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Патент USA US3022174

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Feb. 20, 1962
WEIRDRAWINGS,
.
3,022,164
REPRODUCTION OFR. COLOR
FILM
TRANSPARENCIES AND PHOTOGRAPHS
Filed Sept. 25, 1956
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
YELLOW PRlNTER
Ysuaw
n50
mcslvm
emu
SEPARATION
GREEN
Pmmz
mam:
sum
WANTED YELLOW
UNWANTED YELLOW
MAGENTA PRINTER SEPARATION
% OF TRAN$MI§5ION
ynww
up
man/n
cww
mes/v
PURPLZ
BROWN
8L4 CK
UNWANTED MAGENTA
BLUE PRINTER 5EPARAT|0N
9:, OF TRAN5M|55|0N
YELLOW
3
IEO
3
MAGIHTA
5
CYAN
76
GREEN
PURPLE
88
85
51mm
BLACK
50
(00
WANTED C YAN
UNWANTED CYAN
YELLOW
4.
BLACK PRINTER SEPARATION
RED
4
mcmu
35
cwm
45
mam
PURPLE
BROWN
BLACK
60 v
WANTED BLACK
6/
UNWAKTED BLACK
Fig. 1
Pal/0b INWeir
VEN TOR.
Nip/5M.
Affomeqs.
Feb. 20, 1962
R. WEIR
3,022,164
REPRODUCTION OF‘ COLOR DRAWINGS, FILM
TRANSPARENCIES AND PHOTOGRAPHS
Filed Sept. 25, 1956
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
2
YELLOW
RED
MA GENT!
CYAN
GREEN
Buck PRINTER 55p. ~>
4
4
38
45
6o
YELLOW mama-R 55p, —-
76
I 9|
I 65
I 30
I 90
PURPLE
BROWN
BLACK
90
I
<~a
76
9!
100
#5
BLACK AREA \b
pumumx»
lmumnnu
4 ‘I‘d
MAGENTA PRINTER jEP. _>
IINWANTED YELlDW Q
(VAN PRINTER IEP. ‘>
5
WANTED MAGENTA ——>[
64-
72
I
35
41
I
lllllllllllllll
I lll
76
91
65
85
64-
I00
<_f
JHHIIHHIHHIHIHIIHIIIHIHTHTI<j
76
9‘
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llllIIIlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
30
9o
16
9|
100
5
‘m
F5
MH% +11
INVEN TOR.
KM.
Zl/forneys’.
Feb. 20, 1962
R. WEIR
3,022,164
REPRODUCTION OF COLOR DRAWINGS, FILM
TRANSPARENCIES AND PHOTOGRAPHS
Filed Sept. 25, 1956
4 Sheets-‘Sheet 4
E9. 4
YELLOW
Jul: 012 nun’
PRINTER CORRECTION
j/UYOUEFTE
MIER j/LIIUUITTE MAjK
BLUE jlumvzrrs hum:
YELLOW PRINTER jsuur/o?
YELLOW
RED
MAGENTA
CYA N
GREEN
PURPLE
ERUWAI
BLA CK
REPRODUCTION jl'REEN
CGRUICTED YELLOW
PRINTER
BLUE 0!? AMBER
AMBER fIL/(DUETTE MAIK“
MAGENTA PRINTER jEPARAT/O/l —>
REPRODUCTION I€REEN__>
ii’f?i?’mL»
Illlllll||Illlllllllllllllllllllllllll <—J'
CYAN PRINTER CORRECTION
YELLOW j/UIOUEITE Mljk ——>
CYANPRINTER IEMRATIONQ YELLOW
RED
CYAN GREEN
PURPLE BROWN
BUICK
REPRODUCTION SCREIII
mus jlwoums Mayra»
AMBER ?U/UUETTE mjx__
BLACK PRINTER jrmu r/an——>
PRINTER
CORRECTED BLACK
Pal/all Weir
IN VEN T0R.
“27/2, ?m.
AffomeQs .
United States Patent
I
ICC
3,922,164
Patented Feb. 20, 1962
1
2
3,022,164
100% record‘ of black in the separations.) Secondly, the
printer separation negative must lighten or eliminate the
unwanted or complementary colors; and, thirdly, the
REl’RODUCTION 0F COLOR DRAWINGS, FILM
TRANSPARENCIES AND PHOTOGRAPHS
Ralph Weir, 1306 Evergreen St., Chicago, Ill.
Filed Sept. 25, 1956, Ser. No. 611,954
22 Claims. (Cl. 96—30)
color saturation must be balanced in its mixtures.
are approximately:
My invention relates to the reproduction of colored
- graphic material and ?lm transparencies in printed form,
and more particularly to the correction of. unbalanced 10
color separations used for the production of color print
ers. Two methods of color correction are used to over
come the distorted color values, neither of which fully
accomplishes the desired result of rebalancing the color
values to their proper relationship.
crease or decrease color intensities.
'
C ?lter-Yellow printer:
,
Black 100; yellow 76; magenta 65; cyan 30;v green 90;
,
purple 76; brown 91
B ?lter—Magenta printer:
Black 100; yellow 5; magenta 72; cyan 35; greenv 41;
purple 85; brown 84
These are: color 15 A ?lter-Cyan (blue) printer:
correction by handwork and correction by photomechani
cal continuous tone masks made from the improperly
balanced separation. Hand correction is a highly skilled
art. It is time consuming, expensive and in many cases
impossible on subjectsv containing intricate detail in colored
areas. Hand correction is accomplished by staining the
separation negative or etching the printer positive to in
In
comparison to solid black at 100%, the proportions of the
other'colors in the accepted standard ?ltered separations
v
‘ '
Black 100; yellow 3;. magenta 3‘; cyan 76; green 88;
purple 85; brown 50
In some printing methods a fourth or black plate is neces
sary to give depth and form to the reproduction; The
black printer is usually made with a K ?lter. The rela
tionship between black and colors in this printer negative‘
is approximately:
It is governed en
K ?lter—Black printer:
tirely by the skill or judgment of the retoucher. Although
Black 100; yellow 4; magenta 38; cyan 45; green. 60;
it is time consuming and expensive, its greatest fault lies 25
purple 90; brown 55
in the fact that it is not controllable to any degree of ac
curacy nor does it provide a simple method of correction
for errors in judgment or skill on the part of the retoucher.
The above ?gures are based on balanced separation
negatives having reasonably similar end densities. To
accomplish this, it is essential that rigid control be main
If, after proofing, the hand corrected separations show
errors, it is often impossible to rectify the mistakes, in 30 tained in room temperature, light source output, develop‘
which case the work must be started anew. Staining is
usually done on each continuous tone separation nega
tive. The stain is applied by hand in stronger or weaker
applications to obtain the desired density. Chemical etch
ing is done on negatives to increase color saturation by
reducing density and on positives to reduce contamina
tion of unwanted colors. Application of either or both
methods involves skill and considerable guesswork.
Further, it is impossible to correct all areas of a given
color if the original to be reproduced has even a moderate
amount of ?ne detail.
In considering. color correction by continuous tone,
photographic masking is more flexible and less expensive
than the hand method but is limited in its ability to over
come color distortion. Its greatest advantage is in its
ability to duplicate the detail of the original to be repro
duced. Its greatest fault lies in its inability to correct
distorted colors without injuring those which are correct
er temperature, exposure and development times and rate
of agitation in development. In a large majority of
photographic plants having the most modern tempera;
ture and humidity controls, electronic exposure and light:
control devices and highly skilled craftsmen to attend the
human operations of judgment in processing, it is the ex
ception rather than the rule that balanced separations and
correctly proportioned continuous tone masks are pro
duced with consistency.
It has long been recognized that a practical solution
to the problem would necessitate a photomechanical
masking system to substitute for the handwork and guess
work of prevailing methods. vColor correction could be
simply accomplished with continuous tone masks if all
\ color‘ errors photographed
proportionately on all sep
arations. The basic principle of continuous tone mask-I
ing is to produce one or more masks from the original
separations or from additional separations made with‘
in the color separations. Reproductions from uncorrected
complementary ?lters. The purpose of the mask is to
separations, either by continuous tone masks or hand 50 correct the insui?cient densities in areas of certain colors
Work, appear muddy and degradedv because of oversatura
which the original separations do not produce in correct
tion in colors that photographed darker than the pure
relationship to the wanted colors. Since. the continuous
printing color. In relation to the black record, the wanted
tone mask made from one separation is used in the cor
color photographs at approximately seventy-?ve percent
rection of another, it is obvious that a high degree of
with all lighter shades diluted in proportion.
