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Патент USA US3022268

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Feb. 20, 1962
J M BERRY
3,022,258
AQUEOUS WOOD FINISHING éoMéosITIoN OF UREA-FORMALDEHYDE
CONDENSATE, SUGAR AND SOLVENT
Filed May 14, 1958
WATER
DISPERSE RE SIN IN WATER
ADD CARBOHYDRATE
ADD SPREADING AGENT
DILUTE DISPERSION WITH
ADDITIONAL WATER
INVENTOR.
JOHN M. BERRY
BYm/w
ATTORNEYS
{ice
1
2
3,022,258
a homogeneous, transparent, insoluble "product in the
form of a ?lm. This ?lm is hard and readily sanded
AQUEUUS WQOD FINiSi-IING CUMPOSKTEGN 0F
UREA-FORMALDEHYDE CONDENSATE, SUGAR
AND
3,5322258
Patented Feb. 20, 1962
SGLVENT
’
before application of the ?nish coat or coats.
The aminoplast-aldehyde resins include those synthetics
derived from the amino, imino and amido or imido com
pounds, one example being urea formaldehyde and an~
' _
John M. Berry, Martinsville, ‘7a., assignor to Midland
Chemical Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of
other melamine formaldehyde.
Urea formaldehyde, as a dry partially polymerized
powder having a particle size of about 30.n1esh, has been
Delaware
Filed May 14, @523, Ser. No. ‘735,233
2 Claims. (61. zen-17.3)
10 found most suitable; other characteristics of one such
This invention relates to wood ?nishing and particular
ly to ?ller~sealer compositions and to methods of ap
plying the ?ller-sealer compositions.
suitable resin include a Stormerv viscosity of 2040 rpm.
at 21° C. (50 grams of water plus 100- grams of the
resin); a gel time at 70° F. of 99-140 minutes (100
grams of the resin and 50 grams 4% ammonium chloride
In the ?nishing of wood it is customary to apply to
the smooth, sanded wood which is to be ?nished ?rst 15 solution).
The carbohydrate most useful, due primarily to eco
a stain, then a ?ller followed by a sealer, and ?nally
a ?nish coat.
The stain is utilized to give color to the
wood and to enhance the appearance of the grain; the
?lter serves to close the pores and tiny crevices of open
grained wood and in the case of some close-grained
Woods may be eliminated; the sealer is applied to close,
and as its name implies, seal the wood pores; the ?nish
coat is a protective coating.
I
nomic reasons, is sucrose; the sucrose (cane or beet sugar)
dissolves readily in the water of the composition and ap
pears to aid dispersion of the resin.
The sugar serves not only as a ?ller but also aids
the sanding of the hardened ?lm; this is probably due
to the formation of a complex between the sucrose and
resin which limits crystallinity in the ?lm. This also con
tributes to the ?lm integrity and ?lm clarity. However,
This invention contemplates the provision of a ?ller
sealer composition wherein the ?lling and sealing com~ 25 the ?lm as a whole is amorphous and the sugar relative
Such com;
to the resin should be so limited in amount as to inhibit
positions have particular utility when employed on wood
surfaces treated with the ?xing agent of my co-pending
crystalline formationto the extent that water solubility
results. In general, the sugar-resin ratio by weight may
application, Serial No. 735,237, ?led May 14, 1958, and _
be from 1:1 to 1:3 without encountering difficulty from
ponents are dispersed in an aqueous system.
entitled: Aqueous Wood Fixing Composition and Process
crystallinity or water solubility of the product ?lm.
of Fixing a Wood Surface, and are receptive to the usual
?nish coats such as lacquers, varnishes and the like.
Such ratio may, however, vary somewhat with the speci?c
' resin employed.
of the wood is not substantially raised, a factor ‘which
The resin which must be a resin which disperses col~
loidally, when used to form a ?lm without the carbo~
hydrate, results in a cloudy, somewhat opaque ?lm. Such
has heretofore limited the utility of Water as a major
is usually undesirable and the carbohydrate addition func
solvent in wood ?nishing applications.
tions to overcome this by acting to clarify the ?lm.
