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Патент USA US3021821

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Feb. 20, 1962
w. LIMBERGER
3,021,818
DEVICE FOR DEVELOPING AND FIXING XEROGRAFHIC IMAGES
Original Filed April 12, 1957
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WALTER LIMBERGER
INVENTOR.
AGENT
3,021,818
arena
Patented Feb. 20, 1962v
2
In the construction of the tensioning device as a dish
aeznsrs
like hand apparatus provided with a handle, the developer
supply device is arranged inside the handle which is pro-v
vided with an enlarged portion at its end and adjacent to
nnvrcn non nnvntornro AND FL‘HNG
rn -oennrtnc n/mons
Walter iiinbergel, Hamburg, Germany, assignor to
Lurnoprint
the tensioning device that one or more openings can be
K.G., Hamburg, Germany
distributed over the whole facing side of the tensioning
Original application Ar . E2, 1957, Ser. No. 652,409.
device.
Divided and this application Sept. 1, 1959*, Ser. No.
in a preferred embodiment, one or more open
ings are located above a step-like Wall part of the ten
6 illaims. (Cl. 118-4537)
sioning device on which the Xerographic layer support
10 lies or in which it is stretched, so that the developer is
My present invention relates to a device for manufac
reliably supplied through the opening or openings to the
turing copies using Xerographic layers as well as a method
upper surface of the sheet which is provided with the
841,917
employing this device.
nerographic layer.
This application is a division of my application Serial
The opening or openings between the supply container
No. 652,400, ?led April 12, 1957, now Patent No. 15 for the developer and the inside of the box-like frame are,
2,961,993.
advantageously, closable. The closure may be eiiected
it is known to prepare copies using xerographic layers
from the outside, in particular from the handle, and the
located on a layer support such as a sheet. Before the
closure means‘ can be constructed for example in the form
preparation of a copy, the xerographic layer must be
of one or more pivot ?aps arranged in the opening or
formed in an electrode arrangement. The Xerographic 20 openings.
layer is illuminated and covered with a powder containing
Preferably the invention includes a pistol grip construc
pigment particles which adhere to the con?guration of the
tion of the handle of the frame with a setting member
latent electrostatic image of the master in the xerographic
similar to a trigger for operating the closure of the open
layer. To produce the copy, the pigment particles are
ing or the openings between the supply container for the
25 toner and the inside or" the frame. It may be mentioned
fused into the xerographic layer.
The manufacture of copies using Xerographic layers has
that these openings can be arranged on several sides of
considerable advantages, although the use of this method
the box-like tensioniug device.
has not been previously possible on a large scale since the
it should be noted that the developer consists of mobile
apparatus required is extremely complicated and since no
pigment carrier particles, particularly glass spheres, and
readily operable device has been known to combine the
pigment particles which are transmitted from the carrier
several processes of the method. Even the distribution
particles to the latent electrostatic image, and that in us
of the powder on the latent electrostatic image requires an
ing the toner, only the pigment particles of the developer
exact and ?ne determination of powder dispersal which
are consumed by transfer to the image, but not the car
could not be carried out in known devices without a con
rier particles.
siderable consumption of the powder.
The measuring 35
of the amount of powder and the particular distribution
of the powder could only be controlled heretofore with
di?iculty and upon distribution the powder led to substan
tial soiling of the whole apparatus.
The invention
the object of providing a readily
operable device w
l. -
possible the preparation of
copies with nerogrr hic layers without material powder
and provides that in operation the special re
quirements of the particular images are taken into
,.
plate is provided 1' "t ‘a tensioning device adapted to
clamp the layer support or sheet between the base plate
and itself, the
occupied by the layer support on the
base plate being covered at a certain distance from the
layer supports at the same time means are provided for
guiding the coating powder to the developing space be
tween the layer support and the cover without removing
the cover. The to oning device is constructed as a frame
and has a dish-line lower part to which a handle is
secured. Over the dish~lilte lower part is located a ten
According tov the invention, the supply container for the
developer is divided into two chambers,
serves for receiving the carrier particles
for receiving the toner. These chambers
together in a separable manner, wherein
one
and
are
the
of which
the other
connected
closure is
constructed as a valve or slide-plate or the like which is
itself operable by a setting member on the handle or by a
movement of the handle. In a particularly preferred con
struction, both chambers are arranged one behind the
45 other in the handle of a dish-like device, so that the cham
ber with the carrier particles is adiacent to the box-like
frame and the cha rber with the toner is adjacent to the
carrier-particle chamber but opposite the frame and ex
tends into the handle of the apparatus.
in using the device according to the invention, the man
ufacture of copies with xerographic layers is considerably
facilitated, since the layer support need only be stretched
in the clamping device, which is subsequently moved into
different cooperating processing devices provided with
slots.