55 control is necessary if standardization is to be accom
The most common color errors that are manifested in
reproductions from uncorrected separations are: excess
plished. Mask strength is vitally important in any system‘
or" correction, yet it is dii?cult to consistently develop
continuous tone masks to precise percentages of density
of yellow in magenta, cyan, green, purple, brown and
black; excess of magenta in yellow, cyan, green, purple,
With even normal processing variables. It is often. neces
brown and black; excess of blue in yellow, red, green, 60 sary to make several masks before continuous: tone masks
purple and black. In four-color process the use of an un
of suitable density are produced. Masking has pro
corrected black printer contaminates all other colors men-'
gressed to the point where almost every conceivable ap~
tioned above.
plication has been tried. These methods have ranged
There are three major objectives in perfect reproduc
from single basic masks to multiple and masked masks,
tion of colored original which. present. standard ?ltered 65 all in continuous tone. Masks have been usedin contact.
with the separation to be corrected and spaced a dis
separations fail to attain. First, the A, ‘B and C ?ltered
tance from it. They have been registered directly on the
separations, which produce the cyan (blue), magenta
and yellow printers, respectively, should record the, pure
solid printing colors at least to that of the. black areas of
sketch, and have been placed between the sketch and
the sensitive material to be exposed. Some of the more
the original. (Standard. separations record only 72% to 70 complex systems employ: projection of negative’ and
positive continuous tone images on the original during‘
76% of. the. wanted solid. color in relationship to the
exposure; and partial exposure through‘ continuous one
3,022,164
4
Yellow printer:
masks placedrin front of the separation to be processed,
7
Oversaturation-black 30%;
then exposing through a plurality of ?lters not only to
7 green
17%; ' brown
18%
Contamination-magenta 84%; cyan 39%; purple
the original but also a blank white sheet to help con
trol contrast. Separations have been exposed, ?xed, driedf
and resensitized‘with colodion emulsion, then reexposed
99%
>
.
through ‘different ?lters tothe original. Because con
tinuous tone masking connot completely correct a speci?c
Magenta printer:
Overs'aturation—black 40%; purple 19%; brown
color without in some way damaging another, the im-~
Contamination-yellow 7%; cyan 49%; green 57%
18%;
' provements merely shifted the degree of correction to
different areas of the spectrum. Attempts have been
r
r
.
Cyan (blue) printer:
Oversaturation-black 30%; green 14%; purple 10%
‘ made to overcome this fault with preliminary continuous
Contamination—yellow 4%; magenta 4%
'tone masks to withhold densities in certain areas while
The most commonly used reproduction processes em
ploy a fourth color by the addition of a black printer. In
exposing a new typer‘l‘Masked Masks.” While this made
' possible hundreds of combinations of mixed percentages,
15 this type of reproduction, it is necessary to remove as
' it did not standardizemasking procedure.
To :avoid the multiplicity of masks, methods were de
vised to make color correction an integral part of the
printer separation by using'silver or dye image continuous
tone masks as part of a system of ?lter combinations and,
multiple exposures. To eliminate extra separation nega
tives with special ?lters, continuous tone positive masks
have been produced by exposure to the original and
reversing the image in processing or by using autopositive
much of the other colors under black solids as will avoid
a piling of impressions which result in a muddy reproduc
tion of deep colors. This is especially true in multicolor
high speed printing where wet colors are applied over
each other and mixing of wet inks must be avoided by
removing unnecessary color from under the black impres
sion.
.
'
In attempting to correct the yellow printer separation
of a hypothetical sketch by continuous tone masking, it
Panchromatic material must be used which .
makes it extremely dif?cult to develop to precise densities‘ 25 is necessary to obtain a mask having the best image of
colors which are degraded by the addition of yellow. It
. in total darkness. While these methods reduced the num
should not contain any image of colors which require
' ber of masks by morecomplicated and time consuming
yellow in their mixture. in comparison to yellow repre
processing operations, the resulting corrections were es- .
sented at 100%, the yellow printer correction requires a
sentially the same as multiple masking. Some systems
used'the original silver image of the continuous tone 30 mask of such percentage of intensity as to remove 84%
in magenta, 39% in cyan, and 99% in purple to approxi
masks while others recommended clear dye image con
mate the insui?ciency of'density in these colors of the
tinuous tone masks to eliminate diffusion caused by silver
grain. Dye coupling has been used to process continu
separation. Further, green and brown are oversaturated
ous dyeimage masks for the purpose of correction during
by 18% and black must be reduced to equal 100% yellow
exposure of the printer color separations. The disadvan
' for t rec-color process and substantially more if for four
tage in all methods which employ either silver or dye
color reproduction. No continuous tone mask can be
image continuous tone masks as astep in the progression
made from any single separation that obtains an image of
7 of. production of the actual color separations is that unac
only these colors in the proportions mentioned. Nor can
ceptable quality’ in the printed result demands rephoto
any combination of masks be produced by separations
graphing of theoriginal to produce new masks and subse
from special ?lters, multiple exposures or more complex
quent separations, A simple continuous mask for each
means, to closely approximate the ratios needed for
of the printer separation negatives can completely correct
proper correction of each speci?c color only. A contin
color. distortions by eliminating the unwanted or comple
uous tone mask from the magenta printer negative with
mentary colors when reproducing an- original which con
84% of the density of the solid yellow of the yellow
tains only the pure printing colors-yellow, magenta,
printer in the magenta areas could remove unwanted
cyan. For the purpose of a more complete'analysis, Va
yellow in the magenta and purple areas if it is combined
hypothethical original containing all the pure printing
with the yellow printer negative. However, this mask
colors plus their mixtures will give a truer demonstration
would remove a like amount of yellow from the brown
of the capabilities of continuous tone masking for color
areas which require 100 % yellow in their mixture. Like
7 materials.
correction. A controlled and balanced set of separa 50 wise, a continuous tone mask from the cyan printer nega
tions from 'a color original will approximate the color
tive when used in combination vwith the yellow printer
relationships previously mentioned, which shows the
negative cannot remove yellow from cyan and purple
' printing colors, yellow, magenta, cyan, at less than the ,
areas without eliminating a like ‘amount from the 100%
solid necessary for full color reproduction.
The tabulation below reveals the approximate propor
tions of each color to the wanted printer color when it
yellow required to produce thelgreen areas. The same
is increased to one hundred percent saturation:
obstacles are present in greater or lesser degree when un
balanced proportions ofgcolor areas in the other printer
separations are corrected by continuous tone masking.
Add to these complications the need for di?erent propor
C ?lter-Yellow at 100%; black-130%; magenta-84%; 60 tions of correction in black ‘areas to comply with three
cyan-39%; green-117%; purple—99%; brownand four-color process requirements.
118%
,
a
.
B ?lter-Magenta at 100%; black-140%; yellow-—7%;
cyan-49%; green—57%; purple-119%; brown
118%
A ?lter-Cyan at 100%; black-130%; yellow-4%;
magenta-4% ; green—114% ; purp1e—1 10 % ; brown
65%
i V’
_
»
The novel process has for its main object to provide a
series of master masks, made by exposing color separa
tions to contrasty orthochromatic emulsion of the East
man Kodalith type each of which bears a photographic
65 silhouette silver image representing areas of a certain
color contained in the original to be reproduced.
A further object is to provide a combination of correc
tive silhouette masks made from the master series, which
K ?lter-Cyan at 100%,; yellow-4%; magenta-38%;
used in connection with a dye colored variable
blue—45%; green-60%; purple-90%; brown 70 when
opacity'reproduction screen, can change the contrast and
55%
density in areas Where photographic ?lters and emulsions
have distorted the color balance in the separation nega-'
Further computation shows the following speci?c er
tives from which the original must be reproduced.
rors percentagewise in each printer if reproduced by three
75 Another object of the process is to provide a combina
color process, i.e., yellow, magenta ‘and cyan (blue):
3,022,164
5
tionv of transparent dye- receptive; masks made from. the
master silhouette masks, each of a di?erent color, which,
when combined with. a. dye colored. variable opacity re
production screen, utilizes the screen as. a secondary ?lter
by adding; its color to those. of the masks which can, in
combination, change. the contrast characteristic of the
original screen.
An additional object is to make possible by this new
method a novel application of existing dye colored
variable opacity reproduction screens, for color work.
An important object is to provide silhouetted photo
graphic’ silver image masks of such, nature that they
record selected colors individually and are of substan
6.
(2) The further employment of such master- masks by
combining them in printing‘ relationship with other separa
tions to produce by exposure to contrasty orthochromaticv
emulsion, additional master silhouette masks of reasonably
uniform opacity containing images representing only those;
colors which require elimination or reduction for their
proper reproduction in a speci?c color printer. These are
shown as g—i—-k—l—nr and 0 in FIG. 2. Masks thus
produced will contain a single color or a combination of
colors which require a minor or major degree of correc
tion (mentioned in lines 8 and 9, in column 10) for a, spe-v
ci?c printer. For example, referring to “a” FIG. 1,, it will
be seen that the yellow printer requires a minor correction
nishing a choice of masks which can be assembled in 15 of 30% in areas of pure cyan whereas, a major correc
tion of 65% and 76% is needed in the magenta and purple
a combination that will a?ect and alter only the im
tial opacity rather than. in graduated tones, thereby fur
areas respectively.
properly balanced coior areas in ?ltered separations.
A still further object is to provide master silver image
By following the procedure shown
in FIG. 2, a master silhouette mask “1'” is produced which
contains the minor cyan area correction needed for the
yellow printer. By further reference to FIG. 2 it will be
silhouette masks of reasonably uniform opacity, which
can eliminate employing black or dyed continuous tone
images made from standard separations having the com
seen that a master silhouette mask shown as “g” con
mon error of recording wanted and unwanted colors in
tains the necessary magenta and purple .areas' for the‘
unbalanced proportion to each other, thus creating a
major correction of the yellow printer. To either of these.
of corrective masks each of a different transparent dye
color which, when superimposed over the separation to
be corrected and exposed to sensitive photographic mate
printers can be made as shown in FIG. 2 or in other suit»
can be combined, in printing relationship, the black
mask that can correct certain color balances only at the
expense of further distorting, the other wanted or un 25 master silhouette mask “0,” produced as shown in FIG. 2,
to provide for minor or major correction of black areas
wanted colors.
in the yellow printer as desired, for 3 or 4 color printing.
