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Патент USA US3019506

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Feb. 6, 1962
3,019,496
H. c. BIGGE
VACUUM CASTING APPARATUS
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed Oct. 27. 1958
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INVENTOI
Henry C. B/yye
BY
Feb. 6, 1962
H. c. BIGGE
3,019,496
VACUUM CASTING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 27, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR
Henry C. B/Iyye
BY WW
ATTORNEY
Feb 6, 1962
H. c. BlGGE
3,019,496
VACUUM CASTING APPARATUS
Filed Oct. 27, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
F514
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INVENTOR
Hen/"y C 5/996’
BY
ATTORNEY
United States atent O
1
3,019,496
Henry C. Bigge, Bethlehem, Pa., assignor to Bethlehem
3,019,496
Patented Feb. 6, 1962
2
the vacuum tank dome 4 is a smaller pony ladle 2. There
is a vacuum-tight gasket seal 3 between ladle 2 and the
vacuum tank dome 4. Stopper rods 5 control the ?ow
of metal out of the ladies 1 and 2. The nozzle 6 of
Steel Company, a corporation of Pennsylvania
ladle 2 is directly over an aluminum rupture disc 7, this
Filed Oct. 27, 1958, Ser. No. 769,624
seal obviously being necessary in order to obtain the vac
11 Claims. (Cl. 22—73)
uum in the tank prior to pouring. The vacuum cham
This invention relates to a vacuum degassing apparatus
ber proper consists of two steel sections, a stationary
for molten metals. It relates particularly to apparatus
straight sided bottom portion 8, and a removable cover
used to control molten metal ?owing into the vacuum 10 or dome 4. A gasket ring 9 is used to provide a vacuum
chamber.
seal between the dome 4 and the stationary section of
Several different types of units have been used to de
tank 8. The ingot mold 10 rests upon a stool 11 and a
gasify molten metal. One type of degassing unit similar
sinkhead 12 is placed on top of the ingot mold 10. In
to my unit is shown by De Mare in US. Patent No. 2,
stead of an ingot mold, another ladle could be placed in
253,421. Molten metal is transferred from a large fur 15 the vacuum chamber to hold the molten metal after it
nace ladle into a smaller pony ladle that is fastened to
has been degassed. Viewing ports 13 are placed to per
the top of an evacuated tank. The molten metal then
mit the operator to view the pouring operation and the
flows from the small pony ladle into another ladle or an
level of the metal in the mold. These ports 13 may also
ingot mold placed inside the evacuated tank. When the
be equipped with movie or television cameras. Vacuum
VACUUM CASTING APPARATUS
molten metal ?ows into the evacuated tank the vacuum 20 line 14 leads from the vacuum chamber to a battery of
tears the metal stream into a spray of small droplets. The
vacuum pumps.
spray effect is essential for degasi?cation of the metal
The pouring funnel assembly 15 will be: more fully
since the metal droplets then have a large surface area
understood by referring to FIGURE 2. A ceramic nozzle
exposed to the degasi?cation action of the vacuum.
6 is placed in the bottom of ladle 2. Nozzle 6 is held
At the high vacuums necessary for effective degasi?ca 25 in place by a steel ring 16 bolted to the bottom of ladle
tion the spray assumes such a wide angle conical shape
2. Another steel ring 17 fastens the spherical aluminum
during the drop into the ingot mold or ladle that fre
rupture disc 7 to steel ring 16. Directly under the rup
quently the metal droplets fall outside the ingot mold and
ture disc 7 is a round refractory funnel 18, whose opening
solidify on the inside of the vacuum tank or on the outside
of the ingot mold. The solidi?ed metal must then be chip
ped off the ingot mold and the tank before this apparatus
can be used again. The spraying of molten metal droplets
19 tapers downward. The refractory funnel 18 is placed
inside a ?anged steel retaining cylinder 20, the ?ange of
which is bolted to the vacuum tank dome 4. The steel
cylinder 20 may also be bolted to a separate lower steel
on the walls and top of the vacuum tank may also create
retaining cylinder 21 to permit easy replacement of the
unequal thermal stresses great enough to cause cracks
refractory funnel 18 after each pouring. A circular re
35 taining ring 22 that holds the refractory funnel 18 in place
in the vacuum tank.