One of these devices is the forming device, which con
sists of an electrode arrangement.
It is so constructed
sioning rim for the layer support which has a certain
that over the tensioning device a number of electrodes
height and serves as a collecting rim for the powder grains
having small radii of curvature (e.g. wires) are arranged,
on distributing the pigment particles on the latent electro 60 whereas the counter-electrode is disposed under the ten
static image.
sioning device. The potential of this counter-electrode is
Advantageously, the tensioning device is constructed
supplied, on inserting the tensioning device, into the slot
in the form of a box with a closure device over the ten
sioning rim, so that the manufacture of copies is possible
with ordinary illumination. In particular, this closure
device is constructed as ‘a slidable cover and is made
transparent.
On the closure device is located a prefer
ably removable supply container for the powder.
The supply container for the mobile pigment carriers or
toner particles communicates through one or more open
ings with the inside of the box-like tensioning device and
is arranged directly on a side of the box-‘like frame.
of the forming device. Preferably, the lower electrode is
at ground potential so that the charged plate is arranged
within the tensioning device.
An illuminating device which is likewise provided with
a slot into which the box-like tensioning device according
to the invention is inserted, in order to expose the
nerographic layer.
On these two devices, are provided which co-operate
with special means provided on the closure device to
ensure, for example, that the closure device of the ten
8,021,818
3
v
-
-
.
4
i
sioning device is, open upon insertion into the forming ,_ In the embodiment shown, the opening 40 is closed ,by a
valve member 41 of truncated conical form which abuts
and illuminating apparatus and upon removing the ten
with its conical surface a correspondingly shaped opening.
sioning device.
.
The closed position of the valve member 41 is ensured by
. The forming and illuminating apparatus can be used
a spring 42 which can engage the valve member 41 directly,
with a plurality of tensioning devices according to the
invention, since they are in use only for a short time
for preparing a copy. The tensioning devices themselves
serve for distributing the coating powderrof the latent
electrostatic image and in one embodiment also as a
or operate through a rod 43 which is arranged on one end
of the valve member 41. On the other end of the rod
43 is located an operating knob 44 which lies within an
opening 45 in an end cap 46 of the hand 23. The spring
fusing device. By this, it is ensured that a particularly 10 42 is advantageously arranged between the actuating knob
44 and the closure 47 and the chamber 38.
~
?ne distribution of the coating powder on the electro
The chamber 38 includes a ?lling opening’ through
static image will result, and that no movement of the
electrostatic layer is required before fusing of the pigment
particles.
Further advantages and features of the invention will
appear from the speci?cation of the embodiments illus
trated in the accompanying drawing. In the drawing:
FIG. 1 shows a section through a device constructed
according to the invention along the line I—I of FIG. 2;
and
FIG. 2 shows a front view of the device according to
FIG. 1 from above.
vThe hand-operable device illustrated in the drawing
consists of a box-like tensioning device 22 and a sub
stantially horizontal actuating handle 23 arranged on this
tensioning device.
The tensioning device includes a frame 24, a base plate
25 and a removable cover 26.
The cover 26 is trans
parent and made, for example, of red glass or a trans
parent synthetic material, so that illumination of the sheet
27 lying on the tensi'oning device 22 is lprevented when
the cover is in place, but observation of the layer sup
port 27 is possible. The cover is adjustable in guides 28,
29 which are arranged on the longitudinal sides of the
frame.
An abutment 30 or a handle 31 serve for auto
matic displacement of the cover 26.
-
The cover is made box-like so that the upper side of
which toner can be charged to ‘the chamber 38. This
opening is not shown in detail in the embodiment illus
trated. For example, it can be formed by'the removable
arrangement of the wall 47 which can be opened by re
moval of the end cap 46.