Another object is to provide a selected combination
Master silhouette masks for the. correction of the other
rial through a dye colored variable opacity reproduction
able ways to produce the desired combinations. The main
objective is to produce a master silhouette mask with a.
screen, form a multicolored screened image in certain
color areas of the reproduction, thus transforming the
combination of colors which require a greater degree of,
correction in a speci?c printer and another master mask:
normal contrast of the screen in those areas to the proper
contrast needed to correct the degraded colors.
with combinations of colors which requirea lesser degree
of correction in said printer.
An additional object is to provide masks with a pattern
of dye receptive deposits which will accept full color
saturation, to consistently produce a predetermined con
trast in areas containing colors whose balances have been
distorted by photographic ?lters or emulsions.
40
A still further object is to eliminate the unreliable
guesswork and time consuming handwork in color cor
rection methods that do not employ masks.
In the accompanying drawings FIGS. 1 to 4 illustrate
graphically the principle upon which the invention is
based.
~
FIG. 1 is a chart representing four standard separa
tion negatives, the approximate proportion of other col
ors registered therein as compared to 100% black and
the relation of wanted and unwanted colors in each
negative;
FIG. 2 is a chart illustrating the steps involved in
separating unwanted colors from wanted ones in order
to obtain the master silver image silhouettev masks re~
45
(3). Producing dye receptive, corrective masks which
duplicate the minor and major master mask combinations.
for the correction of each printer, by exposing said masks
to a contrasty orthochromatic emulsion, developing ex
posed orthochromatic layer in high contrast developer of
the Kodalith type, subjecting the developed image to a:
reversal-bleach bath of the copper-nitrate, glacial acetic,
hydrogen peroxide type and ?xing in the usual acid hypo
bath.
To this point two things have been accomplished. First,
the minor and major adjustments for each printer have
been recorded on master silver image silhouette masks of
substantially uniform opacity, to provide for over all cor
rection in image areas. Secondly, in duplicating them by
50 the reversal—bleach process, the exposed and developed
areas from the masters are completely removed from they
emulsion base or support to render those areas non-recep
tive to dye, while replacing the unexposed areas with a
deposit which is dye receptive to the extent of its thickness,
quired. for production of the transparent dye corrective
on the emulsion base or support. The dye receptive masks.
55
masks used to adjust the printer separations;
thus produced are subsequently dyed in different colors.
FIG. 3 is a chart indicating the effects of differently
for use in the actual correction of the separations.
colored transparent dye silhouette masks, used singly
(4) Production of screened color printers for repro
or in combination, when exposed through. a dye colored
duction by my process requires that the dyed corrective
variable opacity reproduction screen; and
’
60 masks of minor and major adjustments for each printer be
FIG. 4. is a chart illustrating the application, of the
corrective mask. combinations and transparent. dye colors
needed to correct the separation negatives, in. order to
registered inprinting relationship to the printer separation
and the combination exposed by white light through. a
dye'coloredvariable opacity reproduction screen because.
obtain properly balanced printers. A description of the
the contrast range of such screens can be regulated by the
actual production, processing and novel, application of
color of light to which they are exposed. It is commonv
65
the silhouette masks in color corrections by my method
knowledge that yellow, or other colors containing yellow
follows:
in- their mixture, reduces the contrast‘range of a magenta
Brie?y, the speci?c steps required are:
dye colored. variable opacity reproduction screen when
(‘1) Exposing color separations to high contrast silver
those colors are projected through it for the purpose of
salt orthochromatic emulsion, such as Kodalith, Reprolith
producing a screened image ona contrasty orthochromatic
or Photolith, to produce preliminary master silhouette 70 emulsion. It is also known that blue, purple and violet
masks of complete opacity, or substantially so, which con
tain images of none but a speci?c printing color or others
react differently by increasing the contrast range of the
screen (as shown in FIG. 3).
requiring said color in their reproduction, as represented
Whereas screens of this type are designed to adjust con
by c—d—-e.-—j——m in FIG. 2.
75 trast over the entire area of a reproduction. by all over
"
_
V
/
'
8,022,164
illumination of a certain color, this novel method employs
them to greater advantage.
Because minor_ and major '
corrective masks are dissimilar in image and color,'they
form multicolor patterns when placed in register upon
the proper separations.‘ When the combination of masks,
in suitable colors, and printer separation is exposed by
White light through a magenta dye colored variable opacity
reproduction screen, it becomes capable of producing
multi-contrast adjustments in different areas of a repro
to contrasty orthochromatie emulsion of the'Eastman
Kodalith type and others and developed in a high con
trast developer such as Eastman Kodalith or others used
for line reproduction. The character of vsuch emulsion
and developer produces substantially uniform opacity
from portions of the separation which are only 10%
more transparent than the separation density of another
color, without recording the adjacent color. By exposing
about 75% of the time required for a normal line repro
duction and overdeveloping to substantial opacity in the
duction. Choice of dye color-is determined by the extent 10a desired color, a master silhouette mask is produced. ’ Ex
of contamination or over-saturation of another color in
posure time is’ not critical because development is per
its mixture with the wanted printer color. Dye colors
formed in adequate light during processing and can be
are chosen for their ability, in full strength, to change
stopped when the desired image reaches opacity. An
the contrast of the screen rather than depend upon strong
15
‘exposure
for thelblack master silhouette mask through
er or weaker application of a non actinic color to add
the
combined
separation “A” and “D,” FIG. 1, when de
density to the mask. Application of dye to the masks '
veloped and stopped at the semblance of an image in
by swabbing is both'fast and e?icient although brushing
the purple areas will record black minus all other colors.
is none the less effective. Application'of suitable trans
parent dye colors in fullstrength to the receptive masks 20 When dried, the master silhouette mask of the black record
is combined with the black separation “D,” exposed, de
produces the necessary minor and major corrective masks
veloped and stopped when the green areas begin to ap
for each printer. They are shown inV'FIG. 4 as “b” amber
pear. This produces a master silhouette mask of the
dye mask for major yellow printer Correction- “0” blue
purple area. From this point on, each new master sil
dye mask'for minor yellow printer correction- “h” am
houette mask is added to those made previously, to pro
ber dye mask for major magenta printer correction
25 duce the succeeding masks. To‘ eliminate the necessity
“g” yellow dye mask for minor magenta printer correc
tion- “k” yellow dye mask for minor blue'correction-- V
of reregistering, the masks are attached to each other
with a double adhesive tape to' permit their removal as
“o” amber dye mask for major black printer correction
a unit when transferring the set from one separation to
for 4 color printing- “21” blue dye mask for minor black
printer correction for 4 color printing- “a” blue or amber 30 another. Thus, each new mask is.added to the previous
assembly.
dye mask for major or minor printer corrections as de
. sired, for 3m 4 color printing. In the ?rst three illustra
tions of PEG. 4 the black areas of the corrected yellow,
Next, the master silhouette mask of the green areas is
made by combining the yellow and cyan printer separa
tions “A” and “C,” FIG. I, with the'black and purple
magenta and blue printers are'rshown as they would
appear if a cyan dye mask “a” is used for three color 35 master silhouette masks. After exposure, it is developed
and stopped when the brown area begins to appear. After
a printing which requires the’ three primaries to produce
drying, it is added to the combination from which it was
black. However, in four color printing an amber dye
made i.e. separation “A” and “C,” FIG. 1, plus black
mask “a” is used, in which case the black areas of the cor
and purple master silhouette masks, to produce the brown
rected primary printers would appear with less density.
(5) After dyeing the corrective masks in the manner 40 area master silhouette mask. The new combination is
then exposed and development stopped when the cyan
and colors described above, they’ are combined in print
area begins to appear. The brown master silhouette
ing relationship, by taping or other suitable means, with
mask, after drying and ?xing is added to ‘the black, purple
the speci?c printer separation for which'they were made.
and green master silhouette masks on the cyan printer
FIG. 4 shows these combinations to be masks “a,”.“b,’.’
separation “C”. It-is then exposed and developed to
“c” on yellow printer separation-“a,” “g,” “h” on ma
include the cyan areas, then ?xed and dried. The blue
genta printer separation—“a,” ‘k” on blue printer sep
master silhouette mask is then added to the black, purple,
aration and “n,” ‘.‘o” on the black printer separation if
green andbrown master silhouette masks in combination
subject is reproduced in 4 colors. Each printer with its
corrective mask combination is exposed by white light
‘through a magenta dye colored variable opacity reproduc
tion screen to a contrasty orthochromatic emulsion of the
type previously mentioned, to produce a corrected printer
which is fully ‘saturated in its wanted color because those
areas are clear and unobstructed in the masks, and cor
‘ rected in greater or
lesser degree as'desired in other areas,
to eliminate contamination or reduce oversaturation 'by
the reaction of the different dye colors of the masks to
the magenta dye colored variable opacity reproduction
screen.
