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Патент USA US3020856

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Feb. 13, 1962
Filed Jan. 30. 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 1_-
5y MÃ
Feb. 13, 1962
Filed Jan. 30, 1959
3 Sheea'cs-Sheei'l 2
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Feb. 13, 1962
Filed Jan. 50. 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Feb. 13, 1962
FIGS. 11 and 12 are sections on the lines Xl--XI and
XII-XII of FIG. 7;
111,001) PUMP
André Thomas, Paris, France, assignor to Societe de Con
structions Mecaniques de Stains, Stains, France, a cor
poration oi’ France
Filed Jan. 30, 1959, Ser. No. 790,254
Claims priority, appiication France Feb. 5, 1953
10 Claims. (Ci. 103-37)
FIG. 13 is a diagrammatic view showing a modiñed
construction of the mechanism shown in FIG. 7;
FIG. 14 is a sectional elevation of yet a further alter
native construction of mechanism for compressing the
flexible tubes, the mechanism being shown adjusted for
minimum delivery, and
FIG. 15 is a view similar to FIG. 14 showing the mech
This invention concerns pumps which may be used for 10 anism thereof adjusted for maximum delivery.
industrial purposes and which are particularly adapted
Referring to the drawings: the pump assembly accord
for medical use for the circulation of blood.
ing to this invention comprises two main parts--on the
The invention concerns pumps of the type comprising
one hand a pulsatory pump and on the other hand an
a flexible tube of resilient material which is rhythmically
electromechanical apparatus for actuating and controlling
compressed so as to expel liquid contained in the tube at 15 the pump assembly.
the region of compression and wherein, upon release of
The pulsatory pump assembly comprises two flexible
the pressure, the tube assumes its original shape, due to
tubes of resilient material, two suction valves, two de
its resilience, and draws in a further quantity of liquid
livery valves and a single inlet to the pump and an outlet
ready for the next delivery stroke.
Hitherto a pump of the type referred to has been ar
The flexible tubes 101 (FIGS. l, 7 and 13) are of rub«
ranged so that the flexible tube is compressed either by
ber or other natural or synthetic material of the required
the pressure exerted on its outer surface by a gas or a
resilience. Their length and their internal and external
liquid or by mechanical action due to levers or by a roller
diameters are selected to accord with the ñow rate for the
carried by the levers. In other cases the levers have
liquid which is to be produced while the wall thickness
been so arranged at spaced intervals along a shaft as to 25 and the quality of the material are selected to provide a
compress the ilexible tube one after the other.
high degree of resilience with ready deformation. The
If the compression forces are suitably spaced the deliv
two tubes are connected in parallel and, as lshowin in FIG.
l, are arranged vertically side-by-side. At the lower end
ery from the pump may be intermittent without there
being any question, for example, of physiological pulsa~
of each tube 101 there is a suction valve 102 and at the
tions. lf the phases of compression take place at short 30 upper end of each tube there is a discharge valve 103i.
intervals it may be arranged that the pulses imparted to
The suction and discharge valves may take several con
the liquid delivered from the pump succeed one another
structional forms and may be made of metal, rubber or
plastic material.
so that eiïectively the delivery from the pump is substan
Each valve 102 comprises a small chamber having cir
tially continuous. In such an arrangement it is not nec
essary to provide valves for controlling the admission 35 cularV lateral walls 104 (FIGS. 2 and 3) with upper
and lower walls 10S and 106 respectively which are sub
and discharge of the liquid from the ñexible tube Since
each compression phase of the ilexible tube is equivalent
stantially parallel.
to a valve actuation. This occurs, for example, with
pumps having rollers or a series of iingers or levers which
_ The upper and lower walls 10S and 106 respectively. are
each formed with an opening. Thus, each suction Valve
are successively engaged with the flexible tube. Such 40 102 has an inlet opening 107 in its lower wall 106 and an
outlet opening 103 in its upper wall 105. The opening
arrangements are used for the circulation of liquids,
more especially for the artificial circulation of the blood.
The pumps produce a ilow of liquid in accordance with
108 communicates with a iiange 109 which is received
within the lower end of a tube 101.
' ‘Each of the discharge valves 103 is similarly construct
are of small amplitude so that the How can be substan 45 ed: the valve has an inlet opening 110 in its lower wall
an undulatory curve, the undulations of which, however,
tially continuous and not physiologically pulsatory.
