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Патент USA US3018977

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Jan. 3o, 1962
M. KHAL".
3,018,967
METHOD AND MEANS FOR THE INSTALLATION OF' RAIL TRACK
Filed March 12, 1955
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Jan. 30, 1962
M. KHALIL
METHOD AND MEANS FOR
3,018,967
INSTALLATION OF RAIL TRACK
Filed March 12,. 1953
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Jan. 30, 1962
M. KHALIL
3,018,967
METHOD AND MEANS FOR THE INSTALLATION OF RAIL TRACK
Filed March 12. 1953
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
_ Jan. 3o, 1962
3,018,967
M. KHALIL
METHOD AND MEANS FOR THE INSTALLATION OF RAIL TRACK
Filed March 12, 1953
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
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Patented dan. 3G, 1982
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fittings used in addition to dog spikes, etc., and are not
meant to serve as independent fastenings between rails
3,018,967
and sleepers.
(e) The various arrangements of critter-pins and gibs
METHOD AND MEANS FÜR THE INSTALLATION
0F RAIL TRACK
which are used where sleepers have pots or plates cou
pled together by means of tie-rods, can only serve for a
restricted range of gauge adjustments and do not function
Muhammad Khalil, Lahore, West Punjab, Pakistan
(11B-B, Gulbarg II, Lahore, West Pakistan)
Filed Mar. 12, 1953, Ser. No. 341,965
7 Claims.` (Cl. 23S-349)
as fastenings between rails and sleepers.
lt is therefore an object of the present invention to
provide a track fastening combining the following most
desirable and important features:
(l) To prevent rail creeping in either direction,
(2) To provide an adequate range of gauge adjust
ment to cover all practical service requirements for high
The present invention relates to a new and improved
>method of installing rails and to universally applicable
fastening assemblies, including resilient clamps for se
curing railway rails having a flat base to railway sleep
ers of any type such as, for example, wooden, metal cast
,
ings or concrete, and more particularly, to a manner using 15 speed tracks,
(3) To create a structure suitable to be applied to
adjustable resilient cl-amps.
every type and size of rail and sleeper of all gauges,
When two pairs of said fastenings made in accord
thereby reducing the number of loose parts necessary
in their assembly,
lt is another object of the present invention to pro
fastening itself through a slotted hole in the back plate 20
vide a permanent track fastening which will not become
of the seat or by providing additional means of connec
looseor re uire stead Y suP ervision and which is also~
tion, e.g., a rivet, screws, spike or bolt, said fastenings
ance with the present invention are fitted about the rail
seats of a sleeper v» either by hooking the end of the
suitably protected against sabotage or pilfering.
will permanently arrest creep of the rails or absorb ver
tical movement or‘the so-called “wave motion” of the
It is a further object of the present invention to pro
vide
a »track fastening which is suitable to absorb im
25
pacts from moving loads, thus helping the sleeper to act
ballast underneath as well as enable the gauge of the
elastically, whereby the ballast below Yit remains more or
track to be minutely adjusted and maintained with little
less undisturbed by trains moving at high speeds. This
or no further attention on the part of the permanent
will result in a substantial increase of the useful life of
‘ way staff.
the sleeper as well as an appreciable saving in the cost of
It is known to railway engineers that most of the
rails, without appreciably disturbing the sleeper and the
common types of track fastenings in use today are in
maintenance.
’
.
-
lt is . yet another object of the present invention,
especially in the case of wooden sleepers, to rendersu
some respects limited in their utility and function; for
‘example: `
leverage from action of the rail ñanges tending to pull
pertluous single or double shouldered bearing plates un
der the rails but rather permits the use of the relatively
simple and inexpensive flat bearing plates where the neces
sary Vrim may' be created while forming the Vrail seats in
the sleepers, since the effect of a shoulder is effectively
them out from the sleeper under the impact of fast mov
performed by the fastening itself.
(a) The Well known dog spike neither prevents lcreep
ing nor allows satisfactory gauge adjustment. They have
to be hammered down frequently to keep contact with
the rail owing to their failure to withstand the direct
,
It is finally another object of the present invention to
ing loads.
40
perform a close gauge adjustment of the track by placing
(b) The various types of solid tapered rail keys, which
adjustable rail fasteners at both sides of at least one
are a common feature of a number of existing types of
sleepers, prevent rail creeping only against the direction
of their taper. Furthermore, such keys cannot be manip
rail.