In practice the resin is ?rst added to the water with
The invention particularly contemplates the provision
of novel wood ?ller-sealer compositions wherein the grain
The ?ller-sealer compositions of this invention are pref
erably applied by spray methods and all hand ?iler wip
ing methods generally practiced in conjunction with con
ventional ?lling operations are then eliminated.
The compositions of invention include as prime com
ponents: (a) a water dispersible carbohydrate which'does
simpie mixing equipment agitation; the dispersion is
whitish, having somewhat the appearance of latex;>the
sucrose is then added while vmixing and the sugar vap
pears to assist the dispersibility of the resin- The resin
is itself hydrated by contact with the water and the dis;
not furnish aldehyde or ketonic groupings in any sub-' 45 persion is in the form of a suspension. To the sus
pension the Butyl Carbitol and Butyl Cellosolve may be
stantial quantity—particularly sucrose; (11) 'an amino
added while mixing. The Butyl Carbitol also appears
plast-aldehyde resin which is subject to being cured and
to help the dispersion of the resin, and in the ?lm it
which is preferably in a “B” stage in the form of a
also serves as a‘ timer to control evaporation so that
?nely divided powder; and (0) water to effect a dispersion
desired ?lling and sealing is achieved.
of the carbohydrate and aminoplast-aldehyde resin.
50
When the aqueous ?ller-sealer described is applied to
To aid even flow of ‘the aqueous dispersion on the
wood——particularly the close-grained woods——there is
the hard ?xing agent ?lm formed as set out in my co
pending application referred to hereinbefore, the water
of the ?ller-sealer composition tends to dissolve and react
solute necessity with open grain woods. Useful spread
ing agents include the allcyl ethers of the ethylene gly 55 with the ?xing agent or stain ?lm and solids of the ?ller
.sealer- completes ?lling of the wood pores.
cols—for example the mono-butyl ether of diethylene
The ?ller~sealer after-application is permitted to air
glycol (Butyl Carbitol); also useful in combination with
dry; air drying alone may be utilized, this requires nor
the said mono-butyl ether of diethylene glycol is the
suitably added a spreading agent.
Such is not an ab
mono-butyl ether of ethylene glycol (Butyl Celiosolve)
mally 3-4 hours to attain a hardened ?lm. However, a
which in mixture is suitably present to the extent of 60 short period of air dry, about 1/1 hour, followed by oven
drying for 1—3 hours at 100° F.—130° F. may also be
about 1/3 of the diethylene glycol.
In addition the Butyl Carbitol serves as a timer for
employed.
When used in conjunction with the ?xing agent-stain
of my co-pending application, no additional ingredient is
sealing. The Butyl Cellosolve functions also to improve 65 required for the hardening or cure of the resin. How
ever, when the surface to which the ?ller-sealer is ap
adhesion to succeeding top coats. The ‘Butyl Cellosolve
plied is not a source of acid or hydrogen ions upon
is itself somewhat limitedly Water miscible, but is suf
wetting, then a catalyst must be added to the ?ller-sealer
ficiently so to aid the Butyl Carbitol in attaining spread
composition. This catalyst may be boric acid, am
ability.
I
The aqueous system on drying and hardening forms 70 monium chloride or other acidic forming substance.
controlling evaporation of the Water from the applied
?lm, so that time may be had for the desired ?lling and
3,022,258
.
4
3
pie mixing equipment, such as stirrers, is necessary to
The accompanying drawing illustrates the steps of
the procedure in the formation of the ?ller-sealer.
Typical composition formulations are:
Example A
effect the dispersion of the material. .
The resin employed, Whether it be urea~formaldehyde
or melamine formaldehyde ismost suitably in a “B” stage,
in which it is Water dispersible, but hardenable upon con
tact with an acid catalyst to insoluble state.
Particularly it is to be noted that the resultant ?lm
isvtransparent. While such is not essential for wood
Sugar ____ _'_ ________________ _. 5 pounds.
Urea-formaldehyde (powdered
'
stage-B resin) _____________ _. 15 pounds.
Mono-butyl ether of diethylene
?nishing, it is desirable in order to clearly expose the
10 grain of the wood.
glycol (Butyl Carbitol) ____ __ 4 pounds (about
1/2 gallon).
The composition itself is on the neutral to alkaline side,
Mono-butyl ether of ethylene
having a pH'frorn about 7 to about 8.5.
