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Патент USA US3021954

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Feb- 20, 1962
w. M. HOLT
3,021,951
MAGNETIC SEPARATOR
Filed April 20, 1961
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVEN TOR.
WILLIAM M. HOLT
BY
W
Feb. 20, 1962
w. M. HOLT
3,021,951
MAGNETIC SEPARATOR
Filed April 20, 1961
A
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
FIG- 2
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40
INVENTOR.
WILLIAM M. HOLT
Agen}
United States atent C?ice
3,021,951
Patented Feb. 20, 1962
1
2
3,021,951
drum so that the attracted magnetic materials will be
dropped onto the discharge conveyor means.
MAGNETIC SEPARATOR
William M. Holt, Van Nuys, Caiif., assignor to Lock
heed Aircraft Corporation, Burbank, Calif.
Filed Apr. 20, 1961, Ser. No. 104,273
8 Claims. (Cl. 209--221)
This invention relates to an apparatus for separating
magnetic materials from a mixture of magnetic and non
An important object of this invention is to provide an
e?icient separation of magnetic materials from a mixture
of magnetic and non-magnetic materials with minimum
pollution of surrounding air.
Another object of this invention is to provide a magnetic
separator wherein all of the materials directed through
the separator are thoroughly turned and brought into con
magnetic materials.
10 tact with magnetic elements and e?iciently separate mag
It is frequently desirable to separate magnetic materials
netic materials ‘from the non-magnetic material in the
from a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials
mixture.
for purposes of reclamation or a separate processing of
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel
those materials. For example, ferrous ores or municipal
magnetic separator wherein a mixture of magnetic and
refuse contain a substantial proportion of magnetic ma 15 non-magnetic materials is passed through the separator
terials and it is highly desirable to separate these mag
and wherein the magnetic ‘field producing the elements of
netic materials from the remainder of the mixture prior
to disposal or processing.
the separator are alternately held in close proximity to
the magnetized materials and moved away from the mag
Many types of magnetic separators have been devised
netized materials so as to cause the magnetic materials to
but none of these in present use provide an acceptable 20 drop away in a desired location for conveying storage.
degree of separation of the magnetic materials from the
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel
mixture and' none of the previous magnetic separators
magnetic separator utilizing a hollow drum which is ro
have been widely accepted. One type of previous mag
tated While a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic ma
netic separator utilizes a magnetic drum over which the
terials is passed therethrough and wherein the minimum
material is passed and operated on the theory that the 25 power is required for rotating the drum.
magnetic materials will cling to the drum and may be
A still further object of this invention is to provide a
removed from the downwardly moving Side of the drum
magnetic separator which is simple in construction and
may be economically manufactured and which will have
long service life.
conveyor belt passing over a magnetic pulley rotating on a 30
Other advantages of the invention will become evident
after other non-magnetic materials have been removed
at a higher level. Another variation of this involves a
horizontal axis which serves to allow non-magnetic ma
terials to drop away as the ‘belt moves downwardly around
from the following detailed description which when read
in conjunction with the accompanying drawings will illus
the drum carrying the magnetic materials to the underside
trate my invention.
then pulling them away by lateral movement of the belt
in the drawings:
to drop them into a receiving hopper. However, in either 35
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of an apparatus
ofv these instances, when the mixtures of magnetic and
constructed in accordance with this invention.
non-magnetic materials are merely passed over the drum,
FIGURE 2 is a sectional view taken along lines 2-2,
the magnetic materials frequently never come in contact
FIGURE 1.
with the drum and are taken off the drum along with the
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged detail sectional view taken
non-magnetic materials. Also in this type of construc 40 on lines 2—2, FIGURE 1.
,
tion the magnetic ?eld holds the magnetic material against
FIGURE 4 is a sectional view taken on lines 4-4,
the drum with non-magnetic materials thcrebetween so
‘FIGURE 3.
that they are carried to the hopper designed to collect
FIGURE 1 shows the magnetic separating apparatus in
magnetic materials.
cluding a drum 10, an elevator 11 and a dust collector 12.
