Патент USA US3020856код для вставки
Feb. 13, 1962 A. THoMAs 3,020,846 BLOOD PUMP Filed Jan. 30. 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 1_- 5y MÃ Feb. 13, 1962 A, THOMAS 3,020,846 BLOOD PUMP Filed Jan. 30, 1959 3 Sheea'cs-Sheei'l 2 XII *V 145 YET l5 140\M44 l ' ‘ .146/ 745 I I , , ‘ l f- ` Ö CÍ'ÍJCÍ.' Í5l7 /59- 58 . 141 / A6] n T' \ \ . V46.2165, T 460 13a _ «4 _nv www@ fr A/ß/ef" 7270/7/15 / BY .ATTORNEY Feb. 13, 1962 , A, THOMAS 3,020,846 BLOOD PUMP Filed Jan. 50. 1959 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 , @WMZ A TTÜÑNFY icc nite 3,020,846 Patented Feb. 13, 1962 2 FIGS. 11 and 12 are sections on the lines Xl--XI and 3,020,846 XII-XII of FIG. 7; 111,001) PUMP André Thomas, Paris, France, assignor to Societe de Con structions Mecaniques de Stains, Stains, France, a cor poration oi’ France Filed Jan. 30, 1959, Ser. No. 790,254 Claims priority, appiication France Feb. 5, 1953 10 Claims. (Ci. 103-37) FIG. 13 is a diagrammatic view showing a modiñed construction of the mechanism shown in FIG. 7; FIG. 14 is a sectional elevation of yet a further alter native construction of mechanism for compressing the flexible tubes, the mechanism being shown adjusted for minimum delivery, and FIG. 15 is a view similar to FIG. 14 showing the mech This invention concerns pumps which may be used for 10 anism thereof adjusted for maximum delivery. industrial purposes and which are particularly adapted Referring to the drawings: the pump assembly accord for medical use for the circulation of blood. ing to this invention comprises two main parts--on the The invention concerns pumps of the type comprising one hand a pulsatory pump and on the other hand an a flexible tube of resilient material which is rhythmically electromechanical apparatus for actuating and controlling compressed so as to expel liquid contained in the tube at 15 the pump assembly. the region of compression and wherein, upon release of The pulsatory pump assembly comprises two flexible the pressure, the tube assumes its original shape, due to tubes of resilient material, two suction valves, two de its resilience, and draws in a further quantity of liquid livery valves and a single inlet to the pump and an outlet ready for the next delivery stroke. therefrom. Hitherto a pump of the type referred to has been ar The flexible tubes 101 (FIGS. l, 7 and 13) are of rub« ranged so that the flexible tube is compressed either by ber or other natural or synthetic material of the required the pressure exerted on its outer surface by a gas or a resilience. Their length and their internal and external liquid or by mechanical action due to levers or by a roller diameters are selected to accord with the ñow rate for the carried by the levers. In other cases the levers have liquid which is to be produced while the wall thickness been so arranged at spaced intervals along a shaft as to 25 and the quality of the material are selected to provide a compress the ilexible tube one after the other. high degree of resilience with ready deformation. The If the compression forces are suitably spaced the deliv two tubes are connected in parallel and, as lshowin in FIG. l, are arranged vertically side-by-side. At the lower end ery from the pump may be intermittent without there being any question, for example, of physiological pulsa~ of each tube 101 there is a suction valve 102 and at the tions. lf the phases of compression take place at short 30 upper end of each tube there is a discharge valve 103i. intervals it may be arranged that the pulses imparted to The suction and discharge valves may take several con the liquid delivered from the pump succeed one another structional forms and may be made of metal, rubber or plastic material. so that eiïectively the delivery from the pump is substan Each valve 102 comprises a small chamber having cir tially continuous. In such an arrangement it is not nec essary to provide valves for controlling the admission 35 cularV lateral walls 104 (FIGS. 2 and 3) with upper and lower walls 10S and 106 respectively which are sub and discharge of the liquid from the ñexible tube Since each compression phase of the ilexible tube is equivalent stantially parallel. to a valve actuation. This occurs, for example, with pumps having rollers or a series of iingers or levers which _ The upper and lower walls 10S and 106 respectively. are ’ each formed with an opening. Thus, each suction Valve are successively engaged with the flexible tube. Such 40 102 has an inlet opening 107 in its lower wall 106 and an outlet opening 103 in its upper wall 105. The opening arrangements are used for the circulation of liquids, more especially for the artificial circulation of the blood. The pumps produce a ilow of liquid in accordance with 108 communicates with a iiange 109 which is received within the lower end of a tube 101. v v ' ‘Each of the discharge valves 103 is similarly construct are of small amplitude so that the How can be substan 45 ed: the valve has an inlet opening 110 in its lower wall an undulatory curve, the undulations of which, however, tially continuous and not physiologically pulsatory. 