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Патент USA US3019637

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Feb- 6: 1962
H. LINDNER ETAL
3,019,627
METHOD AND MACHINE FOR KNITTING FILE FABRICS
Filed Oct. 30, 1958
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Patented Feb. 6, 1952
2
ing threads is performed during the knitting operation,
3,019,627
METHUD AND MACHENE FGR KNITTING
hllill FABRECS
Hugo Lindner and Hellmuth liindner, Auerbach, Erzge
birge, Germany, assignors to VEEB Vereinigte Strumpf
werlre Esda, Auerhaeh, Erzgehirge, Germany
Filed Qct. 3t), 1958, Ser. No. 770,7;“2
Claims priority, application Germany Feb. 21, 1958
10 ?laims. (Cl. 66--91)
rather than subsequent thereto.
These and other objects, according to one aspect of the
invention, are achieved by a novel flat type knitting ma~
5 chine provided with dividing sinkers and measuring or
loop forming sinkers. The dividing sinkers carry a pile
forming thread in a suitably shaped, e.g. an L-shaped,
notch provided along the upper portion of each dividing
sinker. The measuring sinkers carry a foundation thread
10 in a kink-producing notch located forwardly therein and
This invention relates to a knitting machine and method
for the production of plush and cut-pile fabrics. More
lower than the level of the L-shapcd notches of the divid
ing sinkers. The relative movement of the different sink
speci?cally, it relates to a ?at knitting machine in which
ers and the downward en masse movement of the needles
the foundation or base threads are kinked in loops and the
causes the upwardly located pile-forming thread to slide
pile-forming threads rest on the upper side of the loop 15 off of the horizontal portion of the L-shaped notch of the
forming sinkers, and to a method of severing or tearing
dividing sinkers into forwardly located kink-producing
the pile threads during the knitting operation.
notches aligned with those of the measuring sinkers, so
that both the foundation thread and the pile-forming
thread rest in the kink-forming notches of the dividing
desirable to combine maximum efficiency of the machine
with maximum economy of material. In known ma 20 sinkers, but only the foundation thread rests in the kink
forming notches of the measuring sinkers. Simultane
chines for making plush knitted fabrics, it is customary
ously, an upwardly protruding edge, provided in the for
to form or kink the pile-forming threads into loops in sub—
in knitting machines for plush and cut-pile fabrics it is
stantially the same manner as the foundation threads.
ward part of a notch along the upper edge of the measur
Such machines customarily have loop-forming sinkers
ing sinkers, serves to catch and restrain the pile-forming
which are formed with throats or cut-out portions to retain 25 thread and to tear or sever it at the desired sinker loop
the pile threads. This presents a disadvantage in that re~
moval of the formed pile thread loops from these throats
becomes rather dif?cult, since these pile-forming loops of
thread or yarn must be lifted out of the throats while the
location, thus producing either a frayed end, if desired, or
a cut-end effect in the pile fabric.
The novel features which are considered as characteris
tic of the invention are set forth in particular in the ap
knitting needles are being moved downwardly into their 30 pended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to
its construction its method of operation, together with ad
knockover position, and it has consequently been found
almost impossible to avoid some undesirable damage to
ditional objects and advantages thereof, Will be best under
stood from the following description of speci?c embodi
the pile thread loops during this operation. Also, the
ments when read in connection with the accompanying
throats or cut-out portions of the sinkers which carry the
pile threads are usually offset relative to the throats or 35 drawings, in which:
so that upon actuation of the sinkers and relative move
FIG. 1 is a schematic perspective representation of the
loop-forming mechanism of a ?at knitting machine ac
ment thereof, loops are formed from the pile threads
cording to the invention during the knitting of the founda
cut-outs of the sinkers which carry the foundation threads,
which are longer than those formed from the base or
tion thread material;
FIG. 2 is a similar view with the mechanism in a dif
foundation threads. It has therefore been necessary for 40
the pile-thread carrying sinkers of these prior machines
ferent position, wherein the pile thread is resting loosely
to describe a longer path than the sinkers carrying the
base threads. Being a time-consuming operation, this
against the shanks of “the knitting needles; and
on the top of the loop forming sinkers and abutting
longer travel path of the pile-thread carrying sinkers nat
FIG. 3 is a similar View illustrating the position of the
urally results in a reduced ef?ciency and output of such 45 loop forming sinkers when the knitting needles are down
prior knitting machines.
in their knocking-off position and the pile threads have
been severed.