106', the opening 110 communicating with a flange 109'
which enters the upper end of a tube 101, and an outlet
The present invention has for its object to provide an
opening 111 in the upper wall 105’ of the valve. The
improved construction of pump of the type set forth which
tubes 101 are secured to the ñanges 109’ by bands 112.
is particularly suitable for the circulation of blood in the
Each of the valves 102 and 103 has a flexible disc 113,
apparatus described in the specification of U.S. Serial No. 50
113’ respectively of rubber or plastic material within a
cavity between its upper and lower walls. The inner face
Constructions of pump according to the present inven
of the lower wall 106, 106’ of each valve is ilat and con
tion will now be described, by way of example only, with
stitutes a valve seat. The disc 113 when applied to the
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic sectional elevation of a pump 55 valve seat of the suction valve 102 will close the opening
reference to the accompanying drawings whereof:
according to the present invention;
107. In relation to each discharge valve 103 disc 113’
FIGS. 2 and 3 are respectively sections on the lines
II~II and III-III of FIG. l;
will close the opening 110.
ñlter for use with the pump of FIG. l;
FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic view of a mechanism for
tight manner.
. .
The peripheral edges of the Vdiscs 113, 113’> are scal
loped or similarly formed to enable the blood passing
FIG. 4 is a section on the line IV-IV of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a plan View of a valve member which con 60 through the valve to do so more readily, the size of the
scallops being so selected, however, that the valve discs
stitutes a part of the pump of FIG. 1;
can completely close the openings 107 and 110 in duid
FIG. 6 is aV longitudinal diagrammatic section of a
The suction valve (see FIG. 2) also comprises a pair
65 of inwardly directed lugs 114 arranged on opposite sides
compressing the flexible tubes which constitute a part of
of the disc 113, the lugs being integral with the inner face
the pump of FIG. 1;
of the wall 105. The lugs 114 ensure that when a disc
FIG. 8 is a View in the direction of the arrow VIII of
FIG. 7;
1.13 is against an upper wall 105`blood readily travels
around the scalloped edge of the disc 13 and is discharged
FIG. 9 is a view corresponding to FIG. 8 showing an 70 through the opening 108 and the ilange 109 into the tube
alternative construction;
101. When the disc 113 is against lugs 114 blood is
FIG. 10 is a section on the line X-X of FIG. 9;
readily drawn through the opening y107 past the suction
valves and into the tube 101. Conversely, when a disc
113 is in engagement with the wall 106, which is not pro
vided with lugs correspondingy to the lugs 114, the disc 113
will effectively close the openings 107 so that liquid Within
which supports a cage comprising rods 133, for example
eight in number, which are joined together at their ends
remote from the member 129. A filtering membrane, for
example of polyamide fabric in the form of a cylindrical
tube 101 cannot fiow back and 'oe discharged through
the opening 107.
The discharge valves 103 are similarly provided with
lugs 114’ on the inner face of the upper wall with the
consequence that when the disc 113’ bears upon the inner
face of the lower wall 106’ the opening 110 is closed but
when the disc 113’ is applied against the upper wall 105’
it engages with the lugs 114’ with the consequence that
blood can pass around the disc 113’ for discharge through
bag, is mounted upon the cage 133 and the neck of the
bag is clamped to the extension 131 by an encircling
band 134a. The filtering bag is readily mounted upon
the cage upon removal of the support member 129 from
is relatively small whereby back flow of liquid through "
141 is clamped to the crank 138 in any appropriate
position along groove 140. The bar 141 carries a crank
pin 145 upon which one end of a connecting rod 156
is mounted. The connecting rod 156 is adjustable as to
the duct 125 by releasing the bolts 136. The liquid from
the orifice 123 is delivered to the opening 126 and, hav
ing passed through the filter bag 134, is discharged at
Referring now to FIGS. 7 and 8: the pump assembly
shown in FIG. 1 is actuated and controlled by an electro
the opening 111.
The extent of movement of the discs 113, 113’ of the 15 mechanical mechanism Which will now be described, the
mechanism being provided for alternately squeezing the
suction and discharge valves is limited on the one hand by
tubes 101.
a pair of bars 115, 115’ which are located beneath the
The electro-mechanical assembly comprises an elec
discs, and on the other hand by a bar 116, 116’ which is
tric motor (not shown) and a speed reduction gearing
above the discs and at the level of the opening 108, for
the suction valves, and of the opening 111, for the dis 20 driven thereby, the reduction gearing or the motor or
both being controlled so as to vary the speed. The
charge valves. These bars prevent the discs 113, 113’
motor-reduction gear assembly is coupled to a shaft 137
from being forced through the valve openings when the
which is driven by the motor at a selected speed. A
liquid enters and leaves the tubes 101.
