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Патент USA US3019745

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Feb. 6, 1962
J. D. MOELLER ET AL
3,019,735
GAS DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP
Original Filed May 9, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTORS
Jomv D MOELLER
BY
‘2.653411%
THEIR ATTORNEY
Feb. 6, 1962
J. D. MOELLER ETAL
3,019,735
GAS DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP
Original Filed May 9, 1958
108
m‘ 170 I68
.
/
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
11:
110
l
Z
INVENTORS
JOHN D. Mosum
BY
7'50 R. SCARFF
3). C. 541:?
THEIR ATTORNEY
Feb. 6, 1962
J, D, MoELL-ER ETAL
3,019,735
GAS DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP
Original Filed May 9, 1958
3 Sheets-Sheet 5
//0
"'
"'
.
JOHN D.
BY
71?‘ 5
M
OELLER
750 A’. ScARFF
2. c y
THEIR ATTORNEY
I
3,019,?35
ire States atent
Patented Feb. 6, 1962
it
2
tial admission system, a gas supply having a higher pres
3,019,735
sure can be utilized to obtain the same pressure in the
John D. Mueller, Dayton, and Ted R. Scartf, Troy, Ohio,
assigncrs to General Motors Corporation, Detroit,
hydraulic ?uid delivery conduit as in the full admission
system using a lower gas supply pressure.
GAS DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP
In a third embodiment, a second pair of motor and
pumping pistons are actuated in an opposite direction to
Mich, a corporation of Delaware
Original application May 9, 1958, Ser. No. 734,185, new
Patent No. 2,942,553, dated June 28, 1960. Divided
and this application Oct. 5, 1959, Ser. No. 847,859
4 Claims. (Cl. 103-49)
the ?rst set of motor and pumping pistons so as to bal
ance out the inertia effects of the reciprocating system.
In this instance, the combined outputs of the pumps are
10 connected in parallel, and movement of the second set
This invention relates’ to pumps, and particularly to
of motor and pumping pistons is controlled by the ?rst
gas driven hydraulic pumps. This application is a divi
set of motor and pumping pistons.
'
sion of Serial No. 734,185, ?led May 9, 1958, now Pat
Further objects and advantages of the present inven
out No. 2,942,553.
tion will be apparent from the following description,
At the present time there is a demand for ef?cient, 15 reference being had to the accompanying drawings,
high pressure pumping ‘systems for use in missiles. The
wherein preferred embodiments of the present invention
present invention relates to a reciprocating pump system
are clearly shown, and wherein similar numerals repre
actuated by gaseous ?uid- medium for producing a source
of hydraulic fluid under high pressure which is reliable,
of minimum weight and is highly e?icient. Accordingly, 20
among our objects ‘are the provision of a reciprocating
type gas driven hydraulic pump; the further provision of - 1
an inertia balanced reciprocating gas drivenihydraulic
pump; and the‘still further provision of "a partial admis
sion reciprocating gas driven hydraulic pump.
sent similar parts throughout the several views. '
In the drawings:
'
'
FIGURE 1 is a schematic view‘ of a'gas actuated re
ciprocating ‘pump constructed according to‘ one- embodi
ment of this invention.
1
'
v
I
-
FIGURE 2 is a schematic ‘view similar to FIGURE 1
-
25
The aforementioned and other objects are accomplishe
‘illustrating the partial admission gas actuated hydraulic
pumping system.
i p
’
FIGURE 3 is a schematic view illustrating the inertia
in the present invention'by employing opposed reciprocat
‘balance gas actuated pumping system.