Furthermore, in prior method and devices for produc
In the drawings 1a loop-forming mechanism of a flat
ing plush or cut-pile fabrics it has been the practice to
knitting machine according to the invention is illustrated.
perform the cutting operation for severing the pile loops
subsequent to the knitting operation, usually by a separate 50 This loop-forming mechanism is provided with the usual
loop forming or measuring sinkers 1, and with dividing
cutting machine, either by the use of a ?at narrow wire
sinkers 2 located ‘between each of the loop forming sink~
ending in a knife blade which stands outside of the fabric
when the wire is inserted into the loops and severs the
pile loops as the wire is withdrawn, or by a series of
knives mounted on a revolving cylinder, the knives being
spaced so that they sever the threads of the pile loops as
they pass them. The additional operation and additional
equipment required for this purpose is time-consuming
and costly.
ers. The measuring or loop forming sinkers l, as well as
the dividing sinkers, each have a sinker notch 4A pro
vided at its forward edge.
The needles 7 have an en masse movement up and
down. The measuring sinkers 1 and the dividing sinkers
Z are horizontally mounted and slidably movable to and
from the needles 7, there being one of the measuring sink
It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a 60 ers 1 for every two needles, and one of the dividing
sinkers 2 for every two needles, alternately spaced be
knitting machine which is free from the above described
tween such needles. Yarn for forming the foundation
disadvantages and which produces plush or cut-pile fabrics
thread is fed through a thread guide (not shown) into
with maximum eiiiciency and output per unit time.
the sinker notch 4A of the measuring sinkers 1 to kink
It is another object of the invention to provide a knit
the foundation thread 3 between alternate needles, as
ting machine which is particularly Well suited for produc 65 shown in FIG. 1, by forward motion of the measuring
ing the type of plush or cut-pile fabrics wherein all or se
sinkers, measuring off a predetermined amount of yarn.
lected ones of the loops of the pile thread are severed or
A second thread of yarn is fed through another thread
broken.
guide (not shown) to form the pile thread 5. The thread
A still further object of the invention is to provide a
guide for the pile thread 5 lags somewhat behind the
novel method and device for knitting plush or pile fabrics
thread guide for the foundation thread 3, so as to per
wherein the operation of severing or tearing the pile-form
mit the pile thread 5 to rest or ?oat loosely and without
3,019,627
3
[is
unnecessary tension across the measuring sinkers 1, as
illustrated in FIG. 1.
measuring or loop-forming sinkers 1, and thus to sever
the pile thread 5 at other selected intervals.
After placing of the threads into position, the knitting
By rupturing or otherwise severing, tearing or cutting
operation begins. The dividing sinkers Z are moved from
their rearward position of FIG. 1 forward en masse, rob
bing the yarn they require from the excess yarn measured
the pile thread 5 at the locations such as illustrated in
FIG. 3, separate loops of the pile thread remain anchored
in the foundation fabric provided ‘by thread 3. With
off by the measuring sinkers l. The forward upper edges
every consecutive row of loops the knitting process is re
of each of the dividing sinkers 2 are provided with a
peated and thus, step by step, the plush or cut-pile fab
ric is produced.
