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Патент USA US3022245

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Feb. 20, 1962
D. H. BROWN ET AL
3,022,235
CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 51, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Inventors :
Dale H. Brown
David M Leiby
by
Their Alforney,
Feb. 20, 1962
' ‘
D. H. BROWN ET AL
3,022,235
CONTROL SYSTEM
Filed 00‘;- 31, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Inventors
Da/e H. Brown,
David lMLe/by,
by
M
The/‘r Attorney.
..
2;
3,622,235
~ 3..»
"3...
my.
Patented vFeh. 20, 1962
2
cal means for maintaining a constant pressure in a boiling
3,022,235
CONTROL SYSTEM
Dale Henry Brown, Scotia, and David Wilbur Leiby,
Schenectady, N.Y., assignors to General Electric Com
pany, a corporation of New Yorl;
Filed Get. 31, 1956, der. No. 619,551
7 Claims. (Cl. 204-1541)
water reactor during load changes.
In accordance with one aspect of this invention, there
is provided a control system adapted for use with a power
source providing high pressure and low pressure elastic
?uid to a load. The control system includes a low pres
sure valve responsive to load changes and coupled to
control low pressure ?uid ?ow to the load, a high pres
This invention relates to a control system for ?uid
sure valve responsive to high pressure ?uid pressure
power systems having both a high pressure and a low 10 changes and coupled to control high pressure ?uid ?ow
pressure cycle.
to the load, and means'coupling the low pressure valve
While the practice of this invention is subject to a wide
to the high pressure valve so that the valves operate in
variety of modi?cations and variations, it is suited for
accordance with changes in load to maintain a substan
use with boiling water type nuclear reactors for supplying
tially constant power source pressure.
power to turbine systems and is particularly described in 15
Other objects and important aspects of this invention
this connection.
will be apparent from the claims and the following por
In boiling water reactors, water cools the reactor and
tions of the speci?cation when read with the accompany
ing drawings in which:
'
I
slows down or moderates neutrons to increast the prob
ability of occurrence of a ?ssion reaction. A portion of
FIGURE 1 is a schematic drawing of a nuclear reactor
the water is converted into steam Within the reactor. 20 powered system controlled by the control system of this
Steam is caused to ?ow directly from the reactor to the
invention.
7
FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic illustration of the appa
turbine; or the heat energy from the reactor, in the
form of vapor or water, is converted into steam and then ,
ratus shown in FIGURE 1 during ‘one operating condi
tion.
supplied to the turbine; or a combination of these methods
may be used for supplying heat energy from the reactor 25
FIGURE 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of the appa
to the turbine.
ratus shown in FIGURE 1 during another operating con
A boiling water reactor can be designed so that the
dition.
formation of steam bubbles decreases the atomic ratio
FIGURE 4 is a schematic drawing of another control
of water to fuel. This decreases the amount of modera
system embodying the invention in a ?rst operating con
tor in the reactor core and thereby decreases reactivity. 30
Thus, increased reactivity tends to increase heat genera
FIGURE 5 is a diagrammatic illustration of the system
tion so that more steam bubbles are formed and these
shown in FIGURE 4 in another operating condition.
dition.
bubbles tend to decrease reactivity. Such a reactor fails
safe and is said to be self-regulating. The control sys<
tem of this invention is particularly described in con
nection with such a self-regulating boiling reactor system.
A more complete discussion of boiling reactors and
their theory of operation appears in an article by Samuel
Untermyer, II, in Nucleonics, volume 12, No. 7, July
.
"
i
.
FIGURE 1 illustrates a system embodying this inven
tion for use under substantially constant load conditions,
35 such as might be encountered in a public utility power
generating station.
The system shown in FIGURE 1
incorporates as an example of a power source, a dual
cycle boiling water reactor, such as is described and
claimed in a patent application by Samuel Untermyer,
.' 1954, pages 43 to 47.
If a self-regulating boiling reactor is enclosed in a
pressure vessel, an increase in pressure tends to inhibit
II, Serial No. 609,242, ?led September 11, 1956, and
the formation of steam voids so that the reactor may not
moderator is not only used as a direct source of power
assigned to the same assignee as this application.