ing piston assemblies which are interconnected for move
v
With particular reference to FIGURE 1, the pump
ment in the same directions, and valve means controlled
~mechanism comprises a pair of opposed cylinders 10 and
by the pistons for controlling the admission of gas to 30 26 of stepped diameter. The cylinders 19 and 20 contain
opposite cylinders so as to maintain the pistons in a state
piston assemblies 12 and 22, respectively. The piston 12
of continuous reciprocation. Speci?cally, in all of the
has head portions '14 and 16 which are received in the
embodiments disclosed herein the motor‘ and pumping
stepped diameter bore of the cylinder 10-, and the piston
pistons are formed as an integral assembly, and the diam
22 has head portions 24 and 26 received in the stepped
eter of the motor pistons is twice the diameter of the
diameter bore of cylinder 20. The piston assemblies 12
pumping pistons. Each motor and pumping piston as
and 22 divide-their respective cylinders into motor cham
sembly is mounted for reciprocation in a cylinder having
bers 18 and 2S and pumping chambers 19 and 29, ‘respec
a stepped bore, and the combined motor and piston as
tively. Moreover, in the disclosed embodiments, the di
semblies are interconnected by a plurality of rods so as
ameter of the piston head portions 14 and 24 is twice the
to move simultaneously in the same direction. One of
diameter of the piston head portions 16‘ and 26 whereby
the interconnecting rods has a saddle, or valve actuator,
the pressure in the pumpingchambers 19 and 29 will be
thereon for actuating one or the other of a pair of pilot
valves adjacent the stroke ends of the two motor and
pumping piston assemblies.
four times the pressurse in the motor chambers 18 and
28, respectively.
7
7
The pumping chamber 19 is connected by a passage 30
Gas from any suitable source, such as a solid fuel 45 to a one~way inlet check valve 32. The pumping cham
propellant tank, is supplied to a servo actuated reversing
ber 29 is connected by a passage 34 with a one-way
valve. The supply gas pressure is controlled by a relief
inlet check valve 36. The inlet sides of the check valves
valve so as to maintain it within predetermined limits,
32 and 36 communicate with a conduit 38 which is con
nected to a suitable reservoir of hydraulic ?uid, not
i.e., between 700 and 800 psi. The reversing valve con
trols the admission and exhaust of gas to the motor 50 shown. The pumping chambers 19 and 29 are connected
chambers, and the position of the reversing valve is con
trolled by the mechanically and‘ servo actuated pilot
valves.
,
to passages 40 and 42, respectively, which connect with
one-way outlet check valves 44 and 46. The outlet sides
r
of the check valves 44 and 46 are connected to a conduit
The pumping chambers are connected by passages
48 which constitutes a delivery conduit ofhydraulic fluid
The pressure of the hy
draulic ?uid in the conduit 48 is determined by a pressure
regulator valve 50 whichris operable to maintain a sub
stantially constant pressure of hydraulic ?uid at the out
' through suitable one-way inlet check valves to a reservoir 55 to be supplied to the system.
of hydraulic fluid, and likewise connected by passages
through one-way outlet check valves to a delivery con~
duit. The hydraulic pressure in the delivery conduit may
be controlled by any suitable pressure regulating valve.
In the full admission embodiment, the hydraulic ?uid will 60
be discharged at a pressure directly proportional to the
ratio between the areas of the pumping and motor pis
tons, and thus with a supply gas pressure between 700
' and 800 p,s.i., the delivery pressure of the pumps will be
between 2800 and 3200 psi.
In the partial admission hydraulic pumping system, an
I
The motor piston heads 14 and 24 are interconnected
by a plurality of circumferentially spaced rods 52 so that
the pistons move simultaneously in the same direction.
The rods 52 are attached to the piston heads and extend
65 through passages 54 and 56 so that the back sides of the
additional servo actuated shuttle valve is incorporated in ,
the system, which shuttle valve is actuated by a predeter
let thereof.
motor. piston heads 14 and 24 are connected to exhaust
chamber 58 at all times. In addition, one of the rods 52
has attached thereto a valve actuator 60 comprising a
a T-shaped member for mechanically operating a pair of
mined movement of the motor pistons so as to interrupt
the supply of gas under pressure to the motor chamber 70 reciprocating pilot valves 52 and 64. The pilot valves
and thereafter allow the gas in the motor chamber to ex
62 and 64 are supported for reciprocable movement in
pand. thereby reducing the pressure thereof. In the par
valve guides 66. and 68, respectively, having shoulders
5,019,735
3
67 and 69 which limit inward movement of the pilot
valves.