For providing a connection. between the chambers 38
and 36, a pressure knob 44 is operated. By shifting the
20 rod 43, the valve member 41 with its end of greater
'cross-section‘is pushed in the chamber 36, 'so' that the
carrier particles of the developer into the chamber 36 are
forced from the opening 39. Through the angular gap
between the valve member 41 and the edge of the opening
25 40, the toner can then pass into the chamber 36 whereby
a measured amount of toner, determined by the gap, is
supplied to chamber 36. The particles delivered to the
chamber 36 lie on the surface of the carrier particles 37.
A good distribution can be eifected by shaking the ap
30 paratus.
In this way, it is possible without special devices to
have prepared developer always available. After use,
. the, pigment particles are replenished.
.
Between the chamber 36 and the inside of the box
like tensioning device 227is located a plurality of open
ings 48, through which the developer can ?ow in the di
' rection of the arrows 49 to the stretched layer support
27 and in the reverse direction into the chamber 36. The
the cover has a greater spacing above the layer support
openings 43 are so made that a uniform distribution
27 corresponding to the thickness of the frame 24. This
construction of the cover has the advantage that the 40 over the whole width of the layer, support is ensured.
For this purpose, the outlets of the openings 48 are
rigidity of the cover is increased and that, because of the,
widened.
greater distance of the cover from the layer support, soil
The openings 43 are made closable, so that escape of
ing of the transparent cover by'the toner is prevented. ‘
the developer from the chamber 36 can be prevented.
The frame 24 is preferably arranged to be at least
partly removable from the base plate 25, so that upon 45 Closure can be effected, for example, by ?ap-like parts
in the separate openings 48, which are operable from out
insertion of the layer support 27, stressing of the latter
side. The device illustrated includes another construction
and the base plate 25 by the frame 24 is possible. The
in which closure of the openings 48 can be effected by a
frame 24 and the base plate 25 are connected together
?ap 51 (shown in dotted lines in PEG. 1) pivotally ar~
by the hinge 32. The base plate 25 preferably consists
of electrically conductive material, so that it can serve 50 ranged on the upper wall 59 of the chamber 36 with a
web 52 arranged perpendicular to the axis of the open
as the counter-electrode upon insertion of the device in
ings 48. The arrangement is so made that the web 52
the forming device. Moreover, the base plate 25 is made
engages in a slot which runs in front of the openings 48
of good heat-conducting material so that heating of the
on
the side facing the handle 23.
stretched layer support 27 through the base plate 25 can
When producing an image, a layer support 27 with a
occur. This heating is effected preferably by a separate
heating apparatus in which the unit is inserted or by a
heating device not shown in detail and arranged directly
beneath the base plate 25.
. -
'xerographic layer is stretched by the frame 24 on the
base plate 25. The openings 43 are closed. The device,
which the operator holds by the handle 23, is inserted
into a forming device, during the insertion the cover 26
is moved back toward the handle by contact of the ‘abut
The handle 23 is secured by means of an extension 33 to
the frame 24 or to the base plate 25. Between the shank 60 ment 3%} with a corresponding projection. At the same
34 of the handle and the frame part 35 facing the handle,
a chamber 36 extending over the width of the frame is
arranged which serves for receiving the carrier particles
37 of the developer, for example glass spheres. The
time, the base plate 25 is connected to the forming circuit
whereupon charging of the Xerographic layer occurs. On '
removing thedevice, the cover isireturned to its closed
position either automatically or by means of the handle
chamber 36 can be so arranged that it extends into or 65 31, so that no illumination of the layer support occurs.
lies fully in the shank 34 of the handle, wherein guides
are provided merely at the side/facing the frame 34 or
the frame part 35 for uniform distribution of the toner at
The device is then inserted into the illuminating ap
paratus, wherein the cover 26 is opened in the same way
and is closed on removal.
least on the side facing the frame.