In a dual cycle boiling Water reactor, the coolant and
when converted to steam but a portion of the reactor
be self-regulating. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain
substantially constant pressure in the pressure vessel. 45 moderator is passed to a ?ask tank or heat exchanger to
produce a secondary source of steam. For instance, in
a ?ash tank, the moderator passes through a multiplicity
changes in turbine throttle valve opening tend to change
of jets which reduce the pressure and form low pressure
steam. The remaining water which does not ?ash into
the pressure in the reactor pressure vessel. Therefore,
apparatus must be provided for controlling the reactor 50 steam is cooled by this steam producing process and is
reactivity and the reactor pressure to accommodate
returned to the reactor core below saturation tempera
However, if the reactor is providing power td a tur
bine system, changes in turbine load and corresponding
changes in load.
A customary method of controlling a‘nuclear reactor
is that of varying the position of neutron absorbing con
trol rods.
ture.
Since the water is cooled below, the boiling tempera
ture of the water in the reactor, steam is not formed
In this manner, reactors subject to changing 55 immediately after entry of the water into the reactor.
load demands have been controlled by varying the posi
Thus, the introduction of lower temperature water-into
tion of control rods to vary the reactivity of the reactor
and control the reactor pressure vessel pressure. How
the reactor tends to lower the percentage of steam voids
in the reactor and to increase the reactivity. Increased
reactivity results in the production of more heat and
ever, this method of control generally involves compli
cated and power consuming apparatus.
60 tends to increase the pressure in the reactor pressure
vessel.
'
Thus, it is apparent that it is particularly desirable that
a control system be provided which is suited to control
Therefore, it should be understood that in the system
the reactor, in a reactor powered system over a wide
shown in FIGURE 1, when more low pressure steam
range of loads without requiring manipulation of reactor
is used, the lowered temperature of the “water intro
control rods or other conventional reactor controls.
vTherefore, it is an object of this invention to provide
“ an improved control system suited "for controlling a‘ re
,actor in a reactor powered system.
65 duced to the reactor increases reactivity and tends to
increase the pressure in the pressure vessel. Conversely,
when low pressure steam ?ow is decreased, the tem
perature of the returning water is not as low,reactivity
remains low or is lowered, and the pressure in the
An object of this invention is to provide an improved
‘control system for‘ maintaining constant an elastic ?uid 70 reaction pressure vessel tends to decrease.
In order to simplify the description ofthis invention,
* Source pressure.
-
.
~
~ -.' Anothenobject'of this-inventionlis tov provide economi- _..' 1 details oflthe reactor such’ as control‘ rods,‘ circulating
3,022,235
3
pumps, and instrumentation have not been illustrated.
Also, it should be appreciated that the reactor illus
trated in FIGURE 1 is started up in a conventional
manner and that the general operating level of the re
actor is determined by appropriate positioning of the
control rods. .Once the general operating level is es
tablished, the control system of this invention may be
4
speed of the turbine. Thus, it will be seen that through
the cooperating action of the apparatus hereinbefore
described, the turbine speed is maintained constant un
der all load conditions and at the same time the pressure
of the reactor steam pressure is maintained constant.
Wastage of steam through substantial usage of the by
pass valve is minimized.
Assume now that the turbine load is completely re
used to control the reactor and reactor pressure vessel
moved in an abrupt fashion, as for instance by a. trip
pressure over a Wide range of loads.
In the apparatus illustrated in FIGURE 1, the ?ash 10 ping out of the generator driven by the turbine due to
a failure in the distribution system of the power plant.
drum or heat exchanger associated with and shown as
As shown in FIGURE 2, the turbine governor drops
a part of reactor 11 passes low pressure steam through
control arm 17 to a position whereby low pressure valve
low pressure line 12 to low pressure turbine valve 13.
