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Патент USA US3021633

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Feb. 20, 1962
. FAILLA
3,021,623
BUCKET EXCAVATOR SLIDABLE ON RIGID GUIDE PARTICULARLY
FOR FRONTAL DIGGING AT VERTICAL WALLS
Filed May 25, 1959
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Feb. 20, 1962
l. FAlLLA
,
3,021,623
BUCKET EXCAVATOR SLIDAB LE 0N RIGID GUIDE PARTICULARLY
FOR FRONTAL DIGGING AT VERTICAL WALLS
Filed May 25, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Feb. 20, 1962
I. FAIL LA
3,02 1,623
BUCKET EXCAVATOR SLIDABLE ON RIGID GUIDE PARTICULARLY
FOR FRONTAL DIGGING AT VERTICAL WALLS
Filed May 25, 1959
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
10$
143__
Fi 9.20
H93]
E?Zl?Zii
Patented Feb. 29, 1982
2
carries the winches 20 and 21 provided with motion in
-
both directions as well as with brake.
3,021,623
BUCKET EXCAVATOR SLIDABLE ON RIGID
GUIDE PARTEQULARLY FOR FRONTAL DIG
GlNG AT VERTICAL WALLET)
With 22 is indicated a ?rst operating rope coming from
the drum of the winch 20 and passing subsequently over
the tackles 1l?—5—l3--8, destined to cause the rotations
of the bucket in charging and in discharging.
With 23 is indicated a second rope coming from the
drum of the winch 21, passing successively over the
tackles 17—7 and ?xed at its end at the bottom of the
Ignazio Failia, Viale Bianca Maria 19, Milan, ltaly
Filed May 25, 1959, Ser. No. 315,441
Claims priority, application lltaly May 28, 1958
11 tllairns. (Cl. 37-103)
It is an object of the present invention to provide an
excavator particularly suited for the digging of trenches
at any depth, with vertical walls also at the face front,
acting to excavate in the ground, from the starting level
down to the desired depth, a trench having width equal to
the width of the shovel and length equal to the straddle of 15
slide; with 24, a third rope passing successively over the
tackles 16-5, fixed at its end at the top of the slide and
coming from the same drum of the winch 21 on which it
is wound up however in a sense contrary to 23.
In FIGURES 2-3 and 4 the numerals indicate the same
parts as indicated in FIGURE 1.
the longitudinal direction by frontal action of the shovel
on the face front: said excavator is essentially constituted
Operation is as follows:
Having to start the excavation of the ?rst hole, the
initial position of the unit is indicated in FIGURE ‘1. By
by a rigid guide on which there is slidable a slide at the
rotating at ?rst, for instance clockwise, the winch 21,
said shovel, as well as to prolong the trench so made, in
lower end of which there is articulated the shovel bucket, 20 through the rope 23, ?xed to the slide 1, in turn contrast
said guide being supported vertically slidable on a support
ing with the stop ill, one obtains, a certain lifting of the
ing frame which may be displaceable on tracks or wheels,
assembly of the guide, slide and bucket, which then by
putting the winch 21. to idle, is allowed to fall back freely:
carrying two drive pulleys or winches, one for operating
the slide and the rigid guide, the other one for operating
thereby the bucket border 25 is driven into the ground,
the slide and the rotation of the shovel bucket, the two 25 the shape and length of said border being such that it ?nds
pulleys being provided with a reversing gear and a brake.
itself below the guide 1 and in alignment with its rear face.