7
After the illumination, when the device has been re
The shank 34 is made hollow so that a chamber 38 is 70 moved from the illumination device, the openings 43 are
produced which serves for receiving the toner for the
opened and the developer is supplied through these open
developer. The chamber 33 is separated from the cham
ber 34 by an intermediate wall 39. In the intermediate
ings to the Xerographic layer with the latent electrostatic
image. By tilting the apparatus, it is possible to distrib
wall, aclosable opening 40 is located through which toner
ate the developer uniformly over the Xerographiclayer
can be supplied from the chamber '38 to the chamber 36. 75 to make visible the image by the layer of pigment parti
8,021,818
5
6
cles. This process can be observed through the trans—
parent cover 26, so that during this process very section
of the image can be developed to a greater or lesser extent
3. A device for developing a latent image on a xero
by appropriately distributing the developer by corre»
graphic sheet, comprising a mobile assembly including a
substantially horizontal base plate, a frame hingedly con
nested with said plate and adapted to clamp said sheet
sponding inclination of the device to those parts of the
image which are to be developed the stronger. It is
between itself and said plate, a cover above said plate re
movably secured to a side of said frame remote from said
thus possible by continuous observation of separate parts
plate, thereby forming a developing space above said
of the image to treat these parts di?erently.
plate, container means at a side of said frame and forming
After rendering the latent electrostatic image visible,
a storage space adjoining said developing space substan
the developer is returned through the openings 48 to the 10 tially horizontally, partition means in said container
chamber 36 by tilting the device, whereupon the openings
means subdividing said storage space into a ?rst chamber
4% are closed and either a heating device arranged be
next to said developing space and a second chamber re
neath the base plate 25 is operated or the device itself
mote from said developing space, said frame being pro
is inserted into a heating device whereby ?xation occurs
vided with at least one opening connecting said ?rst
by heating from above after removing the cover.
15 chamber with said developing space, said partition means
What I claim is:
being provided with a passage interconnecting said cham
l. A device for developing a latent image on a xero~
bers, said ?rst chamber containing a supply of mobile
pigment carriers, said second chamber containing a sup
ply of developing pigment adapted to reach said ?rst
box being provided with a substantially horizontal base 20 chamber through said passage upon a slight tilting of
plate, a hollow handle extending substantially horizontal
said assembly, said opening being so located as to enable
ly from said box, said handle being provided with an in
the transfer of pigment carriers and pigment between said
graphic sheet, comprising a mobile assembly including
substantially closed box capable of being opened, said
ternal partition dividing its interior into a ?rst chamber
close to said box and a second chamber remote from
first chamber and said developing space only upon a
more extensive tilting of said assembly, shutter means
said box, said second chamber containing a supply of
in said passage for preventing the admission of pigment
developing pigment, said partition being provided with a
carrier to said second chamber at all times and for tem
?rst passage interconnecting said chambers, means in
said box for fastening said sheet to said base plate, a
porarily blocking the transfer of pigment between said
chambers during said more extensive tilting, and shutter~
supply of mobile pigment carriers in said ?rst chamber,
control means on the exterior of said container means
said ?rst passage being narrow enough to con?ne said 30 connected with said shutter means.
carriers to said ?rst chamber while permitting the trans
4. A device according to claim 3, further comprising
fer of developing pigment from said second chamber to
said ?rst chamber upon a slight tilting of said assembly,
closure means at said opening selectively operable to shut
closure means forming an elevated second passage be
space.
tween said ?rst chamber and said box for enabling the
transfer of said pigment and said carriers from said ?rst
5. A device according to claim 4 wherein said closure
means comprises ?ap means hingedly connected to said
chamber to the interior of said box and vice versa upon
a more extensive tilting of said assembly, shutter means
container means and provided with an extension retract
said developing space completely against said storage
ably insertable into said opening.
in said ?rst passage, and shutter-control means externally
6. A device according to claim 3 wherein said con‘
of said handle operatively linked with said shutter means 40 tainer means comprises a substantially cylindrical hous
for temporarily blocking the transfer of pigment between
ing ?xedly secured to said base plate as a handle for said
said chambers during said more extensive tilting.
assembly.
2. A device according to claim 1 wherein said ?rst pas
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
sage is a tapered opening in said partition diverging to
ward said ?rst chamber, said shutter means comprising a 45
UNITED STATES PATENTS
substantially conical valve member received in said open
2,550,724
Sahel et a1. ___________ __ May 1, 1951
ing and a stem on said valve member traversing said
handle longitudinally by way of said second chamber, said
shutter-control means comprising a spring-loaded knob
on a projecting extremity of said stem.
50
2,550,738
2,635,046
2,877,132
Walkup _______________ _._ May 1, 1951
Sabel et al. __________ __ Apr. 14, 1953
Matthews ............ ..- Mar. 10, 1959
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