13 is fully closed and pawl 19 of arm 17 contacts ?ow
Low pressure turbine valve 13 is actuated by control
splitter arm 39 and by reason of the over~travel per
arm 17 through link 16 which is formed to permit over
mitted by link 16, arm 17 is free to continue to move
travel of the arm with respect‘to the closed position of
to close the valve 34 and rotate arm 39 in a clockwise
the valve. It will be noted that the control arm 17 is
manner about its point of suspension from the linkage
positioned at its one end by the ?xed pin 13 and at its
36 to raise the left end of that arm thereby opening
other end is formed into contacting pawl 19. Move
the bypass valve 33. In this manner, all steam is cut
ment of the control arm is responsive to the movement
off to the turbine and excess reactor steam pressure is
of link 23 suspended from the governor mechanism bar
relieved directly to the condenser there-by maintaining
24. Governor mechanism bar 24 is actuated by gov
the reactor pressure at a constant value. Any mo
ernor 27 and adjusted by load-speed selector 26 or start
mentary increase in reactor pressure causes device 32
ing handwheel 28.
High pressure steam from the reactor is passed through 25 to raise arm 39 higher and further opens the by-pass
valve 33. Any subsequent reactor pressure drop,
high pressure line 31 to a pressure sensitive device 32
through the action of device 32, tends to lower the arm
and also to the high pressure by-pass valve 33 and to
39 which then rotates in a counterclockwise manner
the high pressure valve 34. The highypressure sensitive
device 32 lifts push rod 36 responsive to increases in
around its ‘right end held in position by the pawl 19 to
fully opened.
to carry a load, the reactor operator reactivates the re
pressure and lowers push rod 36 responsive to decreases 30 move the by-pass valve 33 to a less open position, to
maintain a constant pressure in the reactor. As a re
in pressure. The push rod 36 is directly connected to
sult of the aforementioned abrupt cutoff of steam to
?ow splitter arm 39.. Arm 39 is pivotally suspended
the turbine, turbine speed tends to decrease.
from the push rod 36 and is connected at its left end
The governor 27 acts to maintain the turbine at normal
to a mechanical resistance, in this embodiment, spring
speed without load and as shown in FIGURE 3 the arm
41. At a point along the arm 39, between spring 41
17 is raised by the action of the governor. As a result
and the point of attachment of rod 36, there is linked
of the lifting of arm 17, spring 41 causes the arm 39 to
the high pressure by-pass valve 33. At the right end
rotate in a counterclockwise manner about the point of
of arm 39, there is connected high pressure valve 34.
attachment to link 36 by moving the by-pass valve 33 to
Arm 39 is positioned so that its right end is directly
40 ward closed position and valve 34 toward open position.
beneath the contacting pawl 19 of control arm 17.
FIGURE 3 shows the position of the control apparatus
As shown in FIGURE 1, the valve 33 is connected
at the point where the valve 33 is partially closed, the
in line 53 to the condenser 51 of the turbine 52. Tur
valve 34 is partially opened, and the valve 13 is closed.
bine 52 is connected by shaft 55 to a load, for example,
As load is re-applied to the turbine, the tendency for
an electric generator. High pressure valve 34 is con
nected in line 54 to the high pressure stage of the turbine 45 turbine speed to decrease raises the arm 17 and further
moving arm 39 to open high pressure valve 34 and close
and the low pressure valve 13 is connected in line 56 to
by-pass valve 33. Further application of load raises the
intermediate stage of the turbine. As described in the
arm 17 to a position which opens low pressure valve 13.
Untermyer application, Serial No. 609,242, the steam
In the event that the operator does not desire to keep
condensate from the condenser 51 is pumped through
the turbine idling during the condition when the load is
lines 51a, 51c, and 512 by means of pumps 51]; and
removed, he manually operates either the load speed selec
51]‘ into reactor 11 and secondary steam generator 51d
tor 26, or the starting handwheel 28 to maintain arm 17
to complete the water circuit.
in lowered position. It should also be explained that if
The apparatus shown in FIGURE 1 is illustrated un
the turbine is going to be shut down for a considerable
qiirq rpm/n ?urrnp ‘suorupuoo peoI {neuron {cord/t1 .rep
period, the reactor operator then manipulates the control
pressure by-pass valve 33 is closed, high pressure valve
rods to shut down the reactor.