'
According to the present invention the fasteners con
ulated to adjust the gauge and even if so, such manipula 45 sist of elements which may be applied to the standards
universally used in track structures and comprise a cam
tion is only possible to a very limited extent except where
capable of pressing against a lateral edge of a rail base
four keys per sleeper are applied. A further disad
Vand a resilient clamp pressing down the rail baseJ said
vantage is that such keys have to be manufactured to a
fastening element being pivotable in a manner so as to
close tolerance in order to obtain a satisfactory ñt even
where particular rail types and sleepers are used, since
bring it from an initial position allowing for the place
the fitting range is highly limited due to their non-resil
iency. As a result such keys, after little wear and tear
ment of the rail into a Working position in which it
keeps the »rail in exact adjustment.
Preferably', a steel bar of flat, square or round section
by their service, tend to loosen and slip through the sleep
is forged, punched or coiled in such a manner that one
er jaws, unless they are supplemented by' liners to keep
them right. Moreover, the taper keys fail to impart the 55 end of the bar is shaped to resemble a cam in plan View
with the other end of the bar bent back substantially
desired resiliency to the track owing to the rigid attach
ment between the rail and the sleeper and the vertical
above said cam to form a jaw suitable to press down into
forces thus imparted by the rails to the sleepers quickly
`working position against the rail base. The cam then
tend to undo and crush the ballast packing and induce
works against the side edge of the rail base and the jaw
blowing and pumping under the sleepers. Furthermore,
60 formed end then lies at the same time on the upper in
such keys are also easily removable and stolen from the
track along with the movable loose jaws with which they
are commonly ñtted on the sleepers.
(c) The solid types of rail clip-and-bolt fastening sys
clined surface of the rail base. This is accomplished after
the fastener has been pivoted on a bolt or the like put
through a hole provided eccentrically in the cam end,
which bolt also secures the fastener assembly to the
tems do not .allow for fine gauge adjustment which is 65
necessary for high speed tracks and the rigidness of the
sleeper.
clips tends to shake loose the bolts thereby necessitating
alternative arrangement, be replaced by a forged rivet ex
frequent attention. For the same reason this fastening
truded from the Vrail seat or by a welded hook which per
system frequently fails to check creeping effectively.
lf desired, the separate connecting means may, as an
forms the fastening through a slotted hole in the rail seat
(d) The various types of loose rail anchors are, at 70 on the sleeper. Where a separate eccentric washer in lieu
of thefcam-shaped end of the fastening is used, the clip
most, effective against creeping in one direction at a time
and the lower portion accommodating the eccentric wash
only. Actually, such anchors are supplementary track
spiace?
4»
er may preferably be made of a bar that is square in cross
section. Such an eccentric washer which may be made of
cast iron or steel, has a nut shaped collar projecting above
the top surface of the cam portion of the clip. The secur
ing connection, i.e., a bolt, rivet, etc., passes through the 5
clamp is bent back to form a vertical loop and finally
twisted so as to form an approximately semi-circular
jaw, adapted to press against surface F commensurate
with the pivoting of the clamp.
FIGS. 14 to 16 illustrate another species of the inven
hole in the washer, and the arrangement has the added
tive clamp and of its application. The clamp is made
advantage that the clip as well as the washer can be
of bars which may be square or round in cross-section.
rotated independently of one another.
The manipula
In FIG. 14, C is a bar which is square in cross-section,
tion of the collared washer by means of a special Spanner
its ends being cut to form a wedge K with one end being
wrench gradually moves the clip towards or away from 10 coiled to form an eccentric eyelet G1 while the other
the rail, due to the eccentricity of the washer which serves
end is bent back to end into a left handed or right
the same purpose as the cani profile in the one piece ar
handed open jaw E1, as shown in plan view by FIG. 15
and in end view by FIG. 16.
FIGS. 17 to 2O illustrate another form of the inven
ing drawings in which like reference letters in the various 15 tion in which a separate eccentrically punched washer
rangement referred to above.