'
,
'
with the magenta printer separation “B” to produce the
red master silhouette mask. After exposure, its devel
opment is stopped when magenta areas appear. It is
?xed, dried and added to the combination from which it
'was made, then exposed and developed to record the
magenta areas of the original. The magenta master sil
55 houette mask is added to the black, purple, green, brown,
blue and red masks in combination with the yellow printer
separation “A” to produce the yellow area master sil
houette mask.
'
By following the above-described procedure, it is pos
is often the case in reproducing an improperly exposed
sible to produce a complete set of master silhouette
masks, each of which bears an image of a speci?c color.
Thus, a combination of masks can be assembled to correct
color transparencywhere departure from the original is
speci?c distorted colors without affecting those which re
desirable, correction can be made by removing the dye
quire full saturation of wanted color. The yellow printer
If after proofing the corrected printers further adjust
ments are necessary because of error in dye choice, or as
with a suitable bleach and redyeing the mask with a 65 separation “A” in FIG. 1 shows three, colors which
should contain no yellow, namely, magenta,.cyan and
more effective color.
"
'
a
.
In the development of the present invention, it is as
sential to record each of the pure printing colors'and
purple. By assembling the master silhouette mask of
each of these colors. a combination is produced which
others requiring speci?c combinations to produce another
requires complete cancellation of yellow. “A”, FIG. 1,
70
color by their mixture. For this purpose, silver image
also shows oversaturation of approximately 0.15 in red,
silhouette masks (mentioned in column 10, line 13, are
green and brown areas. Assembling the master silhouette
produced of substantial opacity, and whose images con
mask of these colors produces a combination which re
tain a speci?c color or a' combination of wanted colors.
quires the' same proportion of reduction to equalize them
They will be described hence-forth as master silhouette
in relation to pure yellow areas. The black area of “A,"
75
masks. They are 'made by exposure of the separations
9,022,164
FIG. 1', requires 0224,. reduction if used in. three-color
process reproduction and more than 0.50 if used in‘ four
ci'olor process; Thus, with. two- assembled combinations
and; one individual‘ mask; in is. possible» to segregate the
proportion? of correction needed for color‘ removal of
varying percentages. Theprocessingi and application of
transparent dye- silhouetter masks will be explained fully
in succeeding paragraphs.
'
10
yellow and reduce oversaturationin the: brown: areas of the
cyan printer. A combination of. black mask “C” on black
printer separation “A” will produce mask “0” which
registers. colors. that: can be contaminated in the black
printer. This‘ will be covered’when black printer process
ing is. described later.
The above method producesz master silhouette. masks.
with: images that require major and minor correction
The magneta' printer "B”‘ in FIG. 1 shows contamina
photographically in proper relationship. While
tion magneta. which must be eliminated from blue and 10 grouped
the diagram drawings of FIG‘. 2 may- appear as separate
green. A combination master silhouette mask of the
operations, many, in fact, can be processed simultane~
two colors‘ provides for- their cancellation. “B,” FIG. 1,
ously:
also reveals that red, purple and brown are oversaturated
The silver image ~silhouette masks produced in FIG. 2
approximately 0.13 as compared. to. the wanted, solid ma
become the masters from which transparent-dye color
genta. A combination mask of these individual colors
corrective silhouette masks are made; The dye color
provides a master silhouette mask of these colors
silhouette
masks have a four-fold functionv in the system
without disturbing the wanted color areas. Again, the
of correction. First, they provide: a photomechanical
individual black master silhouette mask allows adjustment
record in silhouette of various areas of colors that must
for three or four-color processes. The cyan printer sepa
be. corrected. because of the usual distortion in. all stand
ration “C,” FIG. 1,. reveals contamination in yellow, red 20 ard
separations; Secondly, they can be made or assem
and magenta areas which must be. eliminated. along with
bled'
to supply a combination of imagesv of colors requir
0.69 oversaturation in purple. A master silhouette mask
ing
approximately
the same proportion of correction
combination of these. colors provides. for the. reduction
without‘ a?ecting the pure. printing colorv or its wanted
in purple, while eliminating cyan from the other three.
in other colors. Third, they provide. a stand
FIG. 2, “C,” also shows oversaturation of 0.12 in brown 25 mixture.
ardized'
method
that appliesto all originals, thus eliminat
and green as compared to wanted solid cyan areas. A
ing the guesswork in producing special continuous tone
combination of the brown and ‘green master silhouette
masks‘ for various types of subjects. Finally, the masks
masks provides for reduction necessary to equalize their
are. ofv such- character as to. provide images that permit
relationship to cyan. The individual black master sil
full, saturation of a predetermined dye color, which, when
houette mask allows adjustment for three or four-color 30 exposed.
through a dye layer of another color, produces
reproduction processes. The black printer separation
various contrasts and balances in precise areas of the ?nal
“D,” FIG. 1, can be corrected by assemblying master
color printer.
silhouette masks of all colors excepting black for a com
The silhouette dye masks used for ?nal correction can
bination which requires the complete removal of. black.
be
made on diazotype material, such. as ozalid, which pro~
By combining individual master silhouette masks of 35 duces
a clear dye image by ammonia fume development.
speci?c colors as described above, correction is restritced
Or, they can be made on. standard contrasty orthochro
to distorted color areas only. While the master silhouette
matic emulsion such as Eastman Kodalith, Ansco. Repro
masks and their combination explained demonstrate the
lith or DuPont Photolith which, after exposure and de
theoretical possibility of correction by the invention, it is
velopment, can bev processed by the reversal method to
possible to obtain essentially the same result by fewer
produce
clear dye receptive deposits that duplicate the
individual operations. A suitable alternate method which
master
masks
or combinations. The nature of the latter
achieves a highly acceptable result is illustrated in FIG. 2.
type is such that application of dye de?nes the unexposed
The masks produced by this method are exposed. and
and bleached silver halide deposit, leaving the remaining
processed in the same manner as the, individual masks
portions colorless.
The reversal type mask has an advan
described. All masks descr'bed below are of the sil
45 tage over the other in that error of dye choice can be
houette type.
corrected by bleaching and re-application of proper color
An exposure through the combined black printer sepa
without remaking the mask.
ration, FIG. 2, “A,” and yellow printer separation “B”
Atypical application,.FIG. 3, shows the changes of con.
produces black area silhouette mask “C.” A combination
trast that can be obtained in various portions of a color
of mask “C” and black printer separation “A” produces 50 printer
by- a combination. of dye color images. exposed
purple area mask “D.” By combining mask “D” with
through
both a typical continuous tone; silver image of a
yellow printer separation “B,” a mask “E” is produced
separation and a magenta dye colored variable opacity
which contains all colors requiring yellow in their mix
reproduction screen. The magenta colored screen used
ture if development is stopped when magenta area ap—
pears. When mask “E" is combined with’ magenta 55 in this demonstration was chosen because it is available
at present and‘ craftsmen are familiar with its character
printer separation “F,” a mask “G” is produced that
istics and uses. However, the. same results can be. ac
records the magenta and purple areas to be cancelled
complished with a reproduction screen of another dye
from the ?nal yellow printer. Likewise, when mask “13"
color by changing the colors of the. masks.
.
of wanted yellow areas is combined with cyan printer
separation “H,” the resultant mask “1” will eliminate. the 60 “A” to “D” inclusive of FIG. 3,. illustrate the results
obtained
transparent dye. silhouette masks, each
blue and purple areas of the yellow printer. If magenta
dyed with a different color. “E” to. “I.” inclusive show
printer separation “F” is exposed and development stopped
what changes: result from. a. combination of two masks
when green area appears, a mask “J” is produced which
of similar images each of which are dyed; with di?erent
records all colors having magenta in their mixture. A
combination of mask “J” and yellow printer separation 65 colors. “A” demonstrates the effect of 'a yellow dye. mask
ing positive from this combination shows. 20%. and 100%
“B” will provide mask “K” whose image contains the yel
transmission by’ projection through a: magenta dye‘ c014
low and green areas to be reduced in the ?nal magenta
ored variable opacity reproduction: screen. The result
printer. When mask “J” is combined with cyan printer
ing
positive from this combination shows 10% and 100%
separation “H,” a mask “L” is produced which can elimi
nate the cyan and green areas in vthe magenta printer. 70 density from the clear areas: of the. mask, whereas the
yellow portions. of the. mask have a 15% and 60%. ratio.
Cyan printer separation “H” is used to make mask “M”
The reaction of the yellow image superimposed on the
which, if development is stopped when brown appears,
said magenta screen through which" the corrected ?nal
bears an image of all colors containing cyan in their mix
positive is made, changes the contrast characteristic of
ture. Combining mask “M" with yellow printer separa
tion “3" produces mask “N?” which- is used to- remove 75 the; screen, leaving the clear areas to reproduce normally;
As further evidence that the combined? colors of the mask
12
11
can change the contrast of the positive print, “B” demon
'
FIGURE4 illustrates actual application of corrective
transparent dye silhouette mask combinations and colors
and'the dye color‘ed'var'iable opacity reproduction screen
. needed to adjust the unbalanced separations for each
strates what changes occur with the use of a bluemask.
printer color. Choice of silhouette mask colors is based
Here, the clear areas of the mask again register the
on use of a magenta dye colored variable opactity repro
"20% and 100% areas,‘ while the blue areas of the mask
Silhouette masks of other suitable colors
_ duction. screen.
in combination with the magenta ofrthe reproduction
must
be
used
if
color
of reproduction screen is other than
screen have produced a positive of entirely different pro
magenta.
portion of correction'in the blue areas of “B” and the
FIG. 4--Yellow printer correction demonstrates the ap
yellow areas of “A.” “C” and “D” indicate the changes
plications and results of dyed silhouette masks when used
10
in contrast in a positive when the mask dye colors used
in combination with the panchromaticseparation image
are chrome yellow and amber yellow. Here the correc
and a magentadye colored variable opacity reproduction
tion in the resultant positives has ratio of 10%.-50%
and 0%-45% respectively in the dye areas. FIGS. “E”
‘A represents blue dyed reversal made from silhouette
and “F” show how the combinationof a yellow. dye mask
screen.