34 is partially opened and is controlled by the pressure
When the turbine is ready to be placed back on the line
sensitive device 32, and low pressure valve 13 is almost
actor through use of the control rods and when operating
If it is assumed that the turbine load is reduced, the
turbine momentarily tends to speed up which causes 60 pressure is reached, the apparatus assumes the position
shown in FIGURE 2 whereby the excess steam from the
governor 27 to lower bar 24 and thereby lower control
reactor is by-passed through the valve 33. To corn
arm 17 to move valve 13 toward a closed position. Be
mence the turbine operation, the turbine operator turns
cause of the reduction in the amount of low pressure
the starting handwheel 28 which raises the governor mech
steam being taken from the reactor, in such a dual
cycle reactor, the reactor power is reduced which tends 65 anism bar 24 which raises the throttle control arm 17
and the apparatus moves from the position shown in
to lower the pressure of the high pressure steam. The
FIGURE 2 to a position similar to that shown in FIG
change in pressure causes device 32 to lower the flow
URE-3 in which the by-pass valve is partially open and
splitter arm 39 and partially closes valve 34. By mov
the high pressure valve 34 is partially open.
ing the high pressure valve .34‘ to a more closed posi
As ‘an example of the operation of this invention, as
tion, the ?ow of high pressure steam to the turbine is 70
sume that equipment such'as illustrated in FIGURE 1 is
reduced and the reactor steam pressure maintained con
operating with a reactor power output of approximately
stant. Partial closing of the high pressure valve 34
293,000 kw. With this reactor power output, the turbine
tends to reduce the speed of the turbine which speed
generator produces approximately 76,800 kw. The pres
reduction iscompensated by the governor v27 acting to
move‘ valve '13 to a more open position and maintain-the 75 sure‘ of- the high pressure steam.‘ is approximately‘ 1,000
3,022,235
_
pounds per square inch. The steam ?ow of the high pres
sure steam is approximately 241 pounds per second and
.
v6
H
.
60 which is ?xed since valve 13 is closed and the arm
rotates in a counterclockwise mannerv about point 60.
Such counterclockwise movement lowers the conditionally
theflow of the low-pressure steam is approximately 64.8
pounds per second. The turbine speed may be assumed
to be 1,765 r.p.m. If it is assumed that the load demand
is abruptly increased to 192,000 kw., at the end of 10
?xed point 64 against the force of spring 41 and serves
constantvalue of 1,700 r.p.m. Y During the same 10 sec
the reacto'fpressure sensitive device 32 then lowerslink
ond period, the pressure of the high pressure steam mo
age 36 which lowers arm 63.
to close the high pressure valve 34 and partially open the "
by-pass valve 33 by rotating arm 63 about its point of
pivotal connection 66 with linkage 36. This results in
seconds the generator output stabilizes at 192,000 kw.
and shortly thereafter the reactor power level stabilizes
the condition illustrated in FIGURE 5.
at 697,000 kw. During the 10 second period, turbine
Referring now to FIGURE 5 and assuming that this
speed decreases to a low of approximately 1,665 r.p.m. 10 abrupt shutdown is compensated 'for by the reactor and
and at the end of 10 seconds returns to a substantially
that the pressure of the high pressure steam tends to drop,
Spring 41' causes the arm
mentarily increases to a high of approximately 1,003
63 to rotate in a counterclockwise manner about point 64
pounds per square inch; however, at the end of the 10 15 partially closing by-pa'ss valve 33 while high pressure
second period, the pressure returns to a substantially con
throttle valve 34 remains in its partially opened position
stant value of 1,000 pounds per square inch.v Also, at
the end of approximately 40 seconds, high pressure steam
as dictated by the governor control. Thus, a readjust~
\"ment of the governor control is not necessary to recom
' pensate for the change e?ected by the pressure regulator.
20 Assume now that the load upon the turbine is increasedv
‘and that the turbine governor as a result raises the ?ow
divider arm 61. As arm 61 is ‘raised, the downward ten
sion of spring 41 causes the by-pass valve 33 to close by
counterclockwise movement of the arm 63 about its piv
otal connection 66 and also to open further'the valve 34.