The present invention is illustrated in the accompany
figures indicate corresponding parts.
is used to build up a cam effect as necessary for gauge
FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are plan views of four sets of the
adjustment. FIG. 17 shows the eccentric washer L in
plan view and side elevation provided with a hole J, a
four sleepers illustrating various positions of the various
nut shaped collar M and a cylindrical portion N fitting
fastening means to assure a correct positioning and hold
into the eyelet which is formed of one of the wedge
ing of the rail.
shaped ends G2 of bar C2, as shown in FIG. 18. The
FIG. 1 illustrates the initial position of each pair of
other end of bar C2 illustrated on this View as still being
fastening assemblies in which they are clear of the rail
straight is subsequently bent to form a right handed or
to facilitate the installation on the sleepers of the rails.
left handed jaw-shaped loop E2 similar to but shorter
FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 show the possible close adjustment 25 than those shown in FIGS. 15 and 16.
in the location of a rail by a change in the positions of
A plan view of the assembly fastenings Cr2 and C12 is
the cams whose pivoting causes the rail to move laterally
shown in FIG. 19'with a sectional view taken along line
to diminish or widen the gauge between the rails.
X-«X of FIG. 19 being illustrated in FIG. 20. By this
FIGS. 5, 6, 7 and 8 are cross sectional elevations of
arrangement the clipping portion of the clamp may re
a steel trough sleeper, a wooden sleeper, a cast iron 30 main stationary while the gauge adjusting manipulation
sleeper and a prestressed concrete sleeper respectively,
is accomplished by means of the eccentric washers L.
illustrating the adaption of the said fastening means to
The position of the clips as shown in FIG. 19 provides
said fastening assemblies, in one row on the rail seats of
said miscellaneous types of sleepers by using, for ex
a. shoulder constantly butting against edge H on either
ample, either rivets or bolts in the case of steel sleepers
side of the rail base and is therefore preferable to be
or round spikes, coach screws or fang bolts in the case
of wooden sleepers, or screws or bolts in the case of
cast iron sleepers and head screws or anchor bolts in
adopted throughout the track.
FIGS. 21 to 24 show still another for-1n made in ac
cordance with the present invention in which a hook
the case of concrete sleepers.
In the illustrations shown in FIG. 5, rivets are used
formed under the bottom portion of a clamp by forging,
provided by the fastening itself.
2l, the slotted hole DI lies partly under the rail, where
pressing, welding or riveting takes the place of the sep
for connection with spike connections being employed 40 arate connecting means, e.g., bolts, rivets, spikes, etc.
for the wooden sleeper in FIG. 6, screw connections for
lIn FIG. 21 a slotted hole D1 in the rail seat B is shown
the cast iron sleeper in FIG. 7 and bolt connections for
in the top view on either side of the track rail A. In FIG.
the concrete sleeper in FIG. 8. The embodiments shown
22 a hook P is shown riveted on the lower arm G3 of
in FIGS. 5 to 8 illustrate that the use of the fastening
theriainp forming a cam, which in all other respects
assemblies made in accordance with the present inven
is similar to that shown in FIGS. l to 13. The hook
tion when used with any type of sleeper obviates the ne
P is inserted through the larger end of the hole D1 in
cessity of providing rimmed bearing plates or jaws on the
the rail seat and engages with the smaller end of the slot
rail seats since the necessary lateral support of the rail is
in the working position of the clamp. As shown in FIG.
FIGS. 9 and l0 illustrate details of a pair of fasten 50 by the clamp once inserted cannot be removed unless
ings shown in FIGS. l and 2 in initial and working posi
the rail is removed. The hook P acts as a pivot and at the
tions respectively then keeping the rail base in correct
position.
sarne time forms a connection in the same manner as the
separate connecting means hereinbefore described. The
FIGS. 11 and 12 are elevations taken along lines U-U’
assembly of clamps C3r `and CSI is shown in FIG. 23
and V-V' respectively in FIGS. 9 and 1.0. These views 55 in plan view and in the sectional view taken along lines
particularly illustrate the elastic expansion of the clip
Y-Y in FIG. 24.
end of the fastening while pivoting from its initial to its
When fastenings made in accordance with `any of the
working position.
Referring now to the drawings, FIGS. 1 through 12,
illustrative embodiments hereinbefore described have
been attached to the sleepers in a length of track, the
A defines a rail, V a rail seat resting on the top of a 60 rails can be conveniently placed in position, as shown in
sleeper.