One of the primary advantages of the present invention
suitably shaped, e.g. L-shaped notch or step 6A having
an approximately vertical edge 6. As best illustrated in
is the fact that the pile thread is deliberately severed or
FIG. 2, these vertical edges 6 are positioned on the di
viding sinkers 2 in such a manner that when the latter
are simultaneously brought forward the edges 6 will
loosely entrain the pile thread 5 and bring it forward to
a position where it abuts loosely against the shanks of
the row of needles '7. The needles 7 are then lowered into
ruptured during the knitting operation. After the sever
ing operation takes place, the pile thread is not sunk into
deeper loops, v‘but rather the loop-forming sinkers de
scribe only the same length of path for the pile thread
do those for the formation of the loops of the founda
tion thread, with a resulting economy in motion and in
time.
ment of the needles the loop-forming sinkers l and the
Although the above invention is described in connec
dividing sinkers 2 remain aligned in their relative posi
tions as indicated in FIG. 2. During the knocking-off 20 tion with flat type knitting machines, it is to be under
stood that each of the elements described above, or two
movement, the thread 5 becomes entrained within the
or more together, may also ?nd useful application in other
beards of the needles 7 and ‘both sets of sinkers provide
types of knitting machines and processes differing from
rigid resistances against the downward pull on the pile
the types speci?cally described by way of example, and
thread 5. As a result of such resistance, the pile-form
the knockingoif position, and during this lowering move
ing thread 5 becomes severed by pressure against the rear 25 it is therefore not intended that the invention be limited
edge 8B of projections 4. This severing of the pile thread
to the details shown, since various modi?cations and
will ordinarily be performed by edges 88 of projections
structural changes may obviously be made without de
4- on the loop-forming sinkers l, as shown in FIG. 3 for
the reason that the pile forming thread 5 can easily slip
parting from the'spirit and scope of the present inven
tion.
forwardly oif of the horizontal edges of the steps 6A, 30
whereas the loop-forming sinkers 1 are provided with
projections or catches 4 and with notched out portions 8
along their upper edges. These notches or cut-out por
invention and that it is intended to cover all changes and
tions 8, in combination with projections 4 prevent the
pile thread 5 from slipping forwardly off of the loop~
forming sinkers 1 when the threads are pulled down
wardly ‘by needles 7. The bases of the notched out por
tions 8 are horizontal and parallel to and at equal height
with the horizontal surfaces 6A.
Although these cut-out portions 8 are essential to the 40
operation of the knitting mechanism when the loop-form
ing sinkers and dividing sinkers are located at the same
level, they may be omitted when the upper edges of the
loop-forming sinkers are positioned in a plane lower than
that of the dividing sinkers, in which case the difference
in height must be equal to the height of the vertical edges
6 of the steps 6A, and in that case the level upper edge of
the sinkers 1 will perform the severing operation. Fur
It should be understood, therefore, that the foregoing
disclosure relates to only preferred embodiments of the
modi?cations of the examples of the invention herein
chosen for the purposes of the disclosure, which do not
constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the
invention as set forth in the appended claims.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as
new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the
United States is:
1. A method of manufacturing pile fabrics by knitting
on a ?at knitting machine, comprising the steps of form
ing successively spaced loops in a foundation thread ex
tending in one direction and resting on sinkers while
maintaining a pile-forming thread in a loosely resting un
kinked position parallel to and spaced from said founda
tion thread on other sinkers, maintaining between said
sinkers a plurality of spaced knitting needles having
shanks extending transverse to the direction of the threads
thermore, the notches 8, when used, should be of a suffi
moving said pile-forming thread forwardly to a position
cient length so that the pile thread 5 will in no way be 50 against the shanks of said spaced vertical knitting needles
disturbed by the upper edge of the loop-forming sinkers
and parallel to and above said foundation thread, mov
1 during the sinking of the loops of the foundation thread
ing said needles downward to entrain predetermined
spaced portions of the length of said pile-forming thread
3, and the rearward end 8A of notch 8 should be posi
and said foundation thread, and simultaneously resistantly
tioned accordingly.
