another about axes substan~
and remove the drilling mud which coats the wall of the
tially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the casing, each
well bore prior to cementing in order to obtain a more
positive bond between the cement and the bore wall. 10 pair of ?ngers having end portions coiled to provide a
pair of loops of relatively large diameter extending lateral-j
The ?exibility of the ?ngers is enhanced by they loose
ly outward of said collar and casing and having curved
pivotal connection of their helices 16 to the pins 17 and
medial portions for engagement with the wall of a well
42 as well as the bracket 47. Although the ?ngers over
bore, the loops of the ?ngers being spaced from one an
lap, the same are spaced from one another su?iciently to
provide ?ow paths therebetween and prevent accumula 15 other to provide ?ow paths therebetween, each loop hav
ing a free end portion terminating adjacent said collar
tion of material dislodged or removed by said ?ngers,
for bearing thereagainst to urge the medial portion of
which material may include some loose formation, as
said loop into engagement with the wall of the well bore
well as facilitate the carrying oif of said material by
and for increasing the ?exibility of the ?nger.
circulated ?uid.
3. A well bore scratcher including an annular support
Due to the coiling of the resilient ?ngers in substantial 20
for mounting on a well casing, a plurality of resilient
ly circular loops, said ?ngers are more ?exible and will
?ngers coiled in loops of relatively large diameter disposed
more readily conform to the irregular contour of a well
around and extending laterally outward of the support and
bore. A greater sur?cial contact between the ?ngers and
casing and having curved medial portions for engage
the wall of the well bore is provided by the circular shape
25 ment with the wall of a well bore, the loops of the ?ngers
of said ?ngers whereby their arcuate medial portions en
being spaced from one another to provide ?ow paths there
gage the circular bore wall. As shown in FIG. 3, the
between, and a plurality of upright means on the support
smaller the annulus between the casing and well bore,
pivotally connecting the inner portion of each of the‘ ?n
the greater the sur?cial contact of the ?ngers. Since the
gers to said support for limited movement about axes sub’
?ngers are formed of spring wire, the same may undergo
considerable deformation without being permanently bent
or distorted out of their desired shape.
It is noted that
the free end portions of the ?ngers are disposed adjacent
and may bear against the collar 12 or 41 for urging the
medial portions of said ?ngers into scraping contact with
the bore wall. In addition to the loose pivotal mounting
of the ?ngers, which permits the same to undergo ap
preciable movement relative to the collar and its pins,
the ?exibility of said ?ngers is increased by the upright
disposition of their helices.
Since the substantially circular ?ngers are more ?exible
than straight scratching elements, there is less danger of
damaging said ?ngers upon reversing the direction of
movement of the casing.
In addition to removing the
undesirable mud cake from the bore wall so that a better
bond is obtained between the cement and bore wall, the
well bore scratchers of the present invention function to
reinforce the cement. It is pointed out that the free ends
of the ?ngers, their loose pivotal mounting and their cir
cular shape coact to provide increased ?exibility without
sacri?cing the strength of said ?ngers.
The foregoing description of the invention is explana
tory thereof and various changes in the size, shape and
materials, as well as in the details of the illustrated con
'struction may be made, within the scope of the append
‘ed claims, without departing from the spirit of the inven
tion.
stantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the casing.
_ 4. A well bore scratcher including an annular support
for mounting on a well casing, a plurality of resilient
?ngers coiled in loops of relatively large diameter disposed
around and extending laterally outward of the support
and casing and having curved medial portions for en
gagement with the wall of a well bore, the loops of the
?ngers being spaced from one another to provide flow
paths therebetween, each ?nger having a portion coiled
in a relatively small helix, and upright means on said
support for con?ning the helices to pivotally connect the
?ngers thereto.
5. A well bore scratcher as set forth in claim 4 wherein
the support is in the form of a collar adapted to be slidably
confined on the casing.
6. A well bore scratcher as set forth in claim 4 wherein
the support is in the form of a collar adapted to be ?xed
to the casing.
7. A well bore scratcher including an annular support
for mounting on a well casing, a plurality of resilient ?n
gers coiled in loops of relatively large diameter disposed
around and extending laterally outward of the support
and casing and having curved medial portions for engage
ment with the wall of a well bore, the loops of the ?ngers
being spaced from one another to provide ?ow paths there
between, and means on said support pivotally connecting
the inner portion of each of said ?ngers to said support
to permit limited movement of said ?ngers relative thereto‘
and to one another, the loop of each ?nger having a free
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A well bore scratcher including a collar for mount
end portion terminating adjacent said support for bearing
ing on a well casing, a plurality of independent resilient 60
thereagainst to urge the medial portion of said loop into
?ngers attached to the collar in spaced relation to one an
engagement with the well bore wall and for increasing the
other, each ?nger having a portion coiled in a relatively
small helix, and a plurality of upright pins on said collar
for con?ning the helices to loosely pivot the ?ngers for
movement relative to one another about axes substantial
?exibility of the ?nger.
8. A well bore scratcher including an annular support
for mounting on a well casing, a plurality of resilient ?n
gers coiled in loops of relatively large diameter disposed
ly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the casing, each
around and extending laterally outward of the support
?nger being coiled in a loop of relatively large diameter
and casing and having curved medial portions for en
extending laterally outward of said collar and casing, and
gagement
with the wall of a well bore, the loops of the
having a curved medial portion for engagement with the
?ngers
being
spaced from one another to provide ?ow
wall of a well bore, the loops of the ?ngers being spaced 70
paths therebetween, and means on said support pivotally
from one another to provide ?ow paths therebetween,
connecting the inner portion of each of said ?ngers to said
each loop having a free end portion terminating adjacent
support to permit limited movement of said ?ngers rela
said collar for bearing thereagainst to urge the medial
tive thereto and to one another, the ?ngers being formed
portion of said loop into engagement with the wall of the
in pairs having integral inner portions whereby each pair
well bore and for increasing the ?exibility of the ?nger.
3,018,881
5
6
of ?ngers has an intermediate common portion pivotally
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
connected to said support and end portions coiled to pro
vide said loops.
9. A well bore scratcher as set forth in claim 8 wherein
,
_
the loops of each pan of ?ngers have free end portions
2’298’985
5
2,369,222
‘Sun et a1 """"""""" “ Oct’ 13’ 1942
Every _______________ .. Feb‘. 13,
2 671 515
Hall _____________ __
terminating adjacent the support for bearing thereagainst
2:674:317
Kipper __:____________: APR 6’
to urge the medial portions of said loops into engagement
with the wall of the well bore and for increasing the ?eXi-
2,685,931
2,802,536
Bakel- et a1 ___________ __ Aug 10:
Baker _______________ __ Aug. 13,
2,826,253
Wright et a1. _________ __ Mar. 11,
bility of the ?ngers.
10
Man 9.
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