>
a
with either of the chrome yellow of “C” or the amber 15 , master mask C, FIG. 2 v
Brepresents amber dyed reversal made from silhouette
of “D” has effected no change in correction or contrast
range in comparison with FIGS. "0” and “D”. How
master mask G, FIG. 2‘
“G,” “H,” “I," an entirely different
C represents blue dyed reversal made from silhouette
' ever, as shown in
balance of correction and contrast occurs when the blue'
master mask I, FIG. 2
mask used in “B” is used in combination with yellow 20 D represents uncorrected yellow printer separation
E represents magenta dye colored variable opacity'repro
mask of “A” or the chrome yellow mask of “C,” or the
amber mask of “D.” The dye areas of the combined
duction screen
masks have produced correction and contrast in the areas
Fr represents corrected yellow printer
of l0%-60%, 5%—50% and 0%-0% respectively.
The masking of the black area “A” in FIG. 4 permits
- The three combined masks of “J” show how changes 25 a closer relationship in the solid wanted yellow areas by
can occur in a ?nal positive when dye images, overlap
in, certain areas to form a mixture, of colors that can
producing the printer to a higher contrast.
FIG. 4--Magenta printer correction: .
change the'proportion of correction by greater. or lesser
degrees. 'Other pre-determined combinations can pro 30 ‘A represents blue dyed'reversal made from silhouette
master mask C, FIG. 2
'
duce an entirely different proportion of correction and
G represents yellow dyed reversal made from silhouette
contrast.
master mask D, FIG. 3
The actual application of the foregoing method to the
H represents blue dyed reversal made from silhouette
correction of color separation negatives follows:
master mask F, FIG. 3
'
'A set ‘of separations using standard ?lters and pan
I represents uncorrected magenta printer negative ’
chromatic material are made in the usual manner. The
E represents magenta dye colored variable opacity repro
master silver image silhouette masks of FIGS. 2, C, G, I,
are contacted and exposed on contrasty orthochromatic
'
duction screen
.
‘J represents corrected magenta printer.
emulsion. vAfter developing and washing'th'ey are im
' mersed in a reversal bath which completely removes the 40
Correctedrmagenta printer I is made of a contrast to
' exposed and developed areas from the emulsion base and
produce a closer relationship in solid wanted colors.
renders those areas non-receptive to dye,-while replacing
FIG. 4-—Cyan printer correction:
the unexposed areas with a dye receptive deposit which
A represents blue dyed reversal made from master sil
duplicates the positive image of the master. The re
houette mask C, FIG. 2
versal is then ?xed and cleared in an acid hypo bath.
The nature of the reversed image'is such as to accept 45 K represents yellow dyed reversal made from master sil
houette mask D, FIG. 4
dye in full saturation to the extent of its thickness on the
-L
represents
uncorrected cyan printer negative
emulsion base or support. A copper nitrate glacial acetic
E
represents
magenta dye colored variable opacity re
type, of reversal is recommended. Although silhouette
' ‘dye masks will function equally well if made on diazo
production screen
a
type material, such as ozalid, this description is con?ned 50 M represents ‘corrected cyan printer.
to. they use of conventional contrasty orthochromatic
emulsions because of their more common use. After
Reduction in cyan mask of black area allows blue
printer to be made of a higher contrast, thus creating a
?xingand drying the reversals are fastened (reversal side
up) to a suitable large glass with tape and dyed in the
closer relationship in the solid areas of wanted cyan.
FIG. 4--Black printer correction:
following manner: Corrective mask “G” ' FIG. 2 is 55 N represents blue dyed‘reversal made from master sil
swabbed on the image surface with a transparent amber
houette mask‘ D, FIG. 5
dye of such consistency as to imbed into the deposit
'0 represents amber dyed reversal made from master
portion, a fullsaturation of color. Corrective mask #1
silhouette mask E, FIG. 5 a
is treated likewise, except that a transparent blue dye
P represents uncorrected black printer negative
which permits full saturation is used. Thus a blue dye 60 E represents magenta dye colored variable opacity repro
and an amber dye corrective silhouette mask is ‘produced '
duction screen
'
bearing images of'unwanted yellow which must be re
Q represents corrected black printer
duced ‘in various degrees to correct the yellow printer.
The black printer produced by this method is of the
The importance of using the precise color of dye in full
saturation for the correction of all printers is to prevent 65 type most generally used which recommends a positive
that is considerably less than a full scale duplication of
overcorrection in‘ colors'which have mixtures of other
the separation. Since it is desirable in this type of black
colors in them. As an example:
It’ all the cyan areas in the yellow printer separation
printer to con?ne the image to shadow and dark detail
are completely eliminated in the yellow printer, the ?nal
areas only, the positive is produced of such contrast as
reproduction would contain no blue-green which needs 70 ‘to ‘eliminate areas of less than. 38% transmission‘ in the
some mixture ‘of yellow with pure blue. Thus,,if the
printer negative.“ Thus,,the 4%‘ areas of contamination
correction of. pure cyan is con?ned to approximate the
in the printer negative are automatically eliminated.
contamination of 30%, all blues containing yellow in
It will now be apparent that the novel process accom
their mixture would not be-minus yellow. The same
75 plishes; the correction ‘of unbalanced: color separations in
holds for "other mixtures.
13
sesame
asimplitied and controllable manner, making it possible
to‘ employ craftsmen of average skill for the attainment
of consistently high quality in the ?nal reproduction.
While I have described the invention along speci?c
lines, various minor changes or re?nements may be made
therein Without departing from its principle, and I re
serve’ the right to employ all such changes and‘ refine
14
a~ high contrast’paraformaldehyde'developer, exposureand
development being such as to produce a preliminary silver
image silhouette mask of substantially uniform opacity in
areas of ‘said purple aspectslof the‘ original subject and substantially clear in all other’. color'areaS;
3. In a photomechanical process for the production of
properly balanced primary'color printers from uncorrected
ments as may come within the scope and spirit of the
primary color printer separations of an original multi
appended claims‘.
colored-subject, the-methodofmaking a preliminary silver
I claim:
10 image silhouette mask'of substantially ‘uniform density in
1. in a photomechanical process for the production of
areas corresponding to color areas of the original subject
properly balanced primary color printers‘ for' at‘ least’ a
, which contain a‘ true printer colorIancl-others1 which re
three color printing process; which comprises preparing a
quire it in their mixtures for the production of a master
set of corrective dye image silhouette masks each member
silver image silhouette mask of uniform density‘ in areas of
of which is made by printing in register an uncorrected 15 color distortion-in- thev uncorrected primary color, printer
primary color printer separation and a preliminary silver
separations which are to appear in reduced density in the
image silhouette record of other color areas desired to
corrected primary color printers, which comprises com
be controlled, onto a light sensitive high contrast ortho
bining in printing relationship a preliminary silver image
chromatic layer capable of producing gammas of four to
silhouette mask of substantially uniform density in the
ten, when processed in a high contrast paraformaldehyde 20 purple aspects of said original subject produced by the
developer, to produce master silver image silhouette
method of claim 2, and an uncorrected yellow printer
masks of uniform density and thereafter projecting light
color separation, projecting light through the combination
through said master silhouette masks onto a light sensitive
onto a light sensitive‘ high contrast orthochromatic layer
high contrast orthochromatic layer, developing exposed
capable of producing gammas of four to ten, processing
portions of said layer in a high contrast paraformaldehyde 25 said layer in a high contrast paraformaldehyde developer,
developer and producing a reversed dye image on the re
exposure and development being such asto produce a pre
sulting corrective silhouette masks and projecting white
liminary silver image silhouette mask of substantially uni
light through each of at least three uncorrected primary
form opacity which records only areas of the original
color printer separations superimposed on a dye colored
which contain the true yellow' printer color and others
variable opacity reproduction screen and at least two cor 30 which require it in their mixtures and otherwise substan
rective transparent dye image silhouette masks superim
tially clear in all other color’ areas.