When the by-pass valve 33 has been fully closed and the
?ow increases to a constant value of approximately 430
pounds per second and low pressure steam ?ow increases
to a constant value of approximately 360 pounds per
‘second. Low pressure steam pressure steadily drops dur
ing the 40 second period to a value of 500 pounds per
square inch. The water returning to the reactor drops
in temperature from 7° F. below saturation temperature
at the beginning of the period to 30° F. below saturation
temperature at the end of the period. This change in
vtemperature causes the reactor power to increase,
turbine governor further raises the arm 61, that arm ro
tates in a counterclockwise manner about point 64, open
ing the low pressure valve 13‘to admit low’ pressure steam
Reac
‘tor control rods are not actuated to accommodate thts ,
increase in load demand.
,
30
1 The embodiment shown in FIGURE 4 is designed for
‘those installations wherein the turbine load is vchanged
abruptly. For example, in a marine application, abrupt
Imaneuvers are usual and the control system must rapidly
and economically accommodate itself to abrupt changes
in turbine load.
In such installations, it is desirable to
eliminate the cooperative readjustment of the pressure
regulating mechanism and the turbine governor mecha
nism. In order to have this cooperative action in the
linkage rather than separately in the turbine governor
to the turbine. With the by-pass valve 33 in closed posi
tion, pressure sensitive device 32 maintains point 64 in a
?xed position so that the, turbine governor merely actu
ates valve 13 for further speed changes without necessi
v
tating further compensation of the apparatus.
35. Thus,'-load changes are initially accommodated by the
low pressure steam valve 13. Subsequently, the valves,
,pressure sensitive device 32, and turbine governor‘ 27 in
Vteract to maintain substantially constant reactor pressure.
It is apparent that the control system of this invention
40 ‘may incorporate coupling, other than the illustrated me
mechanism and in the pressure sensitive device, as is the
case of the apparatus described with respect to FIGURE
chanical linkages, interconnecting the valves, the pres
sure sensitive device 32, and the turbine governor 27 to
1, the linkages are interconnected. ,
maintain a substantially constant power source pressure.
As shown in FIGURE 4, low pressure steam is passed
For example, electromagnetic coupling means such as
through line 12 to low pressure valve 13 which is linked
45 servomechanisms may be utilized or coupling apparatus
to the right hand end of ?ow divider arm 61. Arm 61
comprising a combination of mechanical linkages and
.is pivotally suspended at point 62 from the turbine gov
‘ernor bar 24 by linkage 23' and is pivotally connected at
servomechanisms maybe utilized without departing from
the spirit of this invention.
_
its left end to flow splitter arm 63 at point 64 on the
Also, it is apparent that the control system of this in
right end of arm 63. High pressure valve 34 is linked 50 vention is suited for use with reactor power sources other
to the right end of arm 63 at a point near the arm con
than the illustrated dual cycle boiling reactor power source.
!nection 64. Arm 63 is pivotally suspended from the
,For example, the control system of this invention is
‘pressure sensitive device 32 by linkage 36 at a point 66
along v‘the mid-section of arm 63. Spring 41 is linked to
' suited for use with other power sources providing high
_ and low pressure elastic ?uid such as steam or other gas
~the7left hand end of arm v6.3 and provides a downward 55 to a load. Such power sources include nuclear reactors,
force. _By-pass valve 33 is linked to arm 63 at a point
fossil fuel power sources, or combinations thereof.
intermediate the attachment of spring 41 and point 66.
The speci?c embodiments, described herein, are pre
sented merely as examples of the many forms the practice
In the position of the apparatus as shown in FIGURE 4,
the turbine is operating under normal load conditions and V
. ernor is such that the flow divider arm 61 abruptly drops.