106', the opening 110 communicating with a flange 109' which enters the upper end of a tube 101, and an outlet The present invention has for its object to provide an opening 111 in the upper wall 105’ of the valve. The improved construction of pump of the type set forth which tubes 101 are secured to the ñanges 109’ by bands 112. is particularly suitable for the circulation of blood in the Each of the valves 102 and 103 has a flexible disc 113, apparatus described in the specification of U.S. Serial No. 50 113’ respectively of rubber or plastic material within a 789,364. cavity between its upper and lower walls. The inner face Constructions of pump according to the present inven of the lower wall 106, 106’ of each valve is ilat and con tion will now be described, by way of example only, with stitutes a valve seat. The disc 113 when applied to the FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic sectional elevation of a pump 55 valve seat of the suction valve 102 will close the opening reference to the accompanying drawings whereof: according to the present invention; 107. In relation to each discharge valve 103 disc 113’ FIGS. 2 and 3 are respectively sections on the lines II~II and III-III of FIG. l; will close the opening 110. ñlter for use with the pump of FIG. l; FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic view of a mechanism for tight manner. Y . . The peripheral edges of the Vdiscs 113, 113’> are scal loped or similarly formed to enable the blood passing FIG. 4 is a section on the line IV-IV of FIG. 3; FIG. 5 is a plan View of a valve member which con 60 through the valve to do so more readily, the size of the scallops being so selected, however, that the valve discs stitutes a part of the pump of FIG. 1; can completely close the openings 107 and 110 in duid FIG. 6 is aV longitudinal diagrammatic section of a , - The suction valve (see FIG. 2) also comprises a pair 65 of inwardly directed lugs 114 arranged on opposite sides compressing the flexible tubes which constitute a part of of the disc 113, the lugs being integral with the inner face the pump of FIG. 1; of the wall 105. The lugs 114 ensure that when a disc FIG. 8 is a View in the direction of the arrow VIII of FIG. 7; 1.13 is against an upper wall 105`blood readily travels , around the scalloped edge of the disc 13 and is discharged FIG. 9 is a view corresponding to FIG. 8 showing an 70 through the opening 108 and the ilange 109 into the tube alternative construction; 101. When the disc 113 is against lugs 114 blood is FIG. 10 is a section on the line X-X of FIG. 9; readily drawn through the opening y107 past the suction 3,020,846 3 valves and into the tube 101. Conversely, when a disc 113 is in engagement with the wall 106, which is not pro vided with lugs correspondingy to the lugs 114, the disc 113 will effectively close the openings 107 so that liquid Within which supports a cage comprising rods 133, for example eight in number, which are joined together at their ends remote from the member 129. A filtering membrane, for example of polyamide fabric in the form of a cylindrical tube 101 cannot fiow back and 'oe discharged through the opening 107. The discharge valves 103 are similarly provided with lugs 114’ on the inner face of the upper wall with the consequence that when the disc 113’ bears upon the inner face of the lower wall 106’ the opening 110 is closed but when the disc 113’ is applied against the upper wall 105’ it engages with the lugs 114’ with the consequence that blood can pass around the disc 113’ for discharge through bag, is mounted upon the cage 133 and the neck of the bag is clamped to the extension 131 by an encircling band 134a. The filtering bag is readily mounted upon the cage upon removal of the support member 129 from is relatively small whereby back flow of liquid through " 141 is clamped to the crank 138 in any appropriate position along groove 140. The bar 141 carries a crank pin 145 upon which one end of a connecting rod 156 is mounted. The connecting rod 156 is adjustable as to the duct 125 by releasing the bolts 136. The liquid from the orifice 123 is delivered to the opening 126 and, hav ing passed through the filter bag 134, is discharged at 130. Referring now to FIGS. 7 and 8: the pump assembly shown in FIG. 1 is actuated and controlled by an electro the opening 111. The extent of movement of the discs 113, 113’ of the 15 mechanical mechanism Which will now be described, the mechanism being provided for alternately squeezing the suction and discharge valves is limited on the one hand by tubes 101. a pair of bars 115, 115’ which are located beneath the The electro-mechanical assembly comprises an elec discs, and on the other hand by a bar 116, 116’ which is tric motor (not shown) and a speed reduction gearing above the discs and at the level of the opening 108, for the suction valves, and of the opening 111, for the dis 20 driven thereby, the reduction gearing or the motor or both being controlled so as to vary the speed. The charge valves. These bars prevent