The present invention contemplates a magnetic separator A15 The mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials are
where any mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic ma
elevated to the top of elevator 11 from any sort of a re
terials is turned a plurality of times during the passage
ceiving mechanism at its bottom. The mixture is then
of the materials through a drum and the magnetic ma
discharged into a chute 15 which opens and dumps into
terials are effectively vbrought into contact with the inner
the lower edge of the inlet end 16 of inclined drum 10.
periphery of the drum. Magnetic devices carried by the
drum pick up these magnetic materials and efficiently
separate them from the non-magnetic materials.
The
present invention may be broadly de?ned as an apparatus
separating the magnetic materials from a mixture of mag
netic and non-magnetic materials comprising a non-mag
netic tubular drum which is open at its opposite ends
having support means for rotat-ably supporting the drum
in an inclined position, means for rotating the drum
Drum 10 is open at both ends so as to accommodate the
various apparatus extending into it from either end.
Many mixtures of magnetic and non-magnetic materials
contains a large amount of dust as would be experienced
Where the mixture was municipal refuse. Because dust is
an air pollutant, means must be provided to collect the
dust before it is discharged into the surrounding air. A
dust collector of the conventional vortex type 12 is pro
vided opening into the upper side of chute 11 through
around its longitudinal ‘axis, means for feeding the mix
the
tubular pipe 18. Drum 10 rotates separating the mag
ture to the higher end of the drum including means to 60
netic materials and dropping them into the conveyor 20.
remove dust from the mixture, discharge conveyor means
The non-magnetic materials remain at the bottom of the
extending into the drum adjacent the downwardly mov
rotating drum. The non-magnetic materials thus are dis
ing side of the drum for substantially the entire length
charged through chute 22 into waiting car 23 and the mag
of the drum, a plurality of magnetic ?eld producing means
carried exteriorly to the drum in circumferentially space 65 netic materials are discharged through chute 24 into wait
ing car 25.
relation around the periphery of the drum, each of said
The drum 10 is supported by structure 30 so that its
magnetic ?eld producing means being arranged to pro
duce a separate magnetic ?eld of the drum for attracting
inlet end 16 is higher than outlet end 17. Drive unit 32
magnetic materials in the mixture in the drum and means
rotates the drum continually during the separation opera
for moving the magnetic ?eld producing means away vfrom
tion. The drive unit 32 drives a spur gear 33 which
70
the exterior periphery of the drum in a radial direction
meshes with a chain 34 surrounding the center of drum
in the upper half of the downwardly moving side of the
10 providing for ?rm positive dn'ving traction. The drum
3,021,951
4
10 is supported ateither end on rollers 35 mounted on
the structure 3G.
The drum 10 is made of a non-magnetic material such
as stainless steel. Circumferentially spaced around the
exterior surface of the drum are a plurality of magnets 40.
,
be returned to the outer surface of the drum 10 when cam
rollers 53 ride off of the cam surface 55 on the downward
side of the rotating drum . The magnetic materials will
then be conveyed by conveyor belt 2%) to the trough 24 and
the car 25 while the non-magnetic materials will be
The magnetic materials will be attracted toward the mag
tumbled downwardly by gravity and the rotating drum
trough 42 extends to a point adjacent the downwardly
moving side of the drum it) so that wall 43 will scrape
magnets 40 may be used on any size of drum 10 without
10 to ‘the trough 2.2 and the car 23. Additional conveyors.
nets 40. As the drum rotates they will be carried up—
may be provided at the lower ends of the troughs 22
wardly to‘ the top of the drum where the magnets will be
and 24 as desired in place of the carts.