The invention is described with reference to some pre
ferred embodiments illustrated diagrammatically, by way
of example, in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
. On having blocked the winch 21, now the rotation of
the shovel is caused by actuating for instance in anti
clockwise direction the winch 26 and winding up thereon
FIG. 1 represents the side View of the unit at the starting 30 the rope 22 which, since it passes over the tackle 5, con
of the ?rst hole in the ground;
temporaneously induces in the guide 1 an effort down
ward which ensures its ?xing to the ground in coopera
FIG. 2 shows a horizontal section taken along A—-A;
FIG. 3 represents the shovel of the bucket in axonomet
tion with the collar 18, and the slidable support 19, with
ric projection;
the rope 23, as well as with possible reactions of the
FIG. 4 shows the unit at the beginning of the longi~ 35 ground upon said guide. By etfect of the arrangement
tudinal prosecution of the digging;
of the pins 14 and 9 and of the tackles 8 and 13 at the
vertices of a quadrilateral with angles each smaller than
FIG. 5 represents the top view of the drive friction
wheel acting upon a rope for operating the slide and
180°, the pull of the rope 22 causes the rotation of the
guide;
shovel 10 at ?rst about the pin 9 and then, on completion
FIG. 6 represents the assembling diagram of the rope 40 of the stroke of this ?rst revolution, about the pin 14;
for operating the slide and guide;
since the pins 9 and 14 appear-at the beginning of each
revolution—-displaced forward with respect to the plane
FEGS. 7-8-9 represent a different assembling diagram
for the rope for controlling the slide and guide;
of the botom of the shovel terminated by the border 25,
FIG. 10 shows the discharge system for discharging the
one obtains that said plane attacks the ground always at
material excavated by the shovel, in the two positions of 45 a positive angle, also under the guide 1.
During said rotations any movement upward of the pin
open and closed shovel;
FIG. 11 shows in detail the system for closing the
9 is prevented by the rope 23, because, as said, the winch
shovel;
FIGS. 12-13-14 are particulars of the hooking-in and
unhooking system for the bucket;
FIGS. 15-16-17 show the various stages of the hook
ing-in and unhooking operation of the bucket;
FIGS. 18-19-20-21 show in the various stages the
system of automatic closing and opening of the shovel.
With reference to the drawings in FIGURE 1 with 1 is
indicated the rigid guide, with 2 the slide, with 3 the as
sembly constituting the bucket and with 4 the supporting
framing. On the guide 1 at top there is provided the
double-throat tackle 5, along the front face the grooves 6
for the slide 2, and towards the lower end the tackle 7.
The slide 2 slidable within the grooves 6, carries at top
the group of tackles S and at bottom the pin 9; the stop 10
rigid with the guide 1 prevents further sliding of the slide
21 is blocked. In the course of the rotations, the bucket
becomes ?lled with the material excavated; by the end
of the second rotation of the shovel, since the anticlock
wise movement of the winch 2i) continues, the winch 21 is
unlocked and put to idle; thereby a downward movement
of the guide 1 is obtained, until its tip touches the bottom
of the excavation performed by the shovel, and the upward
55 rising of the slide sliding in the groove 6 of the guide,
together with the bucket totally rotated upward and full;
when the bucket has reached the desired height, tilting is
caused by blocking the winch 21 and by rotating the winch
20 anticlockwise; the material falling is collected on a
special movable plane to be inserted under the bucket,
and is removed. Now everything is brought back to the
initial position of FIGURE 1 by rotating clockwise both
the winch 2t) and the winch 21 and a series of operations
identical to those described, thereby obtaining the deepen
downwards. The bucket 3 comprises the shovel 11 ro
tatable about the pin 14 and provided with an arm 12 65 ing of the excavation up to the maximum depth allowed
(carrying the tackle 13) and with a sharp edge 25, and
the rotatable arm 15 which in turn is rotatable about the
by the length of the guide 1.
Since now the excavation has to be extended in longi
tudinal direction, the guide 1 is displaced toward the face
front: to that end the slide is blocked provisionally to the
guide at the upper end of its stroke and, therefore, the
70
single-throat, sustains the rigid guide 1 vertically slidable,
guide is lifted by rotating the winch 21 in anticlockwise
by means of the collar 18 and the slidable support 19, and
direction, until liberating the tip from the ‘ground and
pin 9 of the slide 2 and carries the pin 14. The support 4
provided with the tackles 16 and 17 respectively two- and
3,021,623
4
permitting its displacement forward together with the
curved by way of a hook with the slot 146; 147 is a pin,
carried loosely by the arm 123, whereon is pivoted the
wheel 148, which in turn can rotate, for instance anti
support 4. When the desired position is attained, the tip
of the guide is driven by falling into the bottom of the
excavation thereby obtaining the position reproduced in
clockwise, freely and in opposed direction rigid with
FIG. 4. On release of the slide from the guide, the exca
the pin; 149 is a cam having the shape of an ellipse, pivoted
rigidly on 147; 150 is a pin carried by the wheel 148
vation is started, making the bucket fall onto the ground
with the clockwise rotation of the winches 20 and 21
whereon there is pivoted the link 151, which at its opposed
and causing then rotation thereof by blocking the winch
end carries the roller 132; 152 is a return spring for the
21 and rotating the winch 20 anticlockwise. In that stage
pin 150; 153 is the fulcrum, carried by the arm 123, of
the guide 1 is ?xed by the action of the rope 22, together 10 the oscillating lever 154, actuated by the plate 149 and
with the support 4, the rope 23 and the reaction of the
actuating the springed hook 135.