The pivot valve 62 has three axially spaced lauds 70,
72 and 74 and ‘an actuating rod end portion “78. Y The
pilot valve 64 likewise has three axially spaced lands
80, 82 and 184 and an axially extending rod portion 38.
The rod 36 of the pilot valve 64 can be engaged by end
4
area of the piston head 14 is four times the area of the
piston head 16, the hydraulic ?uid will be delivered at
a pressure of substantially 3000 p.s.i. With the re
versing valve 94 in the position of FIGURE 1, the
motor chamber 28 is connected to exhaust through pas
sage 110, ports 106 and 122 and the passage 125. During
movements of the piston assembly 22 to the right, the
pumping chamber 29 will be expanded and thereby draw
63 of the valve actuator 60 adjacent the stroke end of
hydraulic ?uid from inlet conduit 38 through check
the piston 12. The rod 78 of ‘the pilot valve 62 can
be engaged by end 61 of the actuator 60 adjacent the 10 valve 36 and passage 34 into the pumping chamber 29.
During the power stroke of the piston assembly 12
.strokeend of the piston 22.
to the right, the end 63 of the valve actuator 60 will
Gas from any suitable source for actuating the motor
engagethe end 88 of the pilot valve 64 as shown in
pistons is supplied through conduit 90, the pressure of
FIGURE '1. During continued movement of the piston
the gas being controlled by a relief valve 92, the outlet
side of which is connected to an exhaust conduit 93. The 15 assembly 12 to the right, the pilot valve 64 will be moved
conduit 90 connects with an inlet port ‘96 of a reversing
servo actuated valve 94. The servo actuated reversing
valve 94 is reciprocable in a valve guide 96 and has three
axially spaced lands 98, 100 and 102. The end portions
99 and 103 of the lands 98 ‘and 102 constitute piston sur
faces for effecting movement of the reversing valve 94
between its limit positions. The valve guide 96 is also
formed with control ports 104 and 106 which communi
cate at all times with the annular grooves between lands
to the right so that at the stroke end of the piston as
sembly 12 the ports 118 and 130 will be intercon
nected by the annular groove between lands 32 and
34. Movement of the pilot valve 64 to a position
wherein ports 11% and 136 are interconnected will di~
rect incoming gas under pressure from passage 114
through ports 118 and 130 to passage 134. This gas
will flow through passage 138 and act on the end surface
103 of the reversing valve to move the reversing valve
98 and 100, and lands 100 and 102, respectively. The 25 .94 to the left so as to interconnect ports Y95 and 106 and
port ‘104 is connected to a passage 108 which communi
cates with the motor chamber 18. The control port
106 is connected to a conduit 110 that connects with
the motor chamber ‘28.
connect port 104 to the exhaust port 120. At. the same
time, gas under pressure will act through passages 134
and 138 on the end face of land 70 of the pilot valve
conduit'90, and terminate in ports 116 and 118, respec
valve 62 will be moved to a position wherein ports
62 so as to move the pilot valve 62 to the right as viewed
Branch passages 112 and 114 communicate with the 30 in FIGURE 1 until land 74 engages ‘holder 67. The pilot
tively, of the pilot valves 62 and 64. The reversing valve
94 also includes exhaust ports 1,20 and 122 which con
nect with an exhaust passage 125. The exhaust gas pas
sage 125 communicates at all times with the chamber 53
as well as with ports 124 and 126 of the pilot valves 62
and 64, respectively. The pilot valves 62 and 64 also
include ports 128 and 130 respectively, which are con
nected to passages 132 and 134, respectively.
The passage 132 connects with a passage 136.