posed on each of said uncorrected primary'color separa
4. In a photomechanical process for the production of
tions, onto a light sensitive high contrast orthochromatic
layer capable of producing gammas of four to ten when
properly balanced primary color printers from uncorrected
rective silhouette mask being dyed to uniform intensity in
image silhouette mask of substantially/‘uniform density in
primary color printer separations of an original multi
processed with a paraformaldehyde developer, each cor 35 colored subject, the method of making a master silver
areas corresponding to areas of color distortion in the
uncorrected primary color printer separations which are
to appear in reduced density in the corrected primary
color printers and being substantially transparent else
where, one of said corrective silhouette masks being dyed
in areas corresponding to the record of the true black
areas of the original only, and others of said corrective
silhouette masks being dyed in areas corresponding to the
non-black areas of the original which are to appear in
reduced density in the corrected primary color printers,
the colors of the dyes in said corrective silhouette masks
being selected so that in combination with the color sen
sitivity of the orthochromatic layer and the color of the
dye colored variable opacity reproduction screen, a re
areas of color distortion in an uncorrected yellow printer
color separation which require major adjustment to pro
duce a corrected yellow color printer, said master mask
40 being used in the production of av corrective dye image
silhouette mask, which’ comprises combining in- printing
relationship an uncorrected magenta printer color separa
tion and a preliminary silver image silhouette mask of sub
stantially uniform opacity which records the areas of the
original which contain only the true yellow printer color
and others which require it in their mixtures produced by
the method of claim 3, projecting light through the com
bination onto a light sensitive high contrast orthochro
matic layer capable of producing gammas of four to ten,
developing said layer in a high contrast paraformaldehyde
50
duction of- said densities occurs in said areas upon ex
developer, exposure and development-being such asito pro
posure and development.
duce a master silver image silhouette mask of substantial
2. In a photomechanical process for the production of
ly uniform opacity which records onlyv the color areas
properly balanced primary color printers from uncorrected
which require major adjustment to produce a corrected
primary color printer separations of an original multi
color‘ printer and otherwise substantially clear in all other
55
colored subject, the method of making a preliminary silver
color areas.
image silhouette mask of substantially uniform density in
5. In a photomechanical process for the production of
the purple aspects of said subject, for use in making an
properly balanced primary color printers from uncorrected
other preliminary silver image silhouette mask which re
cords only the areas of the original which contain the true
primary colorv printeri separations of an original multi
yellow printer color and others which require it in their 60 colored subject‘, the method of making‘ a master silver
mixtures, which comprises combining an uncorrected black
printer separation and an uncorrected yellow printer sepa
ration in printing relationship, projecting light through the
combination onto a light sensitive high contrast ortho
chromatic layer capable of producing gammas of four to
ten, developing said layer in a high contrast paraformalde~
hyde developer, exposure and development being such
as to produce a silver image silhouette mask of substantial
ly uniform opacity in areas of said black aspects and sub
image silhouette mask of substantially‘ uniform density in
areas of color distortion in an uncorrected yellow printer
color separation which require minor adjustment to pro‘
duce a corrected yellow‘ color printer, said master mask
being usedin the productionof a corrective dye image sil
houette mask, which comprises combining in printing re_
lationship, an uncorrected cyan printer color separation
and a preliminary silver image silhouette mask of sub
stantially uniform’ opacity which records the areas of the
original which contain only the true yellow printer color
and others which require it in their mixtures produced by
the method of claim 3, projecting light through the com
printer separation in printing relationship, projecting light
bination onto a light sensitive high contrast orthochro
through the combination onto a light sensitive high con
trast orthochromatic layer and‘ developing said layer in 75 matic layer capable of producing gammas of four to ten,
developing said layer in a‘ high contrast parafor'maldehyde
stantially transparent elsewhere and thereafter combining
said preliminary silhouette mask and an uncorrected black
3,022,154
16
7
‘15
developer, exposure and development being such as to
produce a master silver image silhouette mask of substan
tialiy uniform opacity which records only the color areas
which require minor adjustment to produce a corrected
color printer and otherwise substantially clear in all other,
color areas.
,
.
6. In a photomechanical process for the production of
properly balanced primary color printers from uncor
rected primary color separations of an original multicol
ored subject, the method of claim 1, wherein the reversed 10
dye image is produced by reversal in a copper nitrate,
hydrogen peroxide, potassium bromide and glacial acetic ,
r
i
of properly balanced primary color printers from un
corrected primary color printer separations of an original
multicolored subject, the method of making a corrected
yellow color printer, which comprises projecting white
light through an uncorrected yellow printer color separa
tion superimposed on a dye colored variable opacity re
production screen and three corrective transparent dye
image silhouette masks superimposed in printing relation
ship upon said uncorrected printer separation, onto a light
sensitive highcontrast orthochromatic layer, one of said
corrective silhouette masks being dyed in areas correspond
ing to the record of the black aspects of the original sub
ject, another of said corrective silhouette masks being
solution which completely dissolves the developed orig
dyed in areas correspondingrto the record of colors which
inal exposure leaving an o?white inversed dye receptive
require
a major degree of correction in the yellow color
silhouette image of undeveloped silver halide which is 15 printer, the dye- being so selected that in combination with
subsequently cleared and ?xed in an acid hypo bath and
uncorrected yellow printer separation,- the dye colored
dyed with a transparent color.
,
variable opacity reproduction screen and the color sensi
7. In the method of claim 1, wherein at least one of
tivity of the ,orthochromatic layer, it will effect a major
the said corrective dye image silhouette masks, made by
correction, and a third corrective silhouette mask dyed in
20
a reversal and dyeing process, is con?ned to areas corre
areas corresponding to the record of colors which require
sponding to those which require major tonal adjustment
a minor degree of correction in said printer, the dye being
in the production of a correct printer, the said dye image
so selected that in combination with the uncorrected yellow
being of substantially uniform intensity and of such
printer separation, the dye colored variable opacity re
actinic color that, in combination with the color of a' dye
production screen and the color sensitivity of the ortho
colored variable opacity reproduction screen, and the 25 chromatic layer it will elfect a minor correction, developing
color sensitivity of a high contrast light sensitive ortho
exposed ‘layer in a high contrast paraformaldehyde de
chromatic layer, corresponding degrees of major tonal
veloper to produce a corrected yellow color printer with
"adjustments occur in the masked areas only, during the
adjusted areas corresponding to the areas of error in the
?nal printing steps of preparing a. corrected printer.
uncorrected
yellow printer color separation;
30
8. In the method of claim 1, wherein at least one of
11. vIn a photomechanical process for the production
the said corrective dye image silhouette masks, made by
of properly balanced primary color printers from uncora
a reversal and dyeing process, is con?ned to areas corre
rected primary color printer separations 'of an original
sponding to those which require minor tonal adjustments
multicolored subject, the method of producing speci?c
, in the production of a correct printer, the dye image color a
degrees of reduced densities in different color areas of a
35
di?ering from that used to produce major tonal ad
corrected yellow printer, said areas corresponding to those
justments and being of a substantially uniform intensity
of major and minor color distortion in an uncorrected
of such actinic color that, in combination with the color
yellow printer color separation, which comprises preparing
of, a dye colored variable opacity reproduction screen and
a set of corrective actinic color dye image silhouette
the color sensitivity of a high contrast light sensitive
masks, each member of which is made by exposing a
40
orthochromatic, corresponding degrees ,of major tonal
silver image silhouette mask to a light sensitive high con
adjustments occur in the masked areas only, during the
trast orthochromatic layer, developing exposed portions
?nal printing steps of preparing a corrected printer.
of said layer and thereafter producing a reversed dye
9. In a photomechanical process for the production of ‘
image on the resulting corrective silhouette mask by a
properly balanced primary color printers from uncorrected
reversal and dyeing process, one of the actinic color cor
primary printer separations of an original multicolored 45 rective masks being made from a silver image silhouette
subject, the method of making corrective 'dye image
mask corresponding to the record of the magenta and
silhouette masks of uniform intensity in areas correspond
purple aspects of the original subject, and otherwise clear,
ing to the record of the true black aspects of the original
said actinic color being such, that in combination with a
, subject in the uncorrected primary color' printer separa-V
color of a dye color variable opacity reproduction screen
tions which are to appear in reduced density in the correct
and the color sensitivity of an orthochromatic layer used
ed primary color printers, whichcomprises combining an
to make the corrected yellow printer, it is effective only
uncorrected black printer separation and an uncorrected
to the relatively major degree of correction necessary to
yellow printer separation in printing relationship, project
eliminate yellow from the true magenta aspects of the
ing light through the combination onto a light sensitive
original, whereby to allow a percentage of yellow to be
high contrast orthochromatic layer capable of producing 55 present in the darkened magenta areas of said original to
gammas of four to ten, developing said layer in a high
produce a'?rst dyed mask, and anotherof the actinic
contrast paraformaldehyde developer, exposure and de
color corrective masks being made from a silver image
velopment being such as to produce a silverrimage silhou
silhouette mask corresponding to the record of the cyan
ette mask of substantially uniform opacity in areas of said
and purple aspects of the original subject, said actinic
black aspects and substantially transparent elsewhere and 60 color differing from that of the ?rst mask and being such
thereafter projecting light through said silver image silhou
that in combination'with the color of a dye color variable
ette mask onto a light sensitive high contrast orthochro
opacity reproduction’ screen and the color sensitivity of
an orthochromatic layer used toimake the corrected yel
low printer, it is effective only to the relatively minor
developed layer and reversing it in a copper nitrate, hydro 65 degree of correction necessary to eliminate yellow from
gen peroxide,tpotassium bromide and glacial acetic'solu
the, true cyan aspects of the original, whereby to allow
tion which completely dissolves the developed original
a percentage of yellow to be present in the darkened cyan
exposure, leaving an o?white inversed image of unde
and blue-green aspects of said original to produce a sec
veloped silver halide which is subsequently cleared and
ond dyed mask, and still another of the actinic color
?xed in an acid hypo bath and dyed with a transparent 70
corrective mask being made from a silver image silhouette
color to produce a corrective dye image silhouette mask
mask corresponding to the record of the true black aspects
corresponding to the true black areas of the original sub
of the original subject, said actinic color differing from
ject which are to appear in reduced density in the cor
that of vthe ?rst mask and being such that in combination
matic ‘layer, developing vexposed portions of said layer in
a high contrast paraformaldehyde developer, washing the
rected primary color printer.