ground on the tip of said guide.
Operation is as follows: The rope 103 (FIGURES 5-6)
The lifting and discharging of the bucket is analogous
is wound on the drive friction wheel 101 a number n
to that already described.
Excavation is carried on until reaching the desired level
and then the guide is displaced again toward the face
of times, adapted to ensure the transmission of movement;
hence its two branches pass through the tackles 106 and
107 of the support ‘102, over the tackles 108 and 109
of the ends of the guide 104 and are ?xed at 117 and 118
front, by repeating the operations described.
In FIGURES 5 to 21 are illustrated some variants which
to the slide 105; a turnbuckle 114 inserted on one of
the two branches permits to tension the rope as desired.
concern the system of the operating ropes and the system
of discharging the shovel. Namely the two ropes that
served to the operation of the slide and the guide are
replaced by the two branches of one single rope wound
The movement, for instance in anticlockwise direction,
of the drive wheel, causes the slide to ascend again along
the guide; clockwise movement causes the descent of the
with n windings in a drive wheel provided with reverse
slide along the guide, and when this has attained the lower
motion and with brake, and this according to two possible
end-of-stroke, the re-ascent of the guide rigidly with the
assembling schemes; moreover the rope that served for 25 slide; the stopping of the drive wheel causes the blocking
the rotation of the shovel is now utilised also for the
of the guide-and-slide system, in the position reached.
ascending and descending movement of the slide as well as
As a variant (FIGURES 7-8-9) to diminish the driving
for the operation of discharge of the shovel, which opera
effort, the rope 103, wound up as above on the wheel 101,
tion takes place by means of opening of said shovel;
passes with one branch over the tackle 106 of the support,
?nally a system is described which is adapted to obtain 30 over va throat of the tackle 110 placed at the summit of the
mechanically the hooking-in and the unhooking of the
guide 104, over the tackle 112 carried by the slide 105,
bucket with respect to the slide, and another system which
over the second throat of the tackle 110 and then is ?xed
is adapted to open and to close mechanically the opening
to the support at 115; with its other branch it passes over
hook of the shovel.
the tackle 107 of the support, over one throat of the
With 101 is indicated the friction wheel carried by the 35 tackle 111 placed above the lower tip of the guide, over
supporting framing 102 and provided with motion in both
the tackle 113 carried by the slide, over the second throat
directions and with braking means, whereon there is
of the tackle 111 and then is ?xed at 116 to the support; a
wound up a number of windings su?icient for the trans
turnbuckle 114 inserted on one of the, two branches of
mission of the movement to the rope 103 for operation
the rope, permits to tension the rope at will.
of the guide 104 and of the slide 105; 106 and 107 are 40
The movement of the drive wheel ‘in both directions
two single-throat tackles carried by the support 102; 108
and its stoppage, vcauses, with half as great an effort, the
and 109 are two single-throat carried by the guide 104
same effects as indicated above.