moved away from the exterior surface to decrease the in
Two sets of magnets 40 have been shown spaced cir
?uence of the magnetic ?eld on the magnetic materials 10
cumferentially around the outer periphery of the
so that they drop into the trough 42. Wall 43 of the
10. It- will be understood that any number of sets of
away any magnetic material which persists in clinging
departure from the principle of the invention. Magnets
A bracket 52' on each end of magnet 40 carries a cam
away onto the conveyor 20. The cam surface 55 is ?xed to
to‘ the separator during that portion of the rotation of the
separator in which the mixture is turned and these various
magnetic ?elds will be decreased in intensity during a
portion of the rotation of the separator to drop the sepa
rated magnetic materials into a discharge conveyor to
provide a highly effectiveseparating operation. ‘The use
of permanent magnets provides for simple economic con
plates 56 mounted on suitable framework 58 surrounding
struction ‘and a long service life.
to the interior surface of drum 10. Conveyor 20 driven 15 40 have been shown as permanent magnets. Soft cored
magnets utilizing the coil with a separate source oflelec
by the power unit 45 moves the separated magnetic ma
trical power may also be used without departing from
terials to the lower discharge end 17 of the drum 10 where
the spirit of the invention. It is apparent that the present
they are dropped into chute>24 and car 25. The non
invention provides a novel magnetic separator which will
magnetic materials will be moved to the lower discharge
end 17 by the constant tumbling due to rotation and gravity 20 e?iciently separate the magnetic materials from a mixture
of magnetic and non-magnetic materials. The mixture
where they will be dumped into chute 22 and the car 23.
is thoroughly turned during passage through the separator
As seen in FIGURE 3, each magnet 40 is ?xed through
to assure that all the magnetic materials will come in con
supporting structure to an arm 48 which is pivoted at pivot
tact with the magnet ?eld producing devices at some time
50 to bracket 49 ?xed to the exterior surface of the drum.
The spring 52 between ‘the bracket 49 and the arm 48 25 during the passage of the materials through the separators.
Separate magnetic ?elds are provided in circumferentially
biases the magnet 40 against the exterior surface of the
spaced relation around the separator extending lengthwise
drum‘ 10.
roller 53 which rides on cam 55 to lift the magnet 40 away '
from the exterior surface of the drum from the upper part 30
of its orbit on the rotating drum 10 to a short distance down
on the downwardly moving side so that the magnetic mate
rials held against the interior surface of the drum will fall
.
trouble in causing the magnetic particles to drop from
Having described the details ofmy invention, I claim
the following combinations and their equivalents:
1. Apparatus for separating the magnetic materials
cling to the smooth inner surface of the rotating drum 10,
the wall 43 on the trough 4-2 adjacent the downwardly
moving side of the drum will scrape these particles away.
is open at its opposite ends, support means rotatably sup
porting the drum in an inclined position, means for rotating
the drum around its long'tudinal axis, means for feeding
the drum. The magnetic in?uence decreases rapidly with
distance from the magnet 40 so that there should be no
from a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials
the upper end of the drum onto the conveyor 20. How
ever,‘ if for any reason the magnetic material should 40 comprising a non-magnetic material tubular drum which
The present magnetic separator is particularly well
adapted to the separation of magnetic materials from a
mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials such as
would be found in municipal refuse. As indicated before
the mixture is received at the bottom of a vertical eleva
tor 11 which carries it to its upper end by conventional
means and dumps it into chute 15. Dust particles which
are'preval'ant in the type of mixture described are sep
arated in the dust separator 12. The mixture then is dis
the mixture into the higher end of the drum, discharge
conveyor means extending into the drum adjacent the
downwardly moving side of the drum, a plurality ofmag
netic ?eld producing means carried in circumferentially
spaced relation around the periphery of the drum, each
said magnetic ?eld producing means being arranged to
produce a separate magnetic ?eld about the drum for
attracting magnetic materials in the mixture‘ in the drum
and means for moving the magnetic ?eld producing means
outwardly from the exterior surface of the drum in the
charged into the inlet end 16 of the rotating drum 10.
upper half of the downwardly moving side of ‘the drum
The drum 10 is rotated by the action of the drive unit 32
indicated by the arrow of FIGURE 2. All of the mate 55 for dropping the attracted ‘magnetic material into the
said discharge conveyor means.