10. In a photomechanical process for the production
u
with the color of a dye colored variable opacity reproduc
17
8,022,164
18
tion screen and the color sensitivity of ‘an orthochromatic
rected magenta color printer, ‘and otherwise substantially
layer used to make the corrected yellow printer, it is ef
fective only to the relatively minor degree of correction
necessary to produce an equal density in the true black
and'true yellow aspects of the original when-reproduc
clear in all other color areas.
14. In a photomechanical process for the production
of properly balanced primary color printers from uncora
rected primary color printer separations of an original
tion is made by a three color process, and, the actinic
multicolored subject, the method of making a corrected
color differing from that of the second mask and being
such as to effect a relatively major degree of correction
light
magenta
through
coloranprinter
uncorrected
whichmagenta
comprises
printer
projecting
color separa
for under color removal in said black aspects when re
tion
superimposed
on
a
dye
colored‘
variable
opacity
production is made by a f ur color process to produce 10
reproduction
screen
and
three
corrective-transparent
dye
a third mask, superimposing said ?rst, second, and third
image silhouette masks superimposed in printing'relation
dyed masks on ‘an uncorrected yellow printer color separa
ship, upon said uncorrected printer separation, onto a
tion superimposed on “a dye colored variable opacity re
light
sensitive high contrast or-thochromatic layer, one of
production screen and projecting white light through the
resulting combination on to a light sensitive high contrast 15 said corrective silhouette masks being dyed in areas cor
responding to the record of the black aspects of the origi4
orthochrom-atic layer;
nal subject, another of said corrective silhouette masks be;
12. In a photomechanical process for the production
ing dyed in areas corresponding to the record of colors
of properly balanced primary color printers from uncor
which require a minor degree of correction in the yellow
rectedprimary color'printer separations of an original
color printer, the dye being so selected'that in combination
multicolored subject, the method of making ‘a preliminary
silver- image silhouette mask of substantially uniform
density in areas corresponding to the color areas of the
original subject which contain a true printer color and
20
with the uncorrected magenta printer separation, the dye
colored variable opacity reproduction screen and the color
sensitivity of the orthochromatic layer it will effect a
minor correction, and a third corrective silhouette mask
others-which require it in their mixtures, said preliminary
mask being used to produce a master silver image silhou 25 dyed in areas corresponding to the record of colors which
require -a major degree of correction in said printer, vvthe
ette mask of substantially uniform density in areas of
dye being so selected that in combination with the uncor
color distortion in an uncorrected magenta printer color
rected magenta printer separation, the dye colored variable
separation which require minor adjustment to produce a
opacity reproduction screen and the color sensitivity of the
corrected magenta color printer, which comprises pro
jecting light through an uncorrected magenta printer color 30 orthochromatic layer it will eiiect a major correction;
developing exposed layer in a high contrast paraforinalde
separation onto a light‘ sensitive high contrast ortho
hyde developer to produce a corrected magenta color
chromatic layer capable of producing gammas of four to
printer with adjusted areas corresponding to the areas
ten, processing'said- layer in a high contrast paraformalde
of error in the uncorrected magenta printer color separa
hyde developer, exposure and development being such as
tion.
to produce a preliminary silver image silhouette mask of
15. In a photomechanical process for the production
substantially uniform opacity which records only the
of properly balanced primary color printers from un
areas of‘ the original which contain the true magenta
corrected primary color printer separations of an original
printer color and others which require it in their mixtures,
multicolored
subject, the method of producing vspeci?c
and otherwise substantially clear in all other color areas,
degrees of reduced densities in different color areas of
and thereafter combining in printing relationship, said
a corrected magenta printer, said areas corresponding to
preliminary silver image silhouette mask and an uncor
those of major and minor color distortion in ‘an uncorl
rected yellow printer color separation, projecting light
rected magenta printer color separation, which comprises
through the combination onto a light sensitive high contrast
preparing a set of corrective actinic color dye image
orthochromatic layer capable of producing gammas of
silhouette masks, each member of which is made byie'x
four to ten, processing said layer in a high contrast para
posing a silver image silhouette mask to a light sensitive
form-aldehyde developer, exposure and development being
high contrast orthochromatic layer, developing exposed
such‘ as to- produce a' master silver image silhouette mask
portions of said layer and thereafter producing a reversed
of‘ substantially uniform opacity which records only the
dye image on the resulting’ corrective silhouette mask by
color areas which require minor adjustment to produce
a reversal and dyeing process, one of the actinic color
a‘corrected magenta color printer and otherwise sub
50 corrective masks being made from a silver image silhou-v
s'tantially clear in all other color areas.
ette mask corresponding to the record of the cyan and‘
13. In a 'photomechanical process for the production
of properly balanced primary color printers from uncor
rected primary color printer separations ofv an original
multicolored subject, the method of making a preliminary
silver image silhouette mask of substantially uniform’den'si
ty in areas corresponding to the color areas of the original
subject which contain a true printer color and others which‘
require it in their mixtures, said preliminary mask‘ being
used to produce a master silver image silhouette mask of
green aspects of the original subject, and otherwise clear,
said actinic color being such that in combination with "a
color of a dye color variable opacity reproductionscreen
and the color sensitivity of an ‘orthochromatic layer used
to make the corrected magenta printer, it is elfective only
to the‘ relatively major degree of correction necessary’ to
eliminate magenta from the true cyan-aspects of the
original, whereby to allow a percentage of magenta tobe
in the darkened ,cy'an‘and green areas of said
substantially uniform density in areas of color distortion in 60' present
original to produce a ?rst
dyed mask, and another of
an- uncorrected magenta printer color separation which
the actinic color corrective masks being made from a
require major adjustment to produce a corrected magenta
silver image silhouette mask corresponding to the recordv
color printer, which comprises combining in printing rela~
of the yellow and green aspects of the original subject‘
tionship, a preliminary silver image silhouette mask of
the true magenta aspects of the original subject produced 65 said actinic color dilfering from that of the ?rstrmask
and being such that in combination with the color of a:
by the method of claim 12, and an uncorrected cyan print
dye color variable opacity reproduction screen and‘ the’
er color separation, projecting light through the combina
color sensitivity of an orthochromatic layer used to make
tion onto a light sensitive-high contrast'orthochromatic
the corrected magenta printer, it is e?ective only to the
layer capable of producing gammas of four to ten, proc
essingrsaid layer‘ in a-high contrast paraformaldehyde‘ 70 relatively minor degree of correction necessary to elimil,
nate magenta from the true yellow aspects of the original,‘
developer, exposure’ and'development being such as to
whereby to allow a percentage of magenta to be present
produce ant-aster silver image silhouette mask of sub
in the darkened yellow and green aspects of said original’
stantially uniform opacity which records- only the color
areas which require-major adjustment to produce a cor: 75 to produce a second dyed mask, and still another of the
actinic color corrective mask being made from'a' silver
3,022,1e4
20
developer to produce a corrected cyan color printer
with adjusted areas corresponding to the areas of error
image silhouette mask corresponding to the record of the
true black aspects of the original subject said actinic
color differing from thatof the ?rst mask and being such
in the uncorrected cyan printer color separation.
18. In a photomechanical process for the production
of properly balanced primary color printers from un
corrected primary color printer separations of an original
7‘ that in combination with the color of a dye colored vari
able opacity reproduction screen and the color sensitivity
ofan'orthochromatic layer used to make the corrected
magenta printer, it is effective only to the relatively minor
multicolored subject; the method of producing speci?c de
grecs of reduced densities in diiferent color areas of a
degree of correction necessary to produce an equal density 7
corrected cyan printer, said areas corresponding to those
in the true black and true magenta aspects of the original
of minor and major color distortion in an uncorrected
10
when reproduction is made by a three color process; and,
cyan printer color separation, which comprises preparing
the actinic color di?ering from that of the second mask
a set of corrective actinic color dye image silhouette
and being such as to e?ect a relatively major degree of
masks, each member of which is made by exposing a
correction for under color removal in said black aspects
silver image silhouette mask to a light sensitive high con
when reproduction is made by a four color process to pro—
trast orthochromatic layer, developing exposed portions
ducea third mask, superimposing said ?rst, second, and 1.5 of said layerand thereafter producing a reversed dye
third dyed masks on an uncorrected magenta printer color
separation superimposed on a dye colored variable opacity
image on the resulting corrective silhouette mask by a
reversal and dyeing process, one of the actinic color cor
rective masks being made from a silver image silhouette
reproduction screen and projecting white light through
the resulting combination on to a light sensitive high
contrast orthochromatic layer.
