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Патент USA US3022436

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Feb. 20, ‘1962
3,022,426
A. KUSKO
REGULATOR
Filed May 21, 1959
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Feb. 20, 1962
A, KusKo
3,022,426
REGULATOR
Filed May 21, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
ALEXANDER. KUSKO
BY
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United States Patent 0 ” ice
1
3,022,426
REGULATOR
Alexander Kusko, Newton Centre, Mass, assignor to
Hevi-Duty Electric Company, Milwaukee, Wis, a cor
poration of Wisconsin
Filed May 21, 1959, Ser. No. 834,368
12 Claims. (Cl. 307-14)
3,022,426
Patented Feb. 20, 1962
2
21 through switch 25 to three phase load 26 which may
be connected in delta.
Poly-unit reactor 27 'is connected across the three phase
system to lines 22, 23, and 24 so as to be in parallel with
load 26. The poly-unit saturable reactor may be of the
type as described in copending application Ser. No.
536,156, ?led September 23, 1955. Such a poly-unit reac
tor has a plurality of magnetic cores, preferably at least
This invention relates to a voltage regulator and par
three, load windings, and associated control windings.
ticularly to one using a poly-unit saturable reactor.
10 As shown in FIG. 2, the poly-unit reactor may have n
One of the problems in a voltage regulator for a poly
number of phases and include at least three saturable
phase system using poly-unit reactors is that the poly
magnetic cores and n phase groups of load winding means.
unit reactors may be sensitive to unbalanced polyphase
The load winding means in a phase group are connected
conditions in the regulator circuit, the supply voltage,
in series. The unit is provided with 2n reactor load cur
and the load. With an unbalance condition, the load cur 15 rent terminals, the terminals being located at the ends of
rents of the poly-unit reactor may become unbalanced and
each group. An alternating current source is connected
distorted. In many applications such as voltage regula
to the load winding terminals while a direct current source
tors, it is necessary to maintain balanced conditions across
is connected in series with the control windings. Each
the polyphase load.
of the reactors have their turns and core area related to
One of. the objects of the invention is to provide an ar 20 the turns and core area of the others so that once dur
rangement wherein the voltage across each phase of the
ing each cycle of the alternating current, the cores of
load may be maintained balanced regardless of conditions
at least some of the reactors pass from a saturated condi
tending to unbalance it.
tion in one direction of magnetization to a saturated con
Another object of the invention is to provide an ar
dition in the opposite direction of magnetization. During
rangement wherein the load voltage can be maintained 25 the same cycle of alternating current, the cores return to
substantially constant regardless of conditions tending to
a saturated condition in the ?rst direction. The cores
change it.
make the transition from a saturated conditionin one di5
In one aspect of the invention, an electrical load means
rection to a saturated condition in the opposite direction
can be connected to a source of A.C. through an imped
in a predetermined sequence. During intervals of time of
ance in series therewith. A poly-‘unit saturable reactor, 30 predetermined length at least one core is in the state of
such as described in copending application Ser. No.
transition from one saturated condition to the other, while
536,156, ?led September 23, 1955, can be connected in
shunt across the load.
at least some cores are in a saturated condition.
Such a poly-unit reactor has a
Poly-unit reactor 27 is connected in series with trans
formers 30, 31 and 32 for each of the three phases con
windings and associated control windings. Normally, 35 nected to lines 22, 23 and 24. The secondary windings
DC. control power applied to the control windings is
33, 34 and 35 of transformers 30, 31 and 32, respectively,
varied with variations in the load voltage for all phases
may be connected to capacitors 36, 37 and 38 to introduce
from a reference value so as to maintain the load voltage
capacitive reactance to improve transient behavior.
substantially constant. The control windings in such an
DC. power for control winding 39 of poly-unit reac
instance have the A.C. control applied thereto. A.C.