It is, of course, possible to locate the rearward ends 3A 55 restraining said pile-forming thread at intermediate posi
tions between said predetermined spaced portions of said
of notches d back only far enough so that when both the
pile-forming thread against the downward pull of said
loop-forming sinkers and dividing sinkers are brought for
needles in an amount sufficient to rupture said pile-form~
ward simultaneously the pile thread 5 will vbe entrained
ing thread at each of said intermediate positions and to
by upwardly extending leg 6 on dividing sinker 2 as well
form successively spaced loops with the foundation thread.
as by upwardly extending rear leg 8A of notch 8 on
2. A flat knitting machine for producing a pile fabric
loop-forming sinker 1, and thus ‘both the loop-forming
by
knitting wherein a pile-forming thread is severed
sinkers and dividing sinkers will jointly bring forward the
pile thread 5 until that thread abuts against the shanks
of needles '7, in the thread position similar to that shown
in FIG. 2.
it is preferred to provide a sharpened edge along at
least the forward portion dB of notch 8 and in the zone
which forms the rigid resistance to the downward pull
exerted on the pile thread 5. These sharpened edges 8B
will thus act as cutting knives for severing the pile thread
5 at the apex of the pile loops.
during the knitting process, comprising a plurality of
horizontally mounted measuring sinkers, a plurality of
horizontally mounted dividing sinkers alternately located
between said measuring sinkers, a plurality of vertically
movable knitting needles, said measuring sinkers and di
viding sinkers being horizontally slidable towards and
away from said knitting needles, the forward upper por
70 tion of each of said dividing sinkers being provided with
pile-thread carrying means having a horizontal surface for
loosely carrying a pile-forming thread transversely posi
It is also possible, if desired, to provide similar sharp
edges located at selected intervals along the forward ends
for loosely entraining said pile-forming thread during
of the dividing sinkers 2 as well as or instead of those on
forward sliding motion of said dividing sinkers said meas
tioned across said dividing sinkers and having an edge
5
3,019,627
uring sinkers having at least one non-vertical severing
edge positioned along the upper edge of the sinker and in
the path of said pile forming thread when said pile form
ing thread is drawn down by said needle, said severing
edge being shaped to prevent knocking 0d of said pile
6
ing said threads at intermediate positions between said
spaced locations of said threads against the downward
pull of said needles in an amount su?ficient to break said
pile-forming thread at each of said intermediate positions
While forming successively spaced loops with the founda~
forming thread into loops.
tion thread.
3. A ?at knitting machine for producing a pile fabric
6. A ?at knitting machine according to claim 3, where
by knitting wherein a pile-forming thread is severed dur
in the rearward edge of said upwardly oriented projec
ing the knitting process, comprising a plurality of hori
tion located at the forward boundary of said notched
zontally mounted measuring sinkers, a plurality of hori 10 out portion is formed as a sharp knife edge for cutting
zontally mounted dividing sinkers alternately located be
and severing said pile-forming thread.
tween said measuring sinkers, a plurality of vertically mov
7. A method of manufacturing a plush material upon
able knitting needles, said measuring sinkers and divid
a ?at knitting machine having sinkers wherein the foun
ing sinkers being horizontally slidable towards and away
dation thread is successively formed into loops and the
from said knitting needles, the forward upper portion of 15 plush forming thread is laid upon the upper side of the
each of said dividing sinkers being provided with pile
sinkers comprising, loosely supporting the plush forming
thread carrying means having a horizontal surface for
material parallel to the foundation thread upon the sink
ers, maintaining a plurality of vertically reciprocable
loosely carrying a pile-forming thread transversely posi
tioned across said dividing sinkers and having an edge for
loop-forming needles having shafts between the sinkers,
moving the plush forming material by means of some
ward sliding motion of said dividing sinkers, said measur
of the sinkers against the shafts of the needles and draw
ing sinkers and said dividing sinkers being aligned with
ing portions of the thread downwardly against the re
their upper edges at equal height, the upper edges of said
straining force of the sinkers by descent of the needles
measuring sinkers being formed with an upwardly orient
into the knocking-0d position to break the pile—forming
ed projection and a notched out portion immediately rear 25 threads against the sinker edges.
ward of said projection, the base of said notched out por
8. A flat knitting machine comprising a plurality of
tion being horizontal and parallel to and at equal height
horizontally mounted measuring sinkers, a plurality of
with said horizontal surface of said pile-thread carrying
horizontally mounted dividing sinkers alternately located
means in said dividing sinkers.
