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Патент USA US3020654

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Feb. 13, 1962
P. GRAHAM
3,020,640
GRAPHIC MACHINE
Filed Oct. 14, 1958
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Feb. 13, 1962
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Feb. 13; 1962
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Filed Oct. 14, 1958
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Feb. 13, 1962
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United States Patent 0 rice
1
3,020,040
Patented Feb. 13, 1962
2
work with the graphic machine embodying the present
invention. Trainees, frail operators, and physically han~
3,020,640
Phillip Graham, 2825 Glenmore Ave., Pittsburgh 16, Pa.
GRAPHIC MACHINE
dicapped operators could use the graphic machines to
draw faster and more accurately with little eifort, than
Filed Oct. 14, 1958, Ser. No. 767,157
could non-handicapped workers ‘with common drafting’
44 Claims. (Cl. 33-23)
equipment.
‘This invention relates to a graphic machine or mecha
Since our military defense and our economical security
nism for drawing or laying out sketches on paper or
are based on the use of the most modern machines, rather
other surfaces accurately and at a rapid rate or for guid
than mass manpower, there is an urgent need for a*_
mg the movements of tools on such surfaces, and is a 10 graphic machine which will enable quick designing of
continuation-in-part of my copending applications: Serial
new machines and other equipment to keep us ahead of
No. 221,005, ?led April 14, l951,'entitled Graphic Ma
the technical advancements of other countries, also to in
chine, which has been abandoned (Application Serial No.
crease industrial productive capacity so that design costs
221,005 is a divisional application of Patent No.
can be reduced considerably and monetary in?ation
2,701,417); Serial No. 364,674, ?led June 29, 1953, en 15 avoided.
I
titled Graphic Machine, now Patent No. 2,882,604, and
An object of the present invention is to provide a novel
Serial No. 485,915, ?led February 3, 1955, entitled
graphic machine for engineering drawing work and? the
Graphic Machine, which has been abandoned. More
like, involving automatic features that allow the operator
particularly, it relates to a ?exible graphic machine with
to rapidly and accurately scale and draw sketches with
a simple main control, which allows an engineering drafts 20 suitable selective types of lines, particularly straight lines
man, and the like, to speedily and accurately draw tech~v
at right angles to each other, on drawing paper and other
nical sketches or layouts with substantially natural free
surfaces on which layouts are to be made, the automatic
hand drawing movements. The control movements in
features being responsive to substantially free-hand, nor
general are re?ex actions of the draftsman, as typing ac
mal drawing movements, that may include manual propule
tions are re?ex actions of a typist, otherwise the machine 25 sion of a marker along its path. Furthermore, the auto
is ,largely automatic in operation, since it embodies a
vmatic features include control means that are pivoted for‘
marker or tool which may be used continuously together
with an automatic mechanism’for making it possible to
accurately and rapidly draw and measure straight lines
of any desired width at right angles to each other without
preselecting the direction of movement of the marker
the use of a T-square or the like.
when there is power drive, to draw a line in one direction
or in an opposite direction, also lines in either direction
along a path at ninety degrees ‘to the ?rst lines‘.
A still further object of my invention is to provide a
A graphic machine involving the principles of the pres
ent invention may also be used for structural fabricating
of parts, is nevertheless, exceedingly simple in operation
layout work, wherein layout markings are made on sheet
material and the like, such as sheet metal, plastic, wood,
glass, or wherein marking is eliminated by'having the
graphic machine guide the working tool accurately and
rapidly as in pantographs with cutting torches.
Engineering drafting techniques and techniques in simi
30
graphic machine which, though made up of a plurality
and may be readily operated by semi-skilled labor, frail‘,
or physically handicapped persons, such as one-armed
persons.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a ' _
novel graphic machine involving automatic features, in? '
eluding a marker that may be used continuously and
lar graphic ?elds have been essentially manual arts that
require considerable skill in combination with a technical
knowledge. The drafting instruments in general use to
which is pivotable for obtaining different line widths, the
marking means and other features greatly speedingup'the
process of making sketching lines, particularly straight
day do not have the means to allow adequate speed in
lines, on paper and other surfaces on which a drawing is
the development of complicated new project ideas. Such
to be made, and thus speeding up production of manu
instruments limit the speed and accuracy of the drawing. 45 factured articles, thereby overcomingthe disadvantages
efforts of the engineering draftsmen, template makers,
of slowness of common drafting techniques.
. '
and the like. Generally, the design and detail drawings
A still further object of the invention is to‘ provide a
cannot be drawn as fast as production machinery can be
graphic machine having duplicate, quadruplicate or other,
set up to build a complicated project, thus in times of ' multiples of markers, which may be used in cases where
emergency, such as war-like times, production machinery 50 multiple layout portions are to be drawn simultaneously?
lies idle because of bottlenecks in engineering-drawing
with a single control by the operator, which is useful in‘
work. Usually the bottleneck cannot be eliminated with
making duplicate layouts or partially duplicate layouts,
an oversize force of men, since such a force is unwieldly
also symmetrical layouts or partially symmetrical layouts.
and inefficient. A greatly overstalfed force is likelyv to
Furthermore, this feature allows the operator to follow a
materially slow up the project since so much more time
right hand detail reference sketch using control move
would be spent on coordinating the work and collaborat~
ments as for drawing a right hand object while the ma
ing the work. Such an overstaifed force greatly increases
chine setting causes the marking means to lay out‘v a left
the cost of a project.
hand object. This feature is not only useful in making
Most of the. so-called'engineering work that is done in
sketches of I-beams, columns, and the like, but in drawing
drawing rooms is design drafting and detail drafting.
layout lines on the same or opposite surfaces of sheet
Drafting is in general the only practical medium by which
an engineer can convey his conception of a project. In
many ?elds of engineering-drawing work, the highly in_
telligent and experienced engineers and draftsmen can
swiftly visualize the answers tov technical problems con
fronting them,.but conventional drafting equipment limits
the amount of sketching that they can do during a given
period.
Such key technical men can often think up an
swers at a rate that is ten times as fast as the rate they
metal, or the same or opposite ?anges of l-beams or other
structural elements and the like.
A still further object of my invention is to embody a'
novel automatic scale mechanism in the graphic machine
65 so as to project, ‘with ease, a luminous image of any
preselected scale in close proximity to the marker so that
the operator can quickly measure any line from any start
ing point by any of a plurality of scales, without diverting
‘
can record the ideas with sketches, thusv little of their 70 his attention away from the marking action.
A still further object of my invention is toprovidev a
brainpower is used.
‘novel protractor in the graphic machine so as: to more
These key men could produce many times as much
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