towards its two ends; 110 and 111 are two double-throat
The rope 129 (FIGURES lO-l5-16-17) coming from
tackles carried by the guide 104 towards its two ends;
the drum of a winch carried by the support 102, passes
112 and 113 are two single-throat tackles placed on the
over the tackle 130 placed at the summit of the guide
slide 105; 114 is a turn-buckle for the rope 103; 115 and
104, is wound up n times over the tackles 127 and 128
116 are the fastenings of the ends of the rope 103 to the
support 102; 117 and 118 are the fastening of the ends
of the rope 103 to the slide 105; 119 is the bucket, con
stituted by the shovel 120, the vertical sides whereof are
pivotally supported at 121 on eye-braces carried by part
of the bottom 122 which remains rigid with the ?xed arm
123, pivoted in turn at 124 to the rotatable arm 125 which
is loose on the pin 126 carried by the slide 105; 127 is a
tackle with n throats, supported at the upper end of the
slide 105; 128 is a tackle with m throats supported at the
end of the arm 123; 129 is the rope for operating the
bucket, coming from the drum of a winch carried by the
basement 102, passing over the tackle 130, placed at the
summit of the guide 104, in the tackles 127 and 128 n
times, and ?xed at its end at 131 to the rotatable part
of the shovel 120; 132 is a pin projecting from the arm
123; 133 is a hook adapted to hook-in the pin 132 on
control; 134 is a projection carried by that part of the
shovel 120, which is rotatable with respect to the ?xed
part 122, and limiting said relative rotation; 135 is the
springed hook for closing the shovel, constituted by the
rod 136, by the spring 137, by the head 138, by the perfor
and then its end is ?xed at 131 to the shovel 120. By
winding the rope 129 up on the drum of the winch, there
is caused at ?rst the rotation of the shovel upward and
50 the approaching of the tackles 127 and 128 until these
abut at 140 (FIG. 16), whereafter the re-ascent of the
system slide-bucket is caused along the guide, inducing
contemporaneously in the guide an axial stress downward;
by releasing the rope 129 the descent of the slide is caused
55 along the yard and, when the slide has reached the lower
end-of-stroke, the tackles 127 and 128 are taken away,
which operation is completed by the lifting of the guide
by action of the rope 103 and, so completed, enables
the shovel to return to its initial excavating position.
60
The rotation for the loading of the shovel takes place
?rstly around the pin 124 and then around the pin 126,
owing to the particular location of the pins 124 and 126
of the tackle 128, which are arranged in such a way as
to form an angle with the vertex at 124, smaller than
65
180°.
In order to make discharge of the excavated material
easier, the shovel is articulated in two pieces, of which
one, namely a part of the bottom 122, is rigid with the
ated lamina 139; 140 is the end-of-stroke abutment be
?xed arm 123 and carries the two supports of the pin
tween the tackles 127 and 128; 141 are two supports 70 121, whereon there rotates the second piece 120 of the
?xed to the arm 123 and carrying the roller 132; 143
shovel: a stop 134 limits that relative rotation while the
are two ribs ?xed to the slide 105 and parallel, carrying
springed hook 135 ?xes the two parts to each other in
the pin 144 and the stop 147, adapted to supply a sliding
the position of closed shovel. The hook is constituted
surface for the roller >132; 145 is a heavy shaped member
by a rod 136 slidable rigidly with 122, provided with a
essentially in the shape of a sickle with its lower tip 133 75 head 133, and with a collar whereon rests a helical spring.
3,621,625
5
that tends to keep said rod pushed outwards and en
gaged in a slot carried by the plate 139 rigid with 121).
Moreover, the ?xed arm 123 carries the projecting pin
132 which on control can be ?xed to the hook rigid with
the slide.
Operation is as follows:
6
.