crank disc 138 is secured by screws 139 to the shaft 137
The bars 116, 116’ permit upward movement of the
so that the crank disc is driven by the motor. The
discs 115, 115’ to be so restricted that blood passes the
crank disc has a diametral slot 140 within which a bar
valve mainly as a consequence of the deformation of the
141 slides, the bar 141 having a slot 142 through which
scalloped edge thereof so that when the valves are closed
passes a stud 143 which carries a nut 144, the arrange
(upon engagement of the discs 113, 113’ with the lower
ment being that when the nut 144 is drawn up, the bar
walls 106, 106') the time occupied in closing the valves
the valves is reduced to a minimum.
The cavities within which the discs 113, 113’ lie are
each provided with a side opening 117, 117' which is
closed by a plate 118, 118’ secured in position by studs
119, 119', a fiexible packing piece 120, 120' being pro
vided between the plate 11S, 118’ and the valve casing.
Removal of the plate 11S, 11S’ gives access to the disc
113, 113’ for removal and replacement.
The openings 107 are connected by a Y-shaped duct
length by varying the position of the threaded rod 15S
in the sleeve 157, a lock nut 139 holding the parts against
inadvertent movement. An unthreaded portion 160 of
the connecting rod 156 passes through a ring 161 (FIG.
1l) which is pivotally mounted to an arm 164 of the
screws 165, the part 160 being secured to the ring 161 by
121 which communicates with a common suction orifice 40 a shoulder 162 and by a knurled nut 163 which is thread
122. Similarly the openings 111 communicate with a
Y-shaped duct 121 which communicates with a corn
mon discharge orifice 123.
ed upon the end of the connecting rod 156.
The arm 164 has a spigot 166 which enters a rectangular section shaft 167 mounted upon a shaft 168 and se
cured thereto by a grab screw 169. The spigot 166 per~
The arrangement described comprising the pair of tubes
mits relative movement of the arm 164 and the shaft 167.
101 and the associated suction and discharge valves to
Any other known or convenient joint permitting corre
gether with the inlet and outlet orifices leading thereto
sponding relative movements may be used in place of the
constitute a pump assembly for delivery of blood from
spigot connection.
duct 23 of the apparatus of FIG. 1 through the orifice
Also mounted upon the shaft 168 are a pair of blades
122 to the orifice 123 by alternate compression and re
lease of the tubes 101 it being understood that upon re 50 170 which are formed with rings 171 through which
passes the shaft 168.
lease of compression of each of the tubes their natural
The shaft 167 is extended downwardly from the shaft
resilience results in their expansion to their original shape
168 so that it lies between the pair of blades 170. The
during which function blood is drawn into the tubes
extension of the shaft 167 has a recess 172 within which
from the orifice 122 past the suction valves 102 which
are then open, the discharge valves 103 being then closed. 55 is mounted a lead screw 173 having a bearing support,
at 174, with the shaft 167. The lead screw 173 carries
While this is occurring in one of the tubesv the other, which
an abutment 175 within the recess 172 and a hand wheel
has previously been filled with liquid, is compressed so
176 outside the recess. Mounted on the lead screw 173
that the liquid is delivered past the discharge valve 103
is a cross piece 177 the ends of which carry rollers 173
and out through the orifice 123, the suction valve re
maining closed during this operation. It follows that 60 to engage with the inner faces of the blades 170. By
adjusting the le-ad screws 173 the cross piece 177 is
each time one of the tubes 101 is compressed blood is
moved lengthwise of the shaft 167 and the distance be
discharged through the orifice 123. The pump functions
tween the blades 170 is thereby adjusted.
in a pulsatory manner and the nature of the pulsations
With rotation of the crank disc 138 the connecting
depends upon the frequency with which the tubes are
compressed and the degree of compression of each sleeve
in relation to their frequency and volume.
The blood delivered from the orifice 123 can be filtered
(before returning to the body) by a detachable filter 124
(FlG. 6). The filter 124 comprises a cylindrical duct
125 having an intake opening 126 and a support member
129 having a discharge opening 130, the member 129
f rod 156 is moved backwards and forwards thereby to
adjust the arm 164 and the shaft 167. The latter,
through the cross piece 17'/ and the rollers 178 will os~
cillate the blades 170 towards and away from fixed abut
ments 179. It is arranged that each of the tubes 101 is
disposed between the space separating one of the blades
170 from the co-operating abutments 179, as is shown
in FIG. 7. Consequently as the blades 170 are oscillat
ing one of the tubes will be compressed (that is the tube
being secured to the duct 125 by a flange 132 which is
clamped by bolts 136 to a ñange 127 of the duct 125,
which is engaged by the blade 170 which is moving to
a resilient packing 135 being provided between the
flanges. The member 129 has an inward extension 131 75 wards the abutment 179) while the other tube will be
relieved of compression. Thus, the mechanism of FIG.