When the reversing valve 94 has moved to the left,
gas under pressure will be supplied through ports 95
and 106 to the passage 110 to the motor chamber 28,
and at the same time the motor chamber 18 will be
One 40 connected to exhaust through passage 108 and ports 104
(end of passage 136 connects with the left-hand end of the
valve guide 96, and the other end of the passage 136
connects with the right-hand end of the valve guide 68.
The passage 13-4 connects with a passage 138.
128 and 124 are interconnected and port 116 is blocked
by land 72. ‘In this manner, the left-hand end of the
valve guide 96 will be connected to exhaust through
passages 136 and 132 and ports 128 and 124.
One end
of the passage 138 connects with the right-hand end of
the valve guide 96, and the other end of the passage 138
connects with the left-hand end of the valve guide 66.
Accordingly, when the left-hand end of the valve guide
96 is subjected to pressure so as to move the reversing
valve 94 to the position shown in FIGURE 1, the right
vhand end of the valve guide 68 will be subjected to the
same pressure so as to move the. pilot valve 64 to the
position shown in FIGURE 1 wherein land 84 engages
shoulder 69. At this time, the passage 138 is connected
toexhaust through ports 130 and 126.
and 120. Accordingly, the piston units 22 and 12 will
move to the left thereby completing the delivery stroke
of the pumping piston 26; and effecting the intake stroke
of the pumping piston 16. The pistons 12 and 22 will
be maintained in a state of continuous reciprocation as
long as gas under pressure is supplied to the inlet con
duit 90 and hydraulic ?uid pumped by the pumping
pistons 16 and 26 is used by the system connected with
the delivery conduit ‘98. If the hydraulic system con
nected to the conduit '48 does not require any ?ow,
movement of the pistons willcontinue at a rate su?icient
to maintain the system pressure. The pressure regu
lating valve 50 will maintain a pressure of substantially
3000 p.s.i. in the system and dump the excess pump
55 ?ow to drain.
'
With particular reference to FIGURE 2, a modi?ed
gas driven hydraulic pump is disclosed for use in systems
is as follows. With gas under a pressure of between 700
wherein the gas supply is under a higher pressure, for
and 800 p.s.i. being supplied to inlet conduit 90, this
instance 1000 p.s.i. The system disclosed in FIGURE
gas. will .flow through the supply port 95 of the reversing
valve 94. The relief valve 92 may be calibrated to 60 2 is of the partial admission type, and thus the motor
chambers 18 and 28 are formed with ports 140 and 142,
open at 750 p.s.i. so that when the pressure of the
respectively, which connect with passages 144 and 146.
incoming gas exceeds 750 p.s.i., the relief valve 92 will
The passage 144 connects with an auxiliary port 148 of the
.open and by-pass a portion thereof to the exhaust con
reversing valve 94 as well as with a port 150 of a spring
duit 93. With the reversing valve 94 in the position
of FIGURE 1, the gas under pressure will ?ow through 65 centered shuttle valve 152. .The passage 146 connects
with an auxiliary port 154 and the reversing valve 94 and
supply port 95 to control port 104 and thence througt
a port 156 of the shuttle valve 152. The shuttle valve
passage 108 to the motor chamber 18. The piston
152 is formed with an axially spaced lands 158, 160 and
assembly 12 will move to the right as viewed in FIGURE 162 as well as oppositely extending rod portions 164 and
1 thereby effecting movement of the piston assembly
22 to the right through the rods 52. Hydraulic ?uid 70 16:6. The rod portion 164 is engageable with an abut
ment 168 which is biased to the right as viewed in FIG
which is previously drawn into the pumping chamber
Operation of the pump system disclosed in FIGURE 1
19 through inlet check valve 32 will be delivered through
URE 2, by a coil spring 170. The rod portion 166 is
engageable. with an abutment 172 which is biased to the
left, as viewed in FIGURE 2, by a spring 173. The
fi'ng gas remains substantially constant, and since the 75 springs 170 and '173 are disposed in chambers 174 and
vthe passage 40 and the outlet check valve 44 to the
delivery conduit 48. Since the pressure of the actuat
3,019,735
6
176 respectively, which are connected to the exhaust conduit 125. ..
