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Патент USA US3021677

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Unite
rates
3,021,667
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atet
Patented Feb. 20, 1962
Table I
3,021,667
Sample
METHOD FOR INlTiATlNG THE CGMBUSTIQN
0F HYDRAZHNE
Donald N. Griiiin, Niagara Falls, and Donald R. Feller,
Grand island, NFL, assignors to Olin Mathieson Chern
ical Corporation, a corporation of Virginia
No Drawing. Filed June 2, 1953, Ser. No. 359,294
5 Claims. (£1. ?ll-35.4)
10
Our invention relates to the ignition of monopropel
65% X2134, 30%
2% H2O
M115 >1‘ 0;, 2%
2% H20
62% Nz?l, 33%
NgHr \: O3, 8%
H20
Yes.
Slow
e
Yes.
Detonates.-No
Slow
_
Yes-_
No
AgNOzh
Yes.
A ___
AggOrOi __________ __
Yes _______ __
Yes ___________ __
No.
Noru.—“Yes” indicates prompt ?aming ignition. “Slow” indicates
?aming ignition after slight delay.
.lant hydrazine by means of solid materials which are
spontaneously reactive with hydrazine.
93% NHL,
15
We have also conducted numerous tests in a small
It is known in the art that hydrazine possesses utility
as a liquid propellant for rockets and other applications.
caliber gun in which monopropellant hydrazine charges
have been ignited successfully by the injection into the
alent salts of other common metals. In accordance with
our present invention, we have discovered that the silver
salts of oxidizing acids are reduced by hydrazine, and
ignitor would be more suitable than a solid ignitor mate
rial. However, if the ignitor charge were to be carried in
gun chamber of very small quantities of the silver salts
Its use as a bipropellant with liquid oxidizers such as
employed in accordance with our invention, particularly
nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide has been under investi 20 silver chlorate, silver perchlorate and silver bromate. In
gation for several years. With such oxidizers hydrazine
these tests the weight of the salt amounted to approxi
displays excellent self-igniting characteristics. In fact,
mately 1 percent of the total charge in the gun chamber.
hydrazine has been employed as a starting-fuel to ignite
Our invention ?nds utility in any case where an ignitor
such fuel systems as gasoline-nitric acid by injecting a
is used in conjunction with monopropellant hydrazine, for
small quantity of hydrazine into the rocket motor along 25 example, rockets, gas generators and liquid propellant
with or ahead of the main fuel system during start-up.
guns. For instance, in the ignition of a hydrazine mono
The use of hydrazine as a monopropellant presents a
propellant gas generator of the ?xed catalyst bed type, a
generator having a catalyst bed containing a silver sal.
special ignition problem. An external source of energy
useful in our invention either as a top layer, dispersed
may be used to initiate the monopropellant decomposi
tion reaction. This would include an electric spark or 30 through the bed, or at some other suitable location, will
be self-starting upon contact of the hydrazine with the
glow-plug system, or injection of a liquid oxidizer during
silver salt. This type of starting is satisfactory for a
start-up.
“single‘shot” application Where the generator is to be
Solid materials which display satisfactory self-ignition
operated
only once, as in a rocket or guided missile.
characteristics with hydrazine have advantages, over other 35
Our invention can also be employed in a caseless liquid
ignition methods, when used for the ignition of mono
monopropellant hydrazine gun. In a liquid propellant
propellant hydrazine in certain applications as mono
caseless gun in which the propellant is pumped directly
propellant rockets, gas-generators, or liquid propellant
into the gun chamber, some separate source for ignition
guns.
is required, since elimination of the shell case also
Silver salts are reduced by hydrazine, and their re
eliminates the conventional primer. it the ignitor mate~
action with hydrazine is usually more rapid than equiv
rial is injected into the chamber to accomplish ignition
of the monopropellant charge, it is likely that a liquid
the presence of the oxidizing radical simultaneously pro 45 or on the base of the projectile, or in some other similar
arrangement, it is likely that a solid ignitor would be
duces a vigorous oxidation of the hydrazine with the
more suitable than a liquid. A small charge of one of
liberation of energy. This overall reaction produces a
the solid silver salts which we use can be employed in
?aming or explosive ignition of the hydrazine. The
such an arrangement, causing ignition when it is con
presence of the silver ion alone, or the oxidizing radical
tacted with the hydrazine charge.
50
alone, is not sufficient to produce the ignition reaction
We claim:
described.
1. A method for initiating the combustion of hydrazine
We have tested the following silver compounds and
which comprises reacting the hydrazine with a solid silver
have found them to be e?ective in producing ?aming
salt of an oxidizing acid to produce a ?aming ignition
ignition of hydrazine and various hydrazine propellant 55 of the hydrazine, the reaction system consisting essen
mixtures: AgClO2, AgClO3, AgClO4, AgBrO3, AgNO2,
tially of the reactants and the resultants of reaction.
AgNO3 and Ag2CrO4. Thus, one aspect of our inven
2. A method according to claim 1 in which said silver
tion is a combustible mixture containing hydrazine and
salt is silver chlorite.
also containing a silver salt of an oxidizing acid as a
3. A method according to claim 1 in which said silver
combustion initiator for the hydrazine, and another aspect 60 salt is silver chlorate.
4. A method according to claim 1 in which said silver
of our invention is a new method for initiating combus
salt is silver perchlorate.
tion of hydrazine by admixing the hydrazine with one of
5. A method according to claim 1 in which said silver
the aforementioned silver salts.
salt is silver chromate.
In order to test the utility of various silver compounds
as ignitors for hydrazine, we performed a series of tests 65
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
involving dropping a small quantity of hydrazine or
Friederich et al.: Zeitschrift fur das Gesarnte Schies
hydrazine-containing mixture onto small samples of such
sund Sprengstotiwesen, vol. 21, pp. 49-52, 65—69, 84-87,
compounds in air. The reaction was observed visually.
103-105, 143-146 (1926).
,
Table I sets forth the results obtained using a variety of
Audrieth: The Chemistry of Hydrazine, John Wiley &
70
silver compounds with three di?erent hydrazine-contain
ing mixtures.
Sons, Inc., New York (1951), pp. 135, 138, 163, 183,
189, 199, 225, 227, 228.
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