Cr and Cl symbolize a pair of coordinated
FIGS. l and 9 without removing or loosening connec
right and left-handed fastenings of identical, but oppo
tions at D. For this purpose the fastenings have simply
site handed structure, having holes D suitable to receive
to be turned about the pivoted connections by means of
connecting links projecting from rail seats B. E is the
a tommy bar or lever in such a manner that the shortest
clamping top portion of a clamp which embraces the 65 radius of the cam shaped end G is open to the edge of
slanted surface F of the rail base in working position.
the rail foot N and the clip end E of the fastening is ialso
G defines the bottom portion of the clamp pivoting
clear of the rail. The fastenings on either side of the
around hole D and buttìng against the side edge of the
rail seat, by virture of the cam shaped construction, can
rail base H.
be moved nearer or farther from the edge of the rail foot
FIGS. 9 to 13 illustrate all structural details of the 70 I-I but in either a clockwise or an anti-clockwise direc
clamps and their application for rail fastening. This
tion only according to whether they are right handed or
embodiment of the clamp is made of a flat strap of
left handed, as shown by arrows in FIGS. l, 2, 9 and l0,
resilient material C. A hole D is eccentrically provided
It is an inventive feature of the present invention that
with reference to the cam-shaped curvature of the strap
the clip portion of the clamp on butting of the cam against
end. As seen from FIG. 9, the top portion E of the 75 the rail edge (FIGS. 10 and l2), the end of the upper
3,018,967
6
arrn Q forming the clip, by virture of the spring action,
has already surpassed the highest point of its path on
the slanted surface F of the rail base. Thus when the
clamps are turned in their íinal positions as shown in
FIGS. 10, 15 and 23, their tips Q have already reached
a lower level on the rail base than their highest position
and thus would resist a sliding back into their starting
,
an acute angle. The other end B4 of the ñat lis subse
quently formed into a right handed or left handed clip
which is suitable to override the rail as shown in plan
and elevation of the completed assembly by FIG. 28
and FIG. 29. In FIGS. 25 to 27, A defines the rail, B
the bearing plate or rail seat on the sleeper, Cllr and
C41 the right and left handed clamps riveted semi-rigidly
to the bearing plate through hole D2. The rail base
is secured between the shoulder S of the bearing plate
cam against the rail edge. Thus the inventive arrange
ment reinforces the grip of the clip in arresting any creep 10 and the cam shaped arm G4 of the clamp. The acute
corner of arm G4 stops the' turning movement of the
ing. Although the clamps on the rail seats are so dis
clamp on the pivot D2. After a clamp has been turned
posed with the normal direction of creep of the rail in
into positions shown in FIGS. 28 and 29, the clip arm
the case of a possible revers-al of that direction of creep
E4 will fully override the inclined plane F on the rail
in the track, the clamps are prevented lfrom giving way
by the combined locking action of the clip and cam por 15 base land the dog spike T adjoining the acute corner
of arm G4 .then stops any further movement of the
tion of the clamp which tends to sustain the correct posi
clam-p. Thi-s arrangement ensures a reliable checking
tion.
'
against creeping in either direction, even though all
Aside from the requirements of wide gauges on sharp
the clamps `are one/handed, eg., left handed. The fas
curves or tight gauges on tangent track, all types of rail
position, thereby supporting the butting position of the
seats need some means of gauge adjustment to compen
20 tening can, however, always be made at right and left
hands when warranted by the severity of the creeping.
I claim:
ing of the rail seats and of the clamps, the inventive
1. Clip means for securing nails to sleepers comprising
clamps as disclosed provide the necessary possibilities of
a substantially planar base portion, said base portion
gauge adjustments. First, the average range covered by
the manipulation of the inventive clamps is at approxi 25 having means for mounting same to the top surface of
a sleeper in pivotal relationship in a horizontal plane
mately -a right angle. The rotation of the c'am end of
with respect thereto, one end of said base portion having
the fastening by one right angle should therefore pro
a camming edge for engagement with the side edge of the
vide for vthe desired gauge adjustment to cover all prac
base of a rail, a resilient top portion secured at one
tical requirements. The limiting radii of the cam pro
iile can easily be made to vary by about 1A", which fig 30 end to the opposite end of said base portion in spaced
relationship ‘by an intermediate resilient portion sub
ure is the maximum adjustment that may be required.
stantial-ly arcuate in its vertical plane, said top portion
By manipulation of the fastenings on either side of the
extending in the direction of the rail land being of a length
rails forming the track, the ñnest gauge adjustment can
greater than said base portion to engage the top surface
be obtained and it is permanently retained >by Virtue of
the combined pressure of the upper and lower arms E 35 of the base of said rail.
2. Clip means in accordance with claim l wherein
and G of the clamp against base F of the rail as well as
the free end of said top portion is curved in a plane
against its edge H.
substantially parallel to the plane of the base portion.