Since the point 64, which is the point of connection of
~.the arms 61'and 63, is ‘conditionally ?xed by'the action
‘of the pressure sensitive‘ device 32 and the spring 41, a
sudden lowering by the linkage 23 causes the arm 61 to
rotate clockwise about its pivotal point of connection 62
with the linkage 23 thereby closing the low pressure valve
13. If closing of the low pressure valve 13 is not su?i- ,
cient to reduce the turbine speed, the linkage 23 further
7 forces the arm 61 to a downward position about point 75
It will be apparent to those
skilled in the art that this invention may be practiced with
a wide variety of apparatus. Therefore, it is intended in
the appended claims to cover all modi?cations and vari
ations that come within the true spirit and scope of this
' of this invention may take.
is receiving both high pressure steam and-low pressure 60
steam with the by-pass valve 33 shut. Assume now that
,
vthe load which is being driven by this power system is
maneuvering and is abruptly reduced from full load to
.
one-third load. Under such a'change of load, the tur
bine tends to speed up and the action of the turbine gov
invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A control system for use with a boiling nuclear re
actor ppwer source providing‘high pressure and low pres
sure elastic ?uid to a load, which system comprises a'low
pressure valve responsive to load changes and coupled "to
control ‘the ?ow of low pressure ?uid to the load, said low
pressure valve tending to move toward more closed and
more open positions on load reductions and increases re
spectively, a high pressure valve responsive to high pres
sure ?uid pressure changes and coupled to control the
flow of high pressure ?uid to the load, said high pressure
3,022,235
8
load, a by-pass valve coupled to by-pass ?uid around the
load, a control arm coupled to said high pressure valve
valve tending to move toward more closed and more open
positions on'high pressure ?uid pressure decreases and in
and to said by-pass valve, pressure sensitive means re
creases respectively, and means coupling the low pressure
valve to the high pressure valve ‘so that said valves oper
ate in accordance with‘ load changes to maintain a sub
sponsive to changes in the pressure of the high pressure
elastic ?uid coupled to said control arm, said high pres
sure valve tending to move toward more closed‘and more
stantially constant high pressure ?uid pressure at said
open positions on high pressure ?uid pressure decreases
and increases respectively, and another control arm re
power source.
2. A control system for use with a boiling nuclear re
sponsive‘ to ‘load changes coupled to said low‘ pressure
actor power source providing high'pressure and low pres
valve and positioned to actuate‘ the ?rst-named control
sure elastic ?uid to a load, which system comprises a low 10
arm, said low pressure valve tending to move toward
pressure valve coupled to control the ?ow of low pressure
more
closed and‘more open positions on load reductions
?uid to the load, said low pressure valve tending to move
and increases'respectively. 1‘
,
toward more closed and more open positions on load
6. In 'a’power‘syster‘n including a boiling nuclear reac
reductions‘an‘d increases respectively, a high pressure valve
tor power source providing high pressure elastic ?uid
coupled to control the ?ow of high pressure ?uid to the 15 and
low pressure‘ elastic ?uid to a load, the improved
load, said high pressure valve tending to move toward
control system which comprises a high‘ pressure valve
more closed and more open positions on ‘high pressure
?uid pressure" decreases and increases respectively, a by‘
pa'ss valve ‘coupes ‘to‘by-pass ?uid around the‘load, pres
coupled to ‘control the ?ow of high pressure ?uid to the
load,‘ a by-pass 'v'alv‘e coupled‘ to by-pass‘ high pressure
sure sensitive means responsive to power source pressure,
and ‘correlating'me‘ans coupled to said pressure sensitive
meansand to said‘ valves to“ maintain substantially‘ con
sponsive to pressure changes of the high pressure ?uid,
a lever coupling the'high pressure valve and the by-pass
valve'and coupled to said pressure sensitive device, said
reactor’power source providing high and low pressure
elastic ?uid to a‘ load, which system comprises a low
25 decreases and increases respectively, ‘a low pressure valve
?uid around the load, a pressure sensitive device re
stant high pressure‘?uid pressure at said power source.