the discs 113, 113’ motor-reduction gear assembly is coupled to a shaft 137 from being forced through the valve openings when the which is driven by the motor at a selected speed. A liquid enters and leaves the tubes 101. crank disc 138 is secured by screws 139 to the shaft 137 The bars 116, 116’ permit upward movement of the so that the crank disc is driven by the motor. The discs 115, 115’ to be so restricted that blood passes the crank disc has a diametral slot 140 within which a bar valve mainly as a consequence of the deformation of the 141 slides, the bar 141 having a slot 142 through which scalloped edge thereof so that when the valves are closed passes a stud 143 which carries a nut 144, the arrange (upon engagement of the discs 113, 113’ with the lower ment being that when the nut 144 is drawn up, the bar walls 106, 106') the time occupied in closing the valves the valves is reduced to a minimum. The cavities within which the discs 113, 113’ lie are each provided with a side opening 117, 117' which is closed by a plate 118, 118’ secured in position by studs 119, 119', a fiexible packing piece 120, 120' being pro vided between the plate 11S, 118’ and the valve casing. Removal of the plate 11S, 11S’ gives access to the disc 113, 113’ for removal and replacement. The openings 107 are connected by a Y-shaped duct length by varying the position of the threaded rod 15S in the sleeve 157, a lock nut 139 holding the parts against inadvertent movement. An unthreaded portion 160 of the connecting rod 156 passes through a ring 161 (FIG. 1l) which is pivotally mounted to an arm 164 of the screws 165, the part 160 being secured to the ring 161 by 121 which communicates with a common suction orifice 40 a shoulder 162 and by a knurled nut 163 which is thread 122. Similarly the openings 111 communicate with a Y-shaped duct 121 which communicates with a corn mon discharge orifice 123. ed upon the end of the connecting rod 156. The arm 164 has a spigot 166 which enters a rectangular section shaft 167 mounted upon a shaft 168 and se cured thereto by a grab screw 169. The spigot 166 per~ The arrangement described comprising the pair of tubes mits relative movement of the arm 164 and the shaft 167. 101 and the associated suction and discharge valves to Any other known or convenient joint permitting corre gether with the inlet and outlet orifices leading thereto sponding relative movements may be used in place of the constitute a pump assembly for delivery of blood from spigot connection. duct 23 of the apparatus of FIG. 1 through the orifice Also mounted upon the shaft 168 are a pair of blades 122 to the orifice 123 by alternate compression and re lease of the tubes 101 it being understood that upon re 50 170 which are formed with rings 171 through which passes the shaft 168. lease of compression of each of the tubes their natural The shaft 167 is extended downwardly from the shaft resilience results in their expansion to their original shape 168 so that it lies between the pair of blades 170. The during which function blood is drawn into the tubes extension of the shaft 167 has a recess 172 within which from the orifice 122 past the suction valves 102 which are then open, the discharge valves 103 being then closed. 55 is mounted a lead screw 173 having a bearing support, at 174, with the shaft 167. The lead screw 173 carries While this is occurring in one of the tubesv the other, which an abutment 175 within the recess 172 and a hand wheel has previously been filled with liquid, is compressed so 176 outside the recess. Mounted on the lead screw 173 that the liquid is delivered past the discharge valve 103 is a cross piece 177 the ends of which carry rollers 173 and out through the orifice 123, the suction valve re maining closed during this operation. It follows that 60 to engage with the inner faces of the blades 170. By adjusting the le-ad screws 173 the cross piece 177 is each time one of the tubes 101 is compressed blood is moved lengthwise of the shaft 167 and the distance be discharged through the orifice 123. The pump functions tween the blades 170 is thereby adjusted. in a pulsatory manner and the nature of the pulsations With rotation of the crank disc 138 the connecting depends upon the frequency with which the tubes are compressed and the degree of compression of each sleeve in relation to their frequency and volume. The blood delivered from the orifice 123 can be filtered (before returning to the body) by a detachable filter 124 (FlG. 6). The filter 124 comprises a cylindrical duct 125 having an intake opening 126 and a support member 129 having a discharge opening 130, the member 129 f rod 156 is moved backwards and forwards thereby to adjust the arm 164 and the shaft 167. The latter, through the cross piece 17'/ and the rollers 178 will os~ cillate the blades 170 towards and away from fixed abut ments 179. It is arranged that each of the tubes 101 is disposed between the space separating one of the blades 170 from the co-operating abutments 179, as is shown in FIG. 7. Consequently as the blades 170 are oscillat ing