In the case of the fastening with a separate cam, that
sate for both of them in the manufacture or in the bor
is where a separate cam shaped washer (FIGS. 17 to 20) is
3. »Clip means in accordance with claim 1 wherein
used, said washer itself supplies the necessary provision 40 the free end of said top portion is upwardly inclined
for gauge adjustment since it may be manipulated inde
pendently from the clip.
A steel or cast iron tie plate is normally used on
wooden sleepers of the «hard wood variety,.e.g., sal, oak,
A;
in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of the top
surface of the base of the rail.
4. A rail holding device comprising in combination,
a rail resting on a sleeper; clip means comprising a sub
pynkado, in which bearing plates as shown in FIG. 6 45 stantially planar base portion secured to the top sur
face of the sleeper in pivotal relationship in a horizontal
for wooden sleepers may be omitted and the clamp may
plane, one end of said base portion having «a camming
be secured by means of round spikes or coach screws edge in engagement -with the side edge of the base of
only. A preferable arrangement where 4wooden sleepers
said rail, a resilient top portion secured at one end
are used, are dog spikes and single shouldered bearing
plates as illustrated in FIGS. 25 to 30. In this modilied 50 to the opposite end of said base portion in spaced rela
tionship by an intermediate resilient portion substan
arrangement the fastenings effectively prevent a creeping
tially arcuate in its vertical plane, said top portion being
of the rails, having simultaneously and in addition most
of a length greater than said base portion with the end
of the other aforedescribed inventive advantages, they
thereof being in engagement with the top surface of the
are not required for the adjustment of the track gauge.
Therefore, the fastenlngs are necessarily provided on «all 55 base of said rail.
5. A rail holding device in accordance with claim 4
the sleeper-s in a row only and as many as may be re- ~
wherein the free end of said top portion is curved in a
quired to prevent creeping may be used. For instance
plane substantially parallel to the plane of the base
only -alternating sleepers may be provided with two
portion with the underside of said curved portion en
clips on the gauge side of the rails.
-FIG. 25 shows such an 'assembly in which the fas 60 gaging the top surface of the base of said rail.
6. A rail holding device in accordance with claim 4
tenings are partly »in the initial position for laying the
wherein the free end of said top portion is upwardly
rails, while lthe clamps are not provided on the following
inclined to engage the top inclined surface of the base
sleeper, so the next sleeper shows the fastenings over
of the rail.
riding the base of the rails in working position. FIG.
7. A method of laying tracks having a rail resting
65
26 shows a top plan View of an embodiment in which
on a sleeper comprising securing a pair of r-ail holding
the fastening is riveted to the beming plate. FIG. 27
clip means to the sleeper in pivotal relation-ship in a
is Ia top plan view in which the fastenings `are shown
horizontal plane with respect thereto, said rail holding
in iinal assembled relationship. FIG. 28 is a fragmen
means being spaced in opposed relationship from one
tary enlarged top plan View illustrating the assembled 70 another »a distance greater than the width of the rail,
relationship of the »fastening device with the rail. FIG.
said rail holding means having a bottom camming means
29 is a side elevation taken along lines Z-Z of FIG. 28.
and a top resilient holding means, positioning a rail to
said sleeper between said rail holding means, `and pivoting
FIG. 30 shows a side View of a ilat steel spring C4, one
said rail holding means unti-l the bottom camming means
end G4 of which is arcuate in configuration defining a
cam shaped corner, with its adjacent corner defining 75 engages the side edge of the base of the rail and the
3,018,967
7
top holding means engages the top surface of the base
of the rail.
-
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,196,423
1,470,090
Birdsong ____________ __ Aug. 29, 1916
Manning ____________ __ Oct. 9, 1923
1,562,458
Lehman ____________ __ Nov. 24, 1925
8
1,569,806
1,631,034
2,056,251
2,319,862
2,357,498
2,357,629
2,446,495
2,480,388
Holland ____________ __ Jan. 12, 1926
Holst ______________ __. May 31, 1927
Caírncross ____________ .__ Oct. 6, 1936
Heald ______________ __ May 25, 1943
Boyce et al. __________ .__ Sept. 5,
Cantrell et al. ________ .__ Sept. 5,
Smithers ____________ __ Aug. 3,
Sonneville __________ __ Aug. 30,
1944
1944
1948
1949
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