between said measuring sinkers, a plurality of vertically
4. A ?at knitting machine for producing a pile fabric 30 moving needles, said measuring sinkers and dividing sink
by knitting wherein a pile-forming thread is severed dur
ers being horizontally slidable toward and away from said
ing the knitting process, comprising a plurality of hori
knitting needles, the forward upper portion of each of said
zontally mounted measuring sinkers, a plurality of hori
dividing sinkers being provided with a pile-thread carry
zontally mounted dividing sinkers alternately located be
ing means having a horizontal surface for loosely carry
loosely entraining said pile-forming thread during for
tween said measuring sinkers, a plurality of vertically
ing a pile-forming thread transversely positioned across
movable knitting needles each having a beard adapted to
said dividing sinkers and having an edge transverse to the
draw down the pile forming thread, said measuring sink
horizontal surface for loosely entraining said pile-forming
ers and dividing sinkers being horizontally slidable to
thread during forward sliding motion of said dividing
wards and away from said knitting needles, the forward
sinkers against said needles, said needles including beards
upper portion of each of said dividing sinkers being pro 40 for downwardly drawing the threads to rupture the pile
vided with pile-thread carrying means having a hori
forming threads at the horizontal surfaces of the measur
zontal surface for loosely carrying a pile-forming thread
ing sinkers and to successively loop the threads with said
transversely positioned across said dividing sinkers and
needles.
having an edge for loosely entraining said pile-forming 45
9. A flat knitting machine'for producing a pile fabric
thread during forward sliding motion of said dividing
by knitting wherein a pile~forming thread is ruptured
sinkers, said measuring sinkers having an upwardly facing
during the knitting process, comprising a plurality of hori
severing edge extending angularly downward away from
zontally mounted measuring sinkers, a plurality of hori
said needles, and positioned on the upper edge of said
zontally mounted dividing sinkers alternately located be
measuring sinkers in the path of said pile-forming thread 50 tween said measuring sinkers, a plurality of vertically mov
when said pile-forming thread is drawn down by the
able knitting needles, said measuring sinkers and divid
beards of the needles.
ing sinkers being horizontally slidable toward and away
5. A method of manufacturing pile fabrics by knitting
from said knitting needles, the upper edge of each of said
on a ?at knitting machine, comprising the steps of form
measuring sinkers being formed with an upwardly oriented
ing successively spaced loops in a foundation thread trans 55 projection and a notched out portion for carrying a pile
verse to a plurality of spaced parallel bearded needles, said
forming thread immediately rearward of said projection,
forming of loops being accomplished by movement of the
said measuring sinkers being adapted to carry a foundation
loop portions of said foundation thread past the shanks
thread forward of said upwardly oriented projection and
of said needles while restraining transverse movement of
move portions of the foundation thread against the needles
the foundation thread by abutment of said foundation
and portions of the foundation thread beyond the needles,
thread against said needles, maintaining a pile-forming
said needles having beards for drawing said threads down
thread in a loosely resting un-kinked position parallel to
wardly to rupture said pile-forming threads against said
and spaced from said foundation thread, supporting said
projections and to loop said threads into a pile-forming
pile-forming thread with sinkers at spaced locations along
thread.
the thread and supporting said foundation thread with the 65
10. A ?at knitting machine according to claim 4, where
in said projections include a knife edge.
sinkers at spaced locations along the thread, moving said
pile-forming thread forwardly to a position against the
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
shanks of spaced knitting needles and parallel to and
closer to the beards of the needles than said foundation
UNITED STATES PATENTS
thread, moving said needles axially to entrain predeter 70 1,441,110
O’Lena ______________ __ Jan. ‘2, 1923
mined spaced portions of the length of both of said threads
1,545,845
O’Lena ______________ __ July 14, 1925
with the beards, and simultaneously resistantly restrain
2,345,064
Nobel ______________ _.. Mar. 28, 1944
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