‘glycol (Butyl Cel.losolve)____ 20 liquid ounces
To effect the cure of the ?ller-sealer composition, the
(about 1.2 pounds).
Water ______ __'_ ____________ __ 21/2 gallons.
composition may be acidi?ed. However, the shelf life
15 of the product will be materially shortened by the incor
poration of acids or salts, as ammonium chloride.
In the preparation the urea-formaldehyde is ?rst dis—
persed in the Water with simple agitation, as by stirring at
high speed, and then the sugar is added. The sugar ap
pears to aid the dispersion, which is actually a suspen
sion in milky white form; thereafter the Butyl Carbitol
and Butyl Cellosolve are added and the mixture is diluted
Accordingly, for commercial purposes, it is preferable
to supply the composition in the alkaline state, the neces
sary catalyst addition being made upon use, either by
direct addition to the suspension or by contact of the sus
pension with a surface embodying the catalytic agent.
In general, the solids components should be, at least
about 40 percent by weight of the composition, and the
sugar component preferably comprises about 25 percent
to 5 gallons with water.
Example B
of the solids.
Sugar ______________________ _. ‘10 pounds.
‘
The composition of invention as described has a long
shelf life in the absence of an acid addition; such acid
stage-B resin) _____________ _. 15 pounds.
addition, if made, is made just prior to use.
Mono-butyl ether of diethylene
It will be understood that this invention is susceptible
glycol (Butyl Carbitol) ____ __ 4 pounds. (about
30. to modi?cation in order to adapt it to different usages
1/2 gallon).
and conditions and accordingly, it is desired to com
Mono-butyl ether of ethylene
prehend such modi?cations within this invention as may
glycol (Butyl Cellosolve)____ 2O liquid ounces
fall within the scope of the appended claims.
(about 1.2 pounds).
Urea-formaldehyde (powdered
What is claimed is:
Water _____________________ __ 19.8. pounds
35
(2.3 gallons).
As in Example A, the urea-formaldehyde is ?rst dis
-
1. An aqueous ?ller-sealer composition for ?lling an
sealing wood surfaces which consists essentially of
persed in the water and the sugar is then added, fol
Sugar
lowed by the addition of the Butyl Carbitol and Butyl
Cellosolve.
In each of the foregoing examples the ?ller-sealer
composition is clear, that is, there is no pigment or dye
added.
_______________ __' ___________ -_d0____
15
Monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol ____ __do____
4
resin)
Water ____________________________ -_gallons__ 21/2
2. An aqueous ?ller-sealer composition for ?lling and
sealing wood surfaces which consists essentially of
A white pigmented ?ll-seal may be formed as follows:
Sugar
dioxide; ____________________ __pounds__ 2
____________________________ _.pounds__
10
Urea-formaldehyde (powdered stage-B
Clear ?ll-seal of Example A or B ________ __gallons__ 1
This composition is ground in a pebble mill or other
suitable grinding equipment.
5
~Monobutyl ether of ethylene glycol__liquid ounces__ 20
Example C
Titanium
____________________________ __pounds.._
Urea-formaldehyde (powdered stage-B
50
Example D
A water type dye may be incorporated in:
resin) ____________________________ __do_..__
15
'Monobutyl ether of diethylene glycol ____ .._do___..
4
Monobutyl‘ether of ethylene glycol__liquid ounces__ 20
Water ____________________________ __pounds__ 198
Ounces
Calcocid Scarlet—MoO cone _________________ _'__
5 55
Yellow Powder #700 ________________________ __
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1
1,799,954
Cherry ______________ _.. Apr. 7, 1931
Bu?alo Black nBR 126% _____________________ __ 1/2
2,487,766
Schmidt ______________ __ Nov. 8, 1949
To the above add 1 gallon of the clear ?ll-sealer of
Example A or B.
It is to be particularly noted that. no heating is required. 60
for the formation of the compositions and that only sim
2,492,510
2,630,395
2,648,641
2,674,584
McCullough __________ __ Mar. 3, 1953
Robinson ____________ __ Aug. 11, 1953
Deniston _____________ __ Apr. 6, 1954
Van Epps ____________ __ Dec. 27, 1949
ash“.m-
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