mask corresponding to the record of the yellow, red,
magenta and brown’ aspects of the original subject, and
7
16. In a photomechanical process for the production of
otherwise clear, said actinic color being such that in
combination with a color of a dye color variable opacity
reproduction screen and the color sensitivity of an ortho
properly balanced primary color printers from uncorrect
ed primary color printer separations of an original multi
colored subject, the method of making a preliminary silver
image silhouette mask of substantially uniform density
chromatic layer used to make the corrected cyan printer,
it is effective only to the relatively minor degree of cor
rection necessary to eliminate cyan from the true yellow,
in areas corresponding to the color areas of the original
subject which contain a true printer color and others which
red, and magenta aspects of the original, whereby to allow
require it in their mixtures, said preliminary mask being
a percentage of cyan to be present in the darkened yel
low, red, magenta and brown areas of said original to
produce a ?rst dyed mask, and another actinic color cor
rective mask being made from a silver image silhouette
mask corresponding to the record of the true black aspects
of the original subject, said actinic color differing from
that of the ?rst mask and being such that in combina
used to produce a master silver image silhouette mask of
substantially uniform density in areas of color distortion in
an uncorrected cyan printer color separation which re
quire minor adjustment to produce a corrected cyan color
printer, which comprises projecting light through an uncor
rected cyan printer color separation onto a light sensitive
I high contrast orthochromatic layer capable of producing 35 tion with the color of a dye colored variable opacity
gammas of four to ten, processing said layer in a high
reproduction screen and the color sensitivity of an ortho
contrast paraformaldehyde developer, exposure and de
chromatic layer used to make the corrected cyan printer,
velopment being such as to produce a preliminary silver
'it is effective only to the relatively major degree of cor
image silhouette mask of substantially uniform opacity
rection necessary to produce an equal density in the true
‘ which records only the areas of the original which con
40 black and true cyan aspects of the original when repro
tain the true cyan printer color and others which require
it in their mixtures, and otherwise substantially clear in
duction is made by a three color process, and an actinic
color differing from that used for a three color process
being such as to effect a greater degree of correction for
all other color areas, and thereaftercombining it in print- 7
ing relationship with an uncorrected yellow printer color
separation, projecting light through the combination onto
a light sensitive high contrast orthochromatic layer capable
of producing gammas of four to ten, processing said
layer in a high contrastparaformaldehyde developer, ex
45
under color removal in said black aspects when repro
duction is made by a four color process to produce a
second mask, superimposing said ?rst, and second dyed
masks on an uncorrected cyan printer color separation
superimposed on a dye colored variable opacity reproduc
tion screen and projecting white light through the result
silver image silhouette mask of uniform opacity which 50 ing combination on to a light sensitive high contrast
records only the color areas which require minor adjust
orthochromatic layer.
ment to produce a corrected cyan color printer and other-_
19. In a photomechanical process for the production
wise substantially clear in all other color areas.
of a properly balanced black printer from an uncorrected
17. In a photomcchanical process for the production
black printer separation of an original multicolored sub
ofnproperly balanced primary color printers from un 55 ject, the method of making a master silver image silhou~
ette mask of substantially uniform density in areas corre
corrected primary color printer separations of an original
multicolored subject, the method of making a corrected
sponding to the record of the anon-black aspects of the
original subject which require major correction to pro—
cyan color printer, which comprises projecting white
duce a properly adjusted black printer, said master mask
light through an uncorrected cyan printer color separa
tion superimposed on a dye colored variable opacity re 60 being used in the production of a corrective dye image
silhouette mask, which comprises combining an uncor
production screen and two corrective transparent dye
rected yellow printer color separation and an uncorrected
image silhouette masks superimposed in printing rela
black printer separation in printing relationship, project
tionship upon said uncorrected printer separation, onto
a light'sensitive high contrast orthochromatic layer, one
ing light through the combination onto a light sensitive
of said'corrective silhouette masks being dyed in the areas 65 high contrast orthochromatic layer capable of producing
corresponding to the record of’the black aspects of
gammas of four to ten, developing said layer in a high
posure and development being such as to produce a master
' the original subject, and another corrective silhouette
contrast paraformaldehyde developer, exposure and de
mask being dyed in areas corresponding to the'record
velopment being such as to produce a silver image mask
of colors which require a minor degree of correction
of substantially uniform opacity which records only the
in the cyan color printer, the dye being so selected 70 true blackraspects 'of the original subject, and thereafter
that in combination with the uncorrected cyan printer
combining it' and an'uncorrected black printer separation
7 separation, the dye colored variable opacity reproduc~
in printing relationship, projecting light through the com-,
tion screen and the color sensitivity of the, orthochro
bination onto alight sensitive high contrast orthochro
matic layer it will effect a minor. correction, develop
ing exposed layer in a high contrast paraformaldehyde 75 matic layer capable of producing gammas of four to ten,
21
3,022,164
22
processing said layer in a high contrast paraformaldehyde
developer, exposure and development being such as to
to produce a ?rst dyed mask, and another of the actinic
color corrective masks being made from a silver image
produce a master silver image silhouette mask of sub
silhouette mask corresponding to the record of the purple
aspects of the original subject said actinic color diifering
from that of the ?rst mask and being such that in com
bmation with the color of a dye color variable opacity
stantially uniform opacity which records only the non
black areas which require major adjustment to produce
a corrected black printer and otherwise substantially clear
in all other color areas.
20. In a photomechanical process for the production of
a properly balanced black printer from an uncorrected
reproduction screen and the color sensitivity of an ortho
chromatic layer used to make the corrected black printer,
black printer separation of an original multicolored sub 10 it is elfective only to the relatively minor degree of ad
Justment necessary to equalize the correction in the green
ject, which comprises projecting white light through an
and purple aspects of the original subject to produce a
uncorrected black printer separation superimposed on a
second dyed mask, superimposing said ?rst, and second
dye colored variable opacity reproduction screen and two
dyed masks on a uncorrected black printer color separa
corrective transparent dye image silhouette masks super
tion superimposed on a dye colored variable opacity re
imposed in printing relationship upon said uncorrected 15 production
screen and projecting white light through the
printer separation, onto a light sensitive high constrast
resulting combination on to a light sensitive high contrast
orthochromatic layer, one of said corrective silhouette
orthochromatic layer.
masks being dyed in areas corresponding to the record
22. The method of producing a corrected color printer
of non-black colors which require a major degree of cor
rection in the black printer, and another corrective sil 20 of an original subject that includes making a silver image
silhouette mask record of substantially uniform density
houette mask being dyed in areas corresponding to the
in certain color aspects of the original, and otherwise clear,
record of the purple areas of the original subject, the dye
said aspects corresponding to those which require tonal
being so selected that in combination with the uncorrected
adjustment in a corrected printer, by exposing through at
black printer separation, the dye colored variable opacity
reproduction screen and the color sensitivity of the ortho 25 least one printing color record containing said aspects,
onto a high contrast light sensitive layer, and develop
chromatic layer it will effect a minor correction, develop
ing
to a silver image silhouette mask record, and then
ing exposed layer in a high contrast paraformaldehyde
producing a corrective actinic color dye image solhouette
developer to produce a corrected black printer with ad
mask of substantially uniform density by exposure through
justed areas corresponding to the areas of error in the
uncorrected black printer separation.
30
21. In a photomechanical process for the production
of a properly balanced black printer from an uncorrected
black printer separation of an original multicolored sub
process to thereby produce a corrective actinic color dye
image silhouette mask, exposing through said corrective
densities in ditferent color areas of a corrected black
actinic color dye image silhouette mask and an uncor
printer, said areas corresponding to those of major and
minor color distortion in an uncorrected black printer
rected color printer record, positioned in front of a dye
colored variable opacity reproduction screen, onto a light
color separation, which comprises preparing a set of cor
sensitive layer of such color sensitivity as to produce the
40
houette mask to a light sensitive high contrast othochro
matic layer, developing exposed portions of said layer and
thereafter producing a reversed dye image on the resulting
corrective silhouette mask by a reversal and dyeing process,
one of the actinic color corrective masks being made from 45
a silver image silhouette mask corresponding to the rec
ord of the magenta, cyan, green, purple, and brown as
pects of the original subject, and otherwise clear, said
actinic color being such that in combination with a color
of a dye color variable opacity reproduction screen and 50
the color sensitivity of an orthochromatic layer used to
make the corrected black printer, it is effective only to
the relatively major degree of correction necessary to
eliminate black from the true green aspects of the original,
whereby to allow a percentage of black to be present in
the darkest shades of the non-black areas of said original
sensitive layer, developing exposed portions and there
after producing a reversed actinic dye color image in the
unexposed areas of said layer by a reversal and dyeing
ject, the method of producing speci?c degrees of reduced
rective actinic color dye image silhouette masks, each
member of which is made by exposing a silver image sil
said silver image silhouette record to a high contrast light
degrees of tonal adjustments required, in the uniform
density mask areas only, by the actinic relationship of the
uniform mask color and the color sensitivity of the light
sensitive layer.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,237,342
1,530,076
2,051,161
2,124,679
2,715,578
2,841,492
Johnsen ______________ __ Aug. 21, 1917
Hatt ________________ __ Mar. 17, 1925
Briel ________________ __ Aug. 18, 1936
Wilkinson ____________ .._ July 26, 1938
Gresham ____________ __ Aug. 16, 1955
Gresham ______________ __ July 1, 1958
OTHER REFERENCES
lt/Iertle: Photomechanics and Printing, Mertle Publ. Co.,
Chicago, 1957, page 107. (Copy in Scienti?c Libr.)
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