rials will be carried a short distance upwardly by the up
ward moving side of the drum 10. The non-magnetic
2. Apparatus for separating the magnetic materials
materials will then fall back to the lower portion of the
from a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials
drum and the magnetic materials will be held to the
comprising a non-magnetic material tubular drum which
interior wall of drum 10 by the magnet 40 which are 60 is open at its opposite ends, support means rotatably sup
biased against the exterior wall by the springs 52. The
porting the drum in an inclined position, means for ‘rotat
rotation of the drum 10 provides a thorough turning of
ing the drum around its longitudinal axis, means for feed
the mixture such that all magnetic materials will come in
ing
the mixture into the higher end of the drum, discharge
contact with the inner periphery of the drum at some time
conveyor means extending into the drum‘ on an axis paral
during the passage of the materials through the drum.
65 lel with the axis of the drum adjacent to the downwardly
As each magnet 40 reaches the upper end of its orbit
on drum 14} the cam rollers 53 will contact the cam sur
moving side of the drum for substantially its entire length,
a plurality of magnetic ?eld producing means carried in
face 55 and be moved away from theexterior surface of
circumferentially spaced relation around the periphery
the drum thus reducing the magnetic attraction on any
magnetic material that is held on the inner periphery 70 of the drums each of said magnetic-?eld producing means
arranged to produce a separate magnetic field in the ‘drum
thereby causing it to drop away. The magnet’s material
for attracting magnetic materials in the mixture in the
will drop into the trough 42 and be carried away on the
drum, means for moving'the magnetic?eld producing
conveyor belt 20. Any magnetic materials not removed
means away from the exterior surface the upper half ‘of
in this manner will be scraped away by the wall 43 on the
trough 42. The springs 52 will cause the magnet 40 to 75 the downwardly moving side‘of the drum for dropping
5
the attracted magnetic materials into the discharge con
veyor means.
3. Apparatus for separating the magnetic mate-rials
6
?xed to each magnetic ?eld producing means, means to
bias the magnetic ?eld producing means against the ex
terior surface of the drum, cam roller means ?xed to
from a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials
comprising a non-magnetic material tubular drum which
is open at its opposite ends, support means rotatably sup
porting the drum in an inclined position, means for rotat
each magnetic ?eld producing means, a cam ?xed to the
supporting structure in such a position so that each cam
roller means will contact the cam to. lift the magnetic
?eld producing means radially away from the exterior
surface of the drum in the upward half of the downwardly
moving side of the drum for dropping the attracted mag
netic materials into the conveyor means.
25
around its longitudinal axis, tubular chute means for
feeding the mixture into the higher end of the drum, an
opening in the tubular chute means connected to dust ,
separating means to remove the dust from the mixture of
a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials com
veyor means extending into the drum adjacent the down
?eld producing means radially away from the exterior
ing the drum along its longitudinal axis, means for feed
surface of the ‘rotating drum in the upper half of the
ing the mixture into a higher end of the drum, discharge
downwardly moving side of the drum for dropping the
conveyor means extending into the drum parallel to the 10 attracted magnetic materials into the discharge conveyor
longitudinal axis of the drum adjacent the downwardly
means».
moving side of the drum, a wall extending from one edge
6. Apparatus for separating the magnetic materials
of the conveyor to a point adjacent the downwardly mov
from a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials
ing side of the drum to scrape off magnetic materials
as in claim 1 further comprising dust separating appa
which cling to the inside of the downwardly moving side 15 ratus in the means for feeding mixture into the higher
of the drum, a plurality of magnetic ?eld producing means
end of the drum.