3. A control system for use with a boiling iiu‘clear
high ‘pressure valve tending to move toward more closed
pressure valve responsive to load changes and eo‘upled to
control the flow of low pressure ?uid to the load, said
low pressure valve tending to move'toward more closed
and more open positions on-load reductions and increases 30
respectively, a‘ high‘ pressure valve" coupled to control
the ?ow of high pressure‘ ?uid to the load, said high
pressure valve‘ tending to move toward ‘more closed‘and
and more open positions on, high pressure ?uid pressure
coupled to control the ?ow of low pressure ?uid to the
load, another lever coupled near one end to the ?rst
nar‘ned lever and coupled near the other end to said low
pressure valve, and a governor mechanism responsive to
load changes in the power system coupled to said other
lever,‘ said low pressure valve tending to move toward
more closed and more‘open positions on load reductions
and increases respectively.
more open positions on high pressure ?uid pressure de
7. In a dual cycle‘ boiling water reactor power system
creases and increases respectively, a by-p‘as‘s valve coupled 35 wherein a dual cycle boiling water nuclear reactor pro
to by-pass‘?u‘id around the load, pressure sensitive means
vides‘high pressure steam and low pressure steam to a
responsive to power source pressure and coupled to said
load, the improved reactor control system which com
high pressure valve ‘and said by-pas's valve,‘ and lever
prises‘ a high pressure valve coupled to control high
means coupled to all of said valves so that load reduc
pressure steam ?ow to the load, a low pressure valve
tions and increases tend to move said high‘ pressure valve 40 coupled to control low pressure steam ?ow to the load,
toward more closed and more open positions respectively,
a by-pass valve coupled to lay-pass high pressure steam
and tend ‘to move said lay-pass valve toward more open
‘around the load, a ?rst ‘control means coupled to the
and more closed positions respectively.
low pressure valve to actuate the valve in response to
4. A control system for a boiling‘ nuclear reactor power
load changes, a second control means coupled near one
source providing high pressure elastic‘ ?uid and low pres 45 end to the ?rst‘control means and to the high pressure
sure‘ elastic ?uid to a load, said system comprising a high
valve, a pressure sensitive device responsive to high pres
pressure v‘alve coupled to‘ control the ?ow of high pres
sure steamv pressure coupled to an intermediate region
sure ?uid to vthe load, a low pressure valve coupled to
of said second control means,,said second control means
control the ?ow of low pressure ?uid to the load, a by
being coupled near the other end to a mechanical resist—
pass valve coupled to bypass ?uid, around the load, a
ance and to said by-pass valve, said low pressure valve
?rst control arm responsive to load changes coupled to
tending to move toward more closed and more open
said low pressure valve, said low pressure valve tending
positions on load reductions and ‘increases respectively,
to move toward more closed and more open positions
on load reductions‘ and'increas'es respectively, a second
control arm coupled to said high pressure valve and to
said by-pass‘ valve, pressure sensitive means responsive
to changes in‘ the pressure of the high pressure elastic
?uid coupled to ‘the second control arm, said high pres
sure valve tending to move toward more closed and
more'open positions on high pressure ?uid pressure de 60
creases and increases respectively, and‘ means‘coupling
said high‘ pressure valve tending to move toward more
closed and more open positions on high pressure ?uid
pressure decreases and increases respectively, the inter
action of said valves and control means maintaining said
reactor pressure substantially constant over a wide range
of load demands.
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
said control arms to one another at their adjacent ex
tremities.
,
'
v
5.‘ A control system for a boiling‘ nuclear reactor
power source providing high pressure elastic ?uid and 65
low pressure elastic ?uid to_a load, said system compris
ing 'a high pressure valve coupled to control the ?ow of
high pressure ?uid ‘to the" load, a lowpress'ure valve
coupled to control the ?ow of low pressure? ?uid to the
1,021,257
1,049,809
Mix _;_ ______________ __ Mar. 26, 1912
Carroll ____________ ..'___. Jan. 7, 1913
1,085,157
Pape' ________________ __ Jan. 27, 1914
1,154,594
1,704,403
Rice‘ _____ -2 _________ ._..'Scpt. 21, 1915
Nashv ______ -.‘ ________ __ Mar. 5, 1929
17,777,461
2,294,753
Campbell _____________ __ Oct. 7, 1930
Hedman .‘._'. ____ _;__.‘____ Sept. 1, 1942
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