sliding (FIG. 19) is such that if transmitted by the rod
151 to the wheel 148 the latter turns by one fourth of
revolution in ‘clockwise direction, inducing the same ro
tation, through the rod 147, to the elliptic cam 149 which
placing itself with its greater axis vertical, lifts through
the oscillating lever 154 the rod of the hook 135. When
the shovel is opened, on pulling the rope 129 the roller
132 detaches itself from the hook, obtaining (FIG. 20)
sembly to surface level; by blocking the rope 103, one
by effect of the return spring 152 the return of the wheel
blocks the slide on the guide, and with the hook 133 10 148, of the rod 151, and of the roller 132‘ to the initial
one grips the pin 132; it is then possible to release the
position, while .the plate 149, the oscillating lever 154
rope 129 without causing any movement, and to open
and the rod of the hook 135 remain in the opening po
the hook 135 by lifting the rod 136 by hand, which by
sition, because the pin 147 is not moved in anticlock
compressing the spring 137 projects out of the slot of
wise direction by the wheel 148; by loosening the rope
the plate 139: when said hooking-in is obtained, the 15 129 to make the roller 132 bear again against the hook,
The rope 129 is supposed to have been wound up on
the drum until causing re-ascent of the slide-bucket as
rope 129 is put again in pull thereby causing the rotation
one obtains (FIG. 21) a new rotation in anticlockwise
of the part 120 of the shovel about the pins 121 carried
by the part of the bottom 122 that remains standstill,
direction by 90°, of the wheel 148 and of the plate 149,
which is placed with its smaller axis vertical, releasing
through the oscillating lever the rod of the hook 135,
and, therefore, the opening of the shovel with discharge
of the material; the rotation is limited by the nose 134» 20 which is again capable of gripping the perforated plate
carried by 124} that strikes against 122. - After emptying
139 when the shovel is closed again by loosening fur
the shovel, the rope 129 is loosened and the part 120
ther the rope 129. The further lifting of the roller 132
of the shovel returns by gravity to rotate in contrary
from the hook brings the system back to the position of
sense about the pins 121, thereby closing the shovel,
FIG. 18.
while the rod 136, no longer lifted, returns to engage in 25
I claim:
V~
v
the bottom of the plate 139.
1. An excavator comprising a support, an elongated
When the hook 135 is closed, the rope 129 is put
guide disposed in vertical relation alongside said support,
again in pull and the pin 132 is released from the hook
a collar carried by said support and connecting said guide
133; then the rope 103 is unlocked and the slide-and
to said support for vertical sliding movement, said guide
bucket assembly is descended along the guide, while un 30 having a lower pointed end for penetrating the ground, a
rolling the rope 129, and a new excavating operation is
slide carried by said guide for vertical sliding movement
carried on.
relative to said guide, an arm pivotally mounted on the
lower portion of said slide, a depending bucket pivotally
obtained automatically with the device illustrated in H6
connected to the lower end of said arm, said bucket being
URES 12—l3—14-15—16, in which the two parallel ribs 35 engageable with said arm after a limited upward pivotal
143, ?xed to the slide 105, are connected with each other
movement of said bucket relative to said arm to effect
by a pin 144, which is introduced into the slot 146 of
continued upward movement of said bucket and said arm
the movable shaped member 145; when the pin 144 is
as a unit, whereby said bucket ?rst pivots upwardly with
at one of the two ends of the slot the member 145 as
a short lever action and then swings upwardly with a long
The fastening of the arm 123 to the slide 105 can be
sumes one or the other of thetwo positions indicated 40 lever action, ?rst means carried by said support and con
nected to said bucket for effecting pivoting and swinging
in FIG. 15 and in FIG. 16 (wherein it also rests on the
stop 147 carried by the ribs 143), making either the up
of said bucket, and second means carried by said support
per tip or the lower hook project from the upper limb
and connected to said slide for raising and lowering the
same.
of the ribs 143; the arm 123 carries through the two
?xed supports 141, the roll with horizontal axis 132.
2. The excavator of claim 1 wherein the pivot between
45
Operation is as follows:
said arm and said bucket is off center whereby the border
During the last period of the movement of rotation up
wards of the bucket, as caused by the rope 129, the roll
of the bucket swings towards said guide when said bucket
is released.
132 runs upward on the limb of the ribs 143 and by act
3. The excavator of claim 1 wherein said bucket is
formed in two sections, and said sections are connected
together by an upper pivot and a lower latch to effect the
ing upon its upper tip it obliges the member 145 to pass
from the position described in FIG. 15 to that indicated
in FIG. 16; by continuing to wind the rope 129 up on
the drum one obtains as already described (on com
dumping of the contents of said bucket, and cooperating
means on said bucket and said slide for latching said
pletion of the stroke of the tackles 128), the re-ascent
bucket in an elevated position during the dumping oper
of the slide-and-bucket assembly along the guide up to 55 ation.
a desired height: then the slide is blocked in the position
4. The excavator of claim 1 wherein said bucket is
reached, by blocking the rope 153; the rope 129 is un
formed in two sections, and said sections are connected
wound rapidly in such a way that the roller 132 While
together by an upper pivot ‘and a lower latch to effect the
returning back along the limb of the ribs 143, is taken
between the lower hook of the member 145, displaced
as in FIGURE 17, and said limb of the ribs 143.