one of the tubes will be compressed (that is the tube being secured to the duct 125 by a flange 132 which is clamped by bolts 136 to a ñange 127 of the duct 125, which is engaged by the blade 170 which is moving to a resilient packing 135 being provided between the flanges. The member 129 has an inward extension 131 75 wards the abutment 179) while the other tube will be 3,020,846 5 . j 6 . . . relieved of compression. Thus, the mechanism of FIG. In this way the pump delivery may be adjusted during 7 is utilized alternately to compress the tubes 101 where operation. by the pump assembly is actuated. The plate 180 in the arrangement illustrated in FIGS. 14 and 15 is normally stationary. However, according With adjustment of the lead screw 173 the blades 178 are moved relatively to the abutment 179 so that each tube 161 is compressed to a greater or lesser extent with each oscillation of the shaft 167. Referring now to FIGS. 9 and 10: the crank disc 138 has a diametral recess 147 along which a screwed rod 148 extends, the screwed rod having an unthreaded por tion 149 which is supported in the bearing 151 formed in the crank disc. Similarly the end 153 of the rod 148 is supported in another bearing 151. The part 153 car to an alternative arrangement the plate 180 may oscillate towards and away from the blades 170, while the latter also oscillate, so that the frequency of compression is suitably varied. . The motor for driving the hollow shaft 190 in the construction o-f FIGS. 14 and l5 or for driving the shaft 137 in the constructions of FIGS. 7 and 8 may be auto matically controlled so as to ensure a constant pump delivery. Thus, for example, the delivery from the pump ries a band 154 while the part 149 carries a hand wheel may pass to a well so that variations of the depth of the 15 liquid in the well adjust a ñoat to actuate an electric micro-switch. The micro-switch regulates a suitable A block 155 is mouned on the screw threaded rod 148 150. . ` electronic device to adjust the pump output through a and carries the crank pin 145. With adjustment of the servoadevice which may incorporate a follow-up mecha hand wheel 150 the throw of the crank pin 145 is varied. nism to ensure that hunting is reduced or eliminated. A wing nut 52 is provided to lock the threaded rod 140 What is claimed is: against inadvertent rotation after the crank pin 145 has 20 l. A pumping mechanism for circulating a liquid with been set to a required position. “ a pulsating action comprising two resilient tubes ‘arranged Instead of the mechanism shown in FIG. 7 it may be in parallel, a suction valve and a discharge valve for each arranged (as shown in FIG. 13) that the blades 170 are tube, both suction valves being at the same ends of the carried by the shaft 167 so as to lie outside the pair of tubes 101. A central fixed abutment 180 is provided be~ 25 tubes and both discharge valves being at the other ends of As the shaft 167 oscillates the blades the tubes, a common huid inlet leading to both suction 178 are moved towards, and away from, the abutment 188 whereby the tubes are alternatively compressed and relieved of compression. The plate 188 may comprise valves, a common fluid outlet leading from the discharge valves, each of said valves comprising a housing forming tween the tubes. a valve chamber having upper land lower walls with out~ two arms which are adjustable relatively to the blades 30 let and inlet openings respectively, a ilexible valve disc having a scalloped peripheral edge disposed in said hous 170 so that the extent of compression of the tubes 101 ing, said lower wall having a seat to receive said valve is variable as described above. disc for closing said inlet opening and a stop member Referring now to FIGS. 14 and 15: the tubes 101 are positioned to limit the movement of the central portion located between a pair of blades 170 and a central plate 180 is located between the tubes 101. The central plate 35 of said disc for preventing said disc from seating against said upper wall to close said outlet openings whereby 188 is secured against movement (as at 181) to the main liquid iìows around said scalloped peripheral edge of said frame of the mechanism-_part of the frame is shown at disc to said outlet openings, and means for alternately 182. In the particular arrangement described the main subjecting the tubes to a predetermined compression over frame 182 also carries a threaded spindle 183 upon which is mounted a knurled nut 184. The threaded spindle 40 substantially the entire length of each tube. 2. A mechanism according to claim l in which the 183 passes through the fork arms of the frame 1.82. discs are within a body having a lateral opening and there With rotation of the knurled nut 184 the spindle 183 is is provided a closure plate for the opening, access being adjusted axially thereby angularly to adjust the central obtained to the discs through said opening on removal of plate 188 about the pivot 181. This has the ei‘îect of 45 the plate. varying the extent of the compression of the tubes 1. 