In this way the pump delivery may be adjusted during
7 is utilized alternately to compress the tubes 101 where
by the pump assembly is actuated.
The plate 180 in the arrangement illustrated in FIGS.
14 and 15 is normally stationary. However, according
With adjustment of the lead screw 173 the blades
178 are moved relatively to the abutment 179 so that
each tube 161 is compressed to a greater or lesser extent
with each oscillation of the shaft 167.
Referring now to FIGS. 9 and 10: the crank disc 138
has a diametral recess 147 along which a screwed rod
148 extends, the screwed rod having an unthreaded por
tion 149 which is supported in the bearing 151 formed
in the crank disc. Similarly the end 153 of the rod 148
is supported in another bearing 151. The part 153 car
to an alternative arrangement the plate 180 may oscillate
towards and away from the blades 170, while the latter
also oscillate, so that the frequency of compression is
suitably varied.
The motor for driving the hollow shaft 190 in the
construction o-f FIGS. 14 and l5 or for driving the shaft
137 in the constructions of FIGS. 7 and 8 may be auto
matically controlled so as to ensure a constant pump
delivery. Thus, for example, the delivery from the pump
ries a band 154 while the part 149 carries a hand wheel
may pass to a well so that variations of the depth of the
15 liquid in the well adjust a ñoat to actuate an electric
micro-switch. The micro-switch regulates a suitable
A block 155 is mouned on the screw threaded rod 148
electronic device to adjust the pump output through a
and carries the crank pin 145. With adjustment of the
servoadevice which may incorporate a follow-up mecha
hand wheel 150 the throw of the crank pin 145 is varied.
nism to ensure that hunting is reduced or eliminated.
A wing nut 52 is provided to lock the threaded rod 140
What is claimed is:
against inadvertent rotation after the crank pin 145 has 20
l. A pumping mechanism for circulating a liquid with
been set to a required position.
a pulsating action comprising two resilient tubes ‘arranged
Instead of the mechanism shown in FIG. 7 it may be
in parallel, a suction valve and a discharge valve for each
arranged (as shown in FIG. 13) that the blades 170 are
tube, both suction valves being at the same ends of the
carried by the shaft 167 so as to lie outside the pair of
tubes 101. A central fixed abutment 180 is provided be~ 25 tubes and both discharge valves being at the other ends of
As the shaft 167 oscillates the blades
the tubes, a common huid inlet leading to both suction
178 are moved towards, and away from, the abutment
188 whereby the tubes are alternatively compressed and
relieved of compression. The plate 188 may comprise
valves, a common fluid outlet leading from the discharge
valves, each of said valves comprising a housing forming
tween the tubes.
a valve chamber having upper land lower walls with out~
two arms which are adjustable relatively to the blades 30 let and inlet openings respectively, a ilexible valve disc
having a scalloped peripheral edge disposed in said hous
170 so that the extent of compression of the tubes 101
ing, said lower wall having a seat to receive said valve
is variable as described above.
disc for closing said inlet opening and a stop member
Referring now to FIGS. 14 and 15: the tubes 101 are
positioned to limit the movement of the central portion
located between a pair of blades 170 and a central plate
180 is located between the tubes 101. The central plate 35 of said disc for preventing said disc from seating against
said upper wall to close said outlet openings whereby
188 is secured against movement (as at 181) to the main
liquid iìows around said scalloped peripheral edge of said
frame of the mechanism-_part of the frame is shown at
disc to said outlet openings, and means for alternately
182. In the particular arrangement described the main
subjecting the tubes to a predetermined compression over
frame 182 also carries a threaded spindle 183 upon which
is mounted a knurled nut 184. The threaded spindle 40 substantially the entire length of each tube.
2. A mechanism according to claim l in which the
183 passes through the fork arms of the frame 1.82.
discs are within a body having a lateral opening and there
With rotation of the knurled nut 184 the spindle 183 is
is provided a closure plate for the opening, access being
adjusted axially thereby angularly to adjust the central
obtained to the discs through said opening on removal of
plate 188 about the pivot 181. This has the ei‘îect of
45 the plate.
varying the extent of the compression of the tubes 1.