The conical shape of the spray tends to build up a
is bolted to the retaining cylinder 21. A plurality of de
cone of solidi?ed metal around the ori?ce where the
pending rods or headed members 23 are fastened to the
molten metal flows into the vacuum tank. In pouring a
under surface of the retaining ring 22 and encircle the
large ingot the cone may reach a diameter of two‘ feet
lower ori?ce 24 of the refractory funnel 18.
40
and weigh several hundred pounds. Experience has
The funnel 18 controls and guides the molten metal
shown that often when the tank cover was removed at
?ow as it breaks up into droplets under the action of the
the conclusion of pouring, the cone would break off
vacuum.
and drop into the still molten ingot below. An ingot
The length and ori?ce diameters of the funnel 18 and
with an inclusion like this could not be used except
the distance of the lower ori?ce 24 above the sinkhead 12
45
for scrap.
will vary according to the size of ingot being poured and
It is therefore an object of my invention to provide ap
the pouring rate. The high vacuum will start to break
paratus that will retain the solidi?ed cone formed at the
up the metal stream as it flows through the funnel but
pouring ori?ce.
the tapered funnel con?nes and directs the stream so that
Another object of my invention is to provide apparatus
the conical spray formed is uniform and all the droplets
that will aid the formation of a cone around the pouring 50 fall inside the ingot mold.
ori?ce.
It is a further object of my invention to provide- ap
paratus for guiding the metal spray in such a manner that
the metal droplets will all fall inside the ingot mold placed
inside the vacuum chamber.
The foregoing objects and the means whereby they
are attained will be more fully understood from the fol
The depending members 23 become imbedded as the
cone 25 of solidi?ed metal builds up around the ori?ce
24 of the funnel 118 as shown in dotted lines in FIG. 1.
When the dome 4 is removed at the conclusion of the
pour the ?rmly imbedded members 23 hold the cone and
prevent it from dropping off into the ingot mold below.
I prefer to use four rod shaped members 23, as I ?nd this
lowing description and claims together with the drawings
number to be su?icient to hold the cone. However, any
in which
60 number of rods or similar shaped depending members,
FIGURE 1 is a schematic diagram of the apparatus
such as a headed member may be employed. Also, in
used to degasify the molten metal as it flows into an ingot
stead of rod like members other types of depending means
mold.
for supporting a cone could be employed, such as an
FIGURE 2 is a cross-section showing the pouring fun
open wire frame, wire mesh, sheet metal frame or the
nel assembly.
65 like. It is within the scope of my invention that since a
FIGURE 3 is a bottom View showing the placement of
metal mass would build up around any ori?ce where a
the cone retaining members.
molten metal ?ow enters a vacuum chamber, the de
FIGURE 4 is a cross-section showing a modi?cation
pending members could be used without the pouring fun
of my invention.
nel. This modi?cation is shown by FIGURE 4 in which
FIGURE 1 shows a vacuum degassing unit Where 1 is
70 the members 23 are secured to and depend from the un
the furnace ladle, the one into which the metal was tapped
derside of the vacuum chamber cover 4 and encircle the
from the furnace. Directly under ladle 1, and seated on
molten metal inlet in cover 4.
3,019,496
3
4
A speci?c embodiment of my invention used a funnel
20” long with its lower ori?ce 11" above the top of a
54" diameter sinkhead. Four 11/4” diameter rods 3"
long ?rmly held a 21" diameter cone weighing 150
6. Apparatus for retaining a metallic cone formed in
a vacuum chamber, said aparatus comprising a plurality
of elongated members secured to and depending from the
top of said vacuum chamber and encircling a molten
metal inlet in the top of said vacuum chamber, where-by
As many possible embodiments may be made of the
to retain a cone of solidi?ed metal formed during the
pouring of said molten metal into said vacuum chamber.
invention without departing from the scope thereof, it
7. Apparatus for retaining a metallic cone formed in
is to be understood that all matter set forth or shown in
the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illus
a vacuum chamber, said apparatus comprising a plurality
10 of elongated rod shaped members secured to and depend
trative and not in a limiting sense.
ing from the top of said vacuum chamber and encircling
I claim:
1. Apparatus for guiding molten metal into a vacuum
a molten metal inlet in the top ‘of said vacuum chamber,
whereby to retain a cone of solidi?ed metal formed dur
chamber, said apparatus comprising a refractory funnel
set into a metal retaining cylinder, said retaining cylinder
ing the pouring of said molten metal into said vacuum
being fastened to the top of said vacuum chamber and ex
chamber.