The ports 140 and 142 in the motor chambers 18 and
28 are located so that they will be opened by their re
spective motor pistons 14 and 24 when the power pistons
have completed approximately 80% of their power stroke
movement. Accordingly,"if gas is supplied through con
duit 90 at 1000 p.s.i. to the motor chamber 18, upon open
ing'of the port 140 gas will be supplied to passage 144
While the embodiments of the invention as herein dis
closed. constitute preferred forms, it is to be understood
that other forms might be adopted.
What is claimed is as follows:
1. A gas driven hydraulic pump including, a ?rst pair
of opposed cylinders, a ?rst pair of pistons disposed with
in said ?rst pair of cylinders and interconnected for simul
taneous movement in the same direction, a second pair of
opposed cylinders, 1a second pair of "pistons disposed with
and will act on the end surface of land 158 to move 10 in said second pair of cylinders and interconnected for
the shuttle valve 152 to the position of FIGURE 2. This
simultaneous movement in the same direction, each piston
movement of the shuttle valve 152 will block the passage
dividing its respective cylinder into a motor chamber and
108 thereby cutting 011 further admission of the gas to
a pumping chamber, passage means interconnecting op~
the motor chamber 18. The gas in motor chamber 18
posed motor chambers of said pairs of cylinders whereby
will now expand to complete the stroke of the power
the ?rst ‘and second pair of pistons will move simultaneous
piston 14 so that at the end of its power stroke the pres
ly in opposite directions, and piston actuated reversing
sure in chamber 18 may be on the order of 800 p.s.i. At
valve means operatively connected to said passage means
the end of the stroke of the motor piston 14, the valve
for controlling the alternate admission and exhaust of gas
actuator '60 will move the pilot valve 64 to a position
under pressure to the opposed motor chambers of said
wherein ports 118 and 130 are interconnected to thereby 20 pairs of cylinders.
effect movement of the reversing valve 94 to the left so
2. A gas driven hydraulic pump including, a ?rst pair
that gas under pressure will be supplied to the motor
of opposed cylinders, a ?rst pair of pistons disposed with
chamber 28 while the motor chamber 18 is connected to
in said ?rst pair of cylinders and interconnected for simul
exhaust. This movement of the reversing valve will also
taneous movement in the same direction, a second pair of
connect port 150 to exhaust through port 148. The motor 25 opposed cylinders, a second pair of pistons disposed with
piston 24 will then effect the delivery stroke of the pump
in said second pair of cylinders and interconnected for
ing piston 26 and the intake stroke of the pumping piston
simultaneous movement in the same direction, each piston
16. When the port 142 is uncovered, gas will be supplied
dividing its respective cylinder into a motor chamber and
through passage 146 and port 156 to act on the end of
a pumping chamber, passage means interconnecting op
land 162. In this manner the shuttle valve 152 will be 30 posed motor chambers of said pairs of cylinders whereby
moved to the left so that land 162 will block the passage
the ?rst and second pair of pistons will move simultaneous
110 whereupon the gas in motor chamber 28 will expand
thereby automatically reducing the pressure in the motor
ly in opposite directions, a servo actuated reversing valve
operatively connected to said passage means for control
chamber 28.
ling the alternate admission and exhaust of gas under pres
With reference to FIGURE 3, a modi?ed gas driven 35 sure to the opposed motor chambers of said pairs of cyl~
inders, and a pair of piston actuated pilot valves operative
ly connected with said reversing valve for controlling the
servo actuation thereof, said pilot valves being actuated
result, the system includes a second set of motor and
by one of said pairs of pistons adjacent the stroke ends
pumping piston assemblies which move in a direction op
posite to that of the ?rst set of motor and pumping piston 40 thereof.