Then one proceeds to open and close the shovel as in
dicated hereinbefore to release the roller 142 one must
slightly lift it along the limb of the ribs 143 by winding
dumping of the contents of said ‘bucket, and cooperating
means on said bucketand said slide. for latching said
bucket in an elevated position during the dumping oper
ation, said first means including a cable terminally con
nected to said bucket for pivoting one of said bucket sec
up the rope 129 until the hook of the member 145 slips 65 tions relative to the other when the bucket is latched in
said elevated position.
‘
off by effect of its own weight and returns to the posi
5. The excavator of claim 1 wherein said bucket is
tion indicated in FIG. 15, and liberating completely the
formed of a rear section and a front section, upper pivot
roller 132 in its downward movement.
means pivotally connecting upper opposed portions of
The operation of opening and closing the hook 135 of
the shovel, in lieu of by hand, may be obtained mechan 70 said bucket sections, lower latch means releasably con
nected together with lower portions of said bucket sec
ically with the device illustrated in FIGURES 18-21.
Therein the roller 132 which as said hooks-in with the
- hook of the member 145, is carried by the rod 151 and
tions, an elongated arm rigidly connected to said rear
can have by effect of the weight of the assembly (if it
means including a cable connectedto said elongated arm,
section and extending upwardly therefrom, said ?rst
hooks-in) a limited sliding along the arm 123. Said 75 a hook carried by said slide, and a pin projecting from
3,021,623
7
8
said elongated arm for cooperation with said hook to re
tain said bucket in an elevated dumping position.
6. The excavator of claim 5 wherein said cable is ter
minally connected to bucket front section for pivoting
said bucket front section upwardly to a dumping position
when said bucket is latched in said elevated dumping
said guide disposed remote from said slide, and the pivot
between said arm and said bucket being o? center where
by theborder of said bucket swings towards said guide
when said bucket is released and said ‘bucket is movable
beneath said guide to excavate beneath said guide.
11. The excavator of claim 1 wherein said second
means includes a cable having opposite ends secured to
7. ‘The excavator of claim 5 wherein said hook has
opposite ends of said slide, ‘a winch on said support, an
intermediate portion of said cable being reeled on said
means for automatically positioning said hook for en
'gagement by said pin.
10 winch, an upper pulley on the upper end of said guide
and a lower pulley on said guide adjacent said guide
8. The excavator of claim 5 wherein said elongated
arm has means slidably mounting said pin, and means
pointed end, an elevated pulley on said support, that por
connected to said pin for automatically actuating said
tion of said cable connected to said slide upper end pass
ing over said upper pulley and that portion of said cable
latch means in response to the engagement and release of
said pin by said hook.
connected to said slide lower end passing over said ele
vated cable and beneath said lower pulley, and a stop on
9. The excavator of claim 8 wherein said means con
said guide engage'able by said slide to restrict downward
nected to said pin includes a rotatable cam, a return spring
urging said cam to an inoperative position, a rod con
movement of said slide and effect the elevation of said
necting said pin to said cam for eifecting ‘rotation of
guide, slide and bucket as a unit upon the continued ex
said cam, and a lever engaged with said cam and said 20 ertion of a downward pull on said slide by said cable.
position.
latch means to release said latch means upon initial rota
tion of said cam by said rod and to engage said latch
means upon return rotation of said cam by said return
spring.
,
,
10. The excavator of claim 1 wherein said guide point 25
ed end slopes downwardly and away from said slide with
the point of said guide being disposed along a plane of
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
'
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,902,691
1,962,363
2,822,671
Downie ______________ __ Mar. 21, 1933
Reirnel et al ___________ .._ June 12, ‘1934
Dentz et al ____________ _.. Feb. 11, 1958
2,928,561
Faure ________ __' _____ .._ Mar..15, 1960
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