3. A mechanism as claimed in claim l wherein the
The blades 170 are carried by a cross head 185 which
means for alternately compressing the tubes comprises
receives the limb 186 of a T-shaped member of which
for each tube a fixed abutment and a blade disposed on
the other limb 187 passes through a ball joint 188. The
the opposite side of said tube, said blade being mounted
ball joint 188 is received by a carrier 189 which is
mounted in a tubular shaft 190 so that the ball joint is 50 for reciprocation in a direction to compress the tube
against said abutment.
eccentric with respect to the axis of rotation of the shaft
4. A mechanism as claimed in claim 3 wherein the
190. The shaft 190 is driven in any suitable manner
blades are mounted on opposite Sides of the respective
(not shown) through pins 191 (or axial splines) which
tubes and are coupled together for reciprocation in unison
permit the drive to shaft 198 to be maintained while it
is moved axially.
~As the shaft 190 is rotated a conic movement is im
parted to the limb 187 by the eccentrically mounted ball
joint 188 with the result that the limb 186 performs an
oscillatory movement about the axis 192. Consequently
55 simultaneously compressing one tube and releasing the
other tube from compression.
5. A mechanism as set forth in claim 4 wherein said
blades are coupled for adjustment of their relative spac
ing for thereby varying the extent of compression of said
the blades 170 are moved towards and away from the 60 tubes.
6. A mechanism as set forth in claim 4 wherein a
central plate 180 thereby alternately to compress and
crank mechanism is connected to reciprocate said blades,
relieve the tubes 101 from compression.
said crank mechanism including means for varying the
The hollow shaft 190 is mounted on bearings 193
amplitude of reciprocation of said blades.
within a housing 194 which is slidable axially within the
7. A pumping mechanism for circulating a liquid with
frame 195. The housing 194 is screw threaded at 198
a pulsating action comprising two resilient tubes arranged
into the main frame 195 and carries a skew gear 196
in parallel, a suction valve and a discharge valve for each
which is engaged by a skew pinion 197. When the pinion
tube, both suction valves being at the same ends of the
197 is rotated the housing 194 is adjusted axially rela
tubes and both discharge valves being at the other ends
tively to the housing 195 and the position of the ball
joint 188 lengthwise of the limb 187 is varied. When the 70 of the tubes, a common ñuid inlet leading to both section
valves, a common iluid outlet leading from the discharge
ball joint is near the free end of the limb 187 the extent of
oscillation of the blades 170 is relatively small. This is
valves, means for alternately subjecting the tubes to a
shown in FIG. 14. When, however, the ball joint 188 is
predetermined compression over substantially the entire
moved nearer the limb 186 (as shown in FIG. 15) the
length of each tube, said last means comprising for each
extent of the oscillation of the blades 170 is increased.
tube a ñxed abutment and a blade disposed on opposite
sides of said tube, said blade being mounted for recípro
ing for thereby varying the extent of compression of said
cation in a direction to compress the tube against said
abutment, said blades being mounted on opposite sides of
the respective tubes and being coupled together for recip
roeation in unison for simultaneously compressing one
tube and releasing the other tube from compression.
8. A pumping mechanism for circulating a liquid with
a pulsating action comprising two resilient tubes arranged
in parallel, a suction valve and a discharge valve for each
tube, both suction valves being at the same ends of the 10
tubes and both discharge valves being at the other ends
of the tubes, a common fluid inlet leading to both suction
valves, a common ñuid outlet leading from the discharge
valves, and means for alternately subjecting said tubes
to a predetermined compression over substantially the en
tire length of each tube, said means comprising a fixed
abutment for each tube and a blade disposed on the op
posite side of said tube, said blade being mounted for
reciprocation in a direction to compress the tube against
said abutment.
9. A mechanism as set forth in claim 7 wherein said
blades are coupled for adjustment of their relative spac
10. A mechanism as set forth in claim 7 wherein a
crank mechanism is connected to reciprocate said blades,
said crank mechanism including means for varying the
amplitude of reciprocation of said blades.
References Cited in the file of this patent
Tobler ______________ __. Oct. 22, 1918
Vollmann ___________ __ May 10, 1927
Armstrong et al. ______ __ July 26, 1955
Germany _____________ _- July 3, 1902
Italy ________________ __ Apr. 30, 1956
Mustard et al.: “Extracorporal Circulation,” Surgery,
vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 803-810 (pp. 803~04 relied on),
November 1952.
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