carried in circumferentially spaced relation around the pe
7. Apparatus for separating the magnetic materials
riphery of the drum, each of said magnetic ?eld produc
from a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials
ing means being arranged to produce a separate magnetic
comprising a non-magnetic tubular drum which is open
?eld in the drum for attracting magnetic materials in the 20 at its opposite ends, support means rotatably supporting a
mixture in the drum, means for moving the magnetic
drum in an inclined position, means for rotating the drum
4. Apparatus for separating magnetic materials from
magnetic and non-magnetic materials discharged con
prising a non-magnetic material tubular drum which is
wardly moving side of the drum, a plurality of magnetic
open at its opposite ends, support means rotatably sup
?eld producing means carried in circumferentially spaced
porting the drum in an inclined position, means for rotat~ 30 relation about the periphery of the drum each side mag
ing the drum around its longitudinal axis, means for feed
netic ?eld producing means being arranged to produce
ing the mixture into the higher end of the drum, discharge
a separate magnetic ?eld around the drum for attracting
conveyor means extending into the drum from the lower
magnetic materials in the mixture in the drum and means
end for a length substantially equal to that of the drum
for moving the magnetic ?eld producing means out
adjacent the downwardly moving side of the drum, a 35 wardly from the exterior surface of the drum in the
plurality of magnetic ?eld producing means carried on
upper half of the downwardly moving side of the drum
the exterior surface of the drum in circumferentially
for dropping the attracted magnetic material into the
spaced relation around the periphery of the drum each of
said discharge conveyor means.
said magnetic ?eld producing means being arranged to
8. Apparatus for separating the magnetic materials
produce a separate magnetic ?eld of the drum for attract 40 from a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials
ing magnetic materials in the mixture to the interior pe
comprising a non-magnetic material tubular drum which
riphery of the drum, each said magnetic ?eld producing
is open at its opposite ends, support means rotatably
means being pivoted to the drum, cam roller means ?xed
supporting the drum in an inclined position, means for
to each of the magnetic ?eld producing means, a cam sur
rotating the drum around its longitudinal axis, means for
face adjacent the upper half of the downwardly moving 45 feeding the mixture into the higher end of the drum, dis
side of the drum in a position to be contacted by each cam
charge conveyor means extending into the drum adjacent
roller on each magnetic ?eld producing means so as to
the downwardly moving side of the drum, a plurality of
move each magnetic ?eld producing means radially away
from the exterior surface of the drum in the upper half
magnetic ?eld producing means carried in circumferen
tially spaced relation around the periphery of the drum,
of the downwardly moving side of the drum for dropping 50 each said magnetic ?eld producing means being arranged
the attracted magnetic materials into the discharged con
to produce a separate magnetic ?eld about the drum for
attracting magnetic materials in the mixture in the drum
5. Apparatus for separating magnetic materials from
and means for moving the magnetic ?eld producing
a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic materials com
means outwardly from the exterior surface of the drum in
prising a non-magnetic material tubular drum which is 55 the upper half of the downwardly moving side of the
open at its opposite ends, support means for rotatably
drum for dropping the attracted magnetic material into
supporting the drum in an inclined position, means for
the said discharge conveyor means, means to elevate the
rotating the drum around its longitudinal axis, means for
mixture to a point above the higher end of the drum,
veyor means.
feeding the mixture into the higher end of the drum,
means to connect the means for feeding the mixture into
discharge conveyor means extending into the drum ad 60 the higher end to the upper end of the elevator means,
jacent the downwardly moving side of the drum, a plu
means connected to the means for feeding the mixture
rality of magnetic ?eld producing means carried in cir
into the higher end of the drum connected to a dust
cumferentially spaced relation around the exterior pe
separator for removing dust from the mixture.
riphery of the drum, each of the magnetic ?eld producing
means being arranged to produce a separate magnetic 65
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
?eld in the drum for attracting magnetic materials in the
UNITED STATES PATENTS
mixture in the drum, each of the magnetic ?eld pro
ducing means having an arm ?xed thereto and extending
Stearns _______________ __ Feb. 8, 1949
2,461,008
laterally therefrom, pivot means on the exterior surface
Fisher ,._,.._ __________ __ Nov. 24, 1953
2,660,308
of the drum pivoted to each of the lateral extending arms 70
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