3. A mechanism as claimed in claim l wherein the The blades 170 are carried by a cross head 185 which means for alternately compressing the tubes comprises receives the limb 186 of a T-shaped member of which for each tube a fixed abutment and a blade disposed on the other limb 187 passes through a ball joint 188. The the opposite side of said tube, said blade being mounted ball joint 188 is received by a carrier 189 which is mounted in a tubular shaft 190 so that the ball joint is 50 for reciprocation in a direction to compress the tube against said abutment. eccentric with respect to the axis of rotation of the shaft 4. A mechanism as claimed in claim 3 wherein the 190. The shaft 190 is driven in any suitable manner blades are mounted on opposite Sides of the respective (not shown) through pins 191 (or axial splines) which tubes and are coupled together for reciprocation in unison permit the drive to shaft 198 to be maintained while it is moved axially. ~As the shaft 190 is rotated a conic movement is im parted to the limb 187 by the eccentrically mounted ball joint 188 with the result that the limb 186 performs an oscillatory movement about the axis 192. Consequently 55 simultaneously compressing one tube and releasing the other tube from compression. 5. A mechanism as set forth in claim 4 wherein said blades are coupled for adjustment of their relative spac ing for thereby varying the extent of compression of said the blades 170 are moved towards and away from the 60 tubes. 6. A mechanism as set forth in claim 4 wherein a central plate 180 thereby alternately to compress and crank mechanism is connected to reciprocate said blades, relieve the tubes 101 from compression. said crank mechanism including means for varying the The hollow shaft 190 is mounted on bearings 193 amplitude of reciprocation of said blades. within a housing 194 which is slidable axially within the 7. A pumping mechanism for circulating a liquid with frame 195. The housing 194 is screw threaded at 198 a pulsating action comprising two resilient tubes arranged into the main frame 195 and carries a skew gear 196 in parallel, a suction valve and a discharge valve for each which is engaged by a skew pinion 197. When the pinion tube, both suction valves being at the same ends of the 197 is rotated the housing 194 is adjusted axially rela tubes and both discharge valves being at the other ends tively to the housing 195 and the position of the ball joint 188 lengthwise of the limb 187 is varied. When the 70 of the tubes, a common ñuid inlet leading to both section valves, a common iluid outlet leading from the discharge ball joint is near the free end of the limb 187 the extent of oscillation of the blades 170 is relatively small. This is valves, means for alternately subjecting the tubes to a shown in FIG. 14. When, however, the ball joint 188 is predetermined compression over substantially the entire moved nearer the limb 186 (as shown in FIG. 15) the length of each tube, said last means comprising for each extent of the oscillation of the blades 170 is increased. tube a ñxed abutment and a blade disposed on opposite 3,020,846 a È» sides of said tube, said blade being mounted for recípro ing for thereby varying the extent of compression of said cation in a direction to compress the tube against said tubes. abutment, said blades being mounted on opposite sides of the respective tubes and being coupled together for recip roeation in unison for simultaneously compressing one tube and releasing the other tube from compression. 8. A pumping mechanism for circulating a liquid with a pulsating action comprising two resilient tubes arranged in parallel, a suction valve and a discharge valve for each tube, both suction valves being at the same ends of the 10 tubes and both discharge valves being at the other ends of the tubes, a common fluid inlet leading to both suction valves, a common ñuid outlet leading from the discharge valves, and means for alternately subjecting said tubes to a predetermined compression over substantially the en tire length of each tube, said means comprising a fixed abutment for each tube and a blade disposed on the op posite side of said tube, said blade being mounted for reciprocation in a direction to compress the tube against said abutment. 9. A mechanism as set forth in claim 7 wherein said blades are coupled for adjustment of their relative spac 10. A mechanism as set forth in claim 7 wherein a crank mechanism is connected to reciprocate said blades, said crank mechanism including means for varying the amplitude of reciprocation of said blades. References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,282,145 Tobler ______________ __. Oct. 22, 1918 1,627,680 Vollmann ___________ __ May 10, 1927 2,713,858 Armstrong et al. ______ __ July 26, 1955 131,864 542,678 Germany _____________ _- July 3, 1902 Italy ________________ __ Apr. 30, 1956 FOREIGN PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES Mustard et al.: “Extracorporal Circulation,” Surgery, vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 803-810 (pp. 803~04 relied on), November 1952.