8. Apparatus for retaining a metallic cone formed
tending down into said vacuum chamber, a retaining ring
attached to said retaining cylinder and supporting said
in a vacuum chamber, said apparatus comprising a plu
pounds.
refractory funnel, and a plurality of depending metallic
rality of elongated headed members secured to and de
members fastened to said retaining ring, whereby to re
tain a cone of solidi?ed metal formed during pouring of
said molten metal into said vacuum chamber.
2. Apparatus for guiding molten metal into a vacuum
pending from the top of said vacuum chamber and en
circling a molten metal inlet in the top of said vacuum
chamber, whereby to retain a cone of solidi?ed metal
chamber, said apparatus comprising a refractory funnel
set into a metal retaining cylinder, said retaining cylinder
vacuum chamber.
being fastened to the top of said vacuum chamber and ex
tending down into said vacuum chamber, a retaining ring
attached to said retaining cylinder and supporting said
refractory funnel, and a plurality of elongated depending
members fastened to said retaining ring, whereby to re
formed during the pouring of said molten metal into said
'
9. Apparatus for guiding molten metal into a vacuum
chamber comprising a funnel mounted at the vtop of and
extending downwardly into said vacuum chamber, and a
plurality of depending metallic members secured ‘to the
bottom of said funnel, whereby to retain a cone of solidi
?ed metal formed during pouring of said molten metal
tain a cone of solidi?ed metal formed during pouring of 30 into said vacuum chamber.
10. Apparatus for guiding molten metal into a vacuum
said molten metal into said vacuum chamber.
chamber comprising a funnel mounted at the top of and
3. Apparatus for guiding molten metal into a vacuum
extending downwardly into said vacuum chamber, and a
chamber, said apparatus comprising a refractory funnel set
plurality of elongated downwardly directed members
into a metal retaining cylinder, said retaining cylinder
35
mounted circumferentially of the bottom of said‘ funnel,
being fastened to the top of said vacuum chamber and
whereby to retain a cone of solidi?ed metal formed dur
extending down into said vacuum chamber, a retaining
ring attached to said retaining cylinder and supporting
ing pouring of said molten metal into said vacuum cham
said refractory funnel, and a plurality of elongated rod
shaped depending members attached to said retaining
ber.
11. In apparatus for casting molten metal into a vac
ring, whereby to retain a cone of solidi?ed metal formed 40 uum, a vacuum chamber, means located within said cham
during pouring of said molten metal into said vacuum
ber to receive molten metal, a molten metal inlet in the
chamber.
'
cover of said chamber for pouring molten metal into
4. Apparatus for guiding molten metal into a vacuum
said chamber, and depending means secured to the under
side of said cover and located circumferentially of' said
chamber, said apparatus comprising a refractory funnel
set into a metal retaining cylinder, said retaining cylinder 45 molten metal inlet to retain a body of solidi?ed metal
which is formed during pouring of said molten metal.
being fastened to the top of said vacuum chamber and
extending down into said vacuum chamber, a retaining
ring attached to said retaining cylinder and supporting
said refractory funnel, and a plurality of elongated headed 50
depending members attached to said retaining ring,
whereby to retain a cone of solidi?ed metal formed dur
ing pouring of said molten metal into said vacuum
chamber.
5. Apparatus for retaining a metallic cone formed in a 55
vacuum chamber, said apparatus comprising a plurality
of members secured to and depending from the top of
said vacuum chamber and encircling a molten metal inlet
in thetop of said vacuum chamber, whereby to retain a
cone of solidi?ed metal formed during the pouring 'of said 60
molten metal into said vacuum chamber.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
917,257
1,298,036
1,323,583
1,417,269
2,087,824
2,734,241
Critchlow ____________ __ Apr. 6,
Gathmann ___________ __ Mar. 25,
Earnshaw ___________ __ Dec. 2,
MacMichael _________ __ May 23,
Tully ________________ __ July 20,
Southern ____________ __ Feb. 14,
1909.
1919
1919
1922
1937
‘1956
FOREIGN PATENTS
22,594
Great Britain _________ __ Oct. 17, 1902
866,231
Germany ___________ _V____ Feb. 9, 1953
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