3. A gas driven hydraulic pump including, a ?rst pair
assemblies. Thus, the pump includes a second set of op
of opposed cylinders, a ?rst pair of pistons disposed within
posed stepped diameter cylinders 10' and 20' having piston
said ?rst pair of cylinders and interconnected for simul
assemblies 12' and 22’ disposed for reciprocable move
ment therein. The piston assemblies include motor pistons
taneous movement in the same direction, a second pair
14’ and 24’ and pumping pistons 16’ and 26', which divide 45 of opposed cylinders, a second pair of pistons disposed
their respective cylinders into motor chambers 18’ and
within said second pair of cylinders and interconnected
29’ and pumping chambers 19’ and 29’. The motor
for simultaneous movement in the same direction, each
pistons 14' and 14' are interconnected by a plurality of
piston dividing its respective cylinder into a motor cham
hydraulic pump is shown wherein the inertia effects of the
reciprocating pistons are neutralized. To accomplish this
rods 52’ so as to move simultaneously in the same di
50 ber and a pumping chamber, inlet and outlet check valves
rection.
communicating with each pumping chamber, passage
The pumping chamber 19' is connected by passages 30'
means interconnecting opposed motor chambers of said
and 46' to the inlet and outlet check valves 36 and 46,
pairs of cylinders whereby the ?rst and second pair of
respectively. The pumping chamber 29' is connected by
pistons will move simultaneously in opposite directions,
passages 34’ and 42' to inlet and outlet check valves 32 55 reversing valve means operatively connected to said pas
and 44. The motor chamber 18' is connected to the pas
sage means for controlling the alternate admission and
sage 110 and the motor chamber 28' is connected to the
exhaust of gas under pressure to the opposed motor cham
passage 108. The pilot valves and reversing valves are
bers of said pairs of cylinders, and means operable to ac
yam‘
controlled by the piston assemblies 12 and 22, as in the
utate said reversing valve means adjacent the stroke ends
?rst embodiment, the arrangement being such that when 60 of said ?rst pair of pistons.
gas under pressure is supplied to the motor chamber 18
4. A gas driven hydraulic pump including, a ?rst pair
so as to e?ect movement of the pistons 12 and 22 to the
of opposed cylinders of stepped diameter, a ?rst pair of
right, gas will be supplied to the motor chamber 28' so
pistons having head portions of different diameters
as to effect movement of the pistons 12’ and 22’ to the
mounted for reciprocation within said ?rst pair of cylin
left. Conversely, when the pistons 12 and 22 are moved 65 ders, means interconnecting said ?rst pair of pistons for
to the left, the pistons 12’ and 22’ are moved to the right
so as to neutralize the reciprocating inertia effects of the
simultaneous movement in the same direction, a second
pair of cylinders of stepped diameter, a second pair of
pistons having head portions of different diameter
FIGURE 3 is believed to be readily apparent since the
mounted for reciprocation within said second pair of
70
control valves are identical to those described in connec
cylinders, means interconnecting said second pair of pis
tion with FIGURE 1. The pumping system of FIGURE
tons for simultaneous movement in the same direction,
3 will, of course, supply hydraulic fluid under pressure in
each piston dividing its respective cylinder into a motor
volumes substantially twice that of the system depicted in
chamber and a pumping chamber, passage means inter
FIGURE 1.
75 connecting opposed motor chambers of said pairs of cylin
piston assemblies. Operation of the system disclosed in
aoravss
7
ders whereby said ?rst and second pairs of pistons will
move in opposite directions, a servo actuated reversing
valve operatively connected to said passage means for con
trolling the alternate admission and exhaust of gas under
pressure to the opposed motor chambers of said pairs of
cylinders, a ‘pair of pilot valves operatively connected
with said reversing valve for controlling the position of
said reversing valve, and a valve actuator constrained for
movement with said ?rst pair of pistons and engageable
8
with said pilot valves for actuating said pilot valves adja-v
cent the stroke ends of said ?rst pair of pistons.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
‘2,239,727
2,296,647
2,799,444
Mayer ______________ __ Apr. 29, 1941
McCormick ___________ __ Sept. 22, 1942
Schemmel _____________ __ 'July 16, 1957
"we“we4A
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