tor 27 is provided by full wave recti?er 40 connected
control power having double the frequency of the source
across autotransformer 41 connected from the phase of
of AC. is also applied to control windings of the poly
line 10 to neutral line 13. Full wave recti?er 40 is con
unit reactor. It also is possible to operate the poly-unit
nected through chokes 42 and 43, and resistors 44 and 45
polyphase reactor without applying control power thereto.
to control winding 39. Resistor 46 is connected in paral
The magnitude and phase angle of the AC. control power
lel with the DC. output of recti?er 40. Capacitor 47,
is varied with variations in load voltage of one phase with
connected in parallel with choke 42, is of predetermined
respect to the other phases to maintain the load voltage
value to form a ?lter for the DC. output of recti?er 40.
plurality of magnetic cores, preferably at least three, load
phases substantially balanced. By adjusting the phase
and magnitude of the A.C. control, the phase and magni
tude of the negative sequence component of circuit in the '
A.C. load windings of the reactor will be varied.
In a preferred form, a capacitor may be connected
in shunt with the load to provide power factor correc
tion. An L-C ?lter may also be connected in shunt with
the load to absorb harmonic components present in the
load circuit. The double frequency A.C. control power
Saturable reactor 48 serves as a frequency doubler of
the supply frequency connected to lines 10, 11 and 12.
Saturable reactor 48 may be of the two core type having
cores 49 and 50 with primary windings 49a and 50a on
cores 49 and 50, respectively, and connected in an aiding
manner. Control or bias windings 49b and 50b are con
nected in an opposing manner. Secondary windings 49c
' and 50c are in opposition and are connected across pri
mary winding 51 of transformer 52. Secondary winding
53 of transformer 52 is connected in parallel with the
These and other objects, advantages and features will
?ltered output of recti?er 40. Transformer 52 may have
become apparent from the following description and draw
a core containing air gap in order to prevent saturation
ings which are merely exemplary.
60 by the DC. current from recti?er 40.
In the drawings:
By means of switch 54, autotransformer 55 is con
may be derived from the A.C. source.
FIG. 1 is one form of the circuit.
nected to lines 10 and 11 and autot-ransformer 56 is con
\FIG. 2 is one form of the poly-unit reactor.
nected to lines 11 and 12. A phase shifted voltage may
Three phase power is supplied to the system by means
be obtained across transformer taps 57 and 58 of auto
of lines 10, 11, and 12. Line 13 serves as the neutral 65 transformer 55 and 56. The phase shifted voltage across
connection for the polyphase supply. The three phase
supply is connected through switch 14 to autotransformer
taps 57 and 58 is ?ltered by capacitor 59 and choke 60.
It is then connected to primary windings 49a and 50a of
15 connected in Y across the polyphase system. Lines
saturable reactor 50.
'
16, 17 and 18 are connected to the adjustable taps of
The
power
supply
to
bias
windings
49b
and 50b of
autotransformer 15 and lead to series reactors 19, 20, and 70 saturable reactor 50 is furnished by full wave recti?er 61
21. Lines 22, 23 and 24 connect reactors 19, 20 and
connected to tap 62 of autotransformer 63 connected
3,922,428
3
between line 10 and neutral line 13. The DC. output of
recti?er 61 may be ?ltered by choke 64. Reversing switch
65 controls the sense of current ?ow through control wind
ings 49b and 50b. Due to thedi?erential magnetization
of cores 49 and 50, second harmonic voltages are induced
in gate windings 49c and 500 which are connected in an
opposing manner.
Thus, saturable reactor 50 serves to
double the..frequency of the phase shifted voltage derived
across autotransformers 55 and 56.
The double frequency signal induced in secondary wind
ing 53 of transformer 52 is combined by superposition
with the DC. current supplied by recti?er 40.
bined DC. and double frequency A.C. signals
to control winding 39 of poly-unit reactor 27.
nitude of the DC current from recti?er 40‘ is
42
the supply voltage is balanced, the double-frequency A.C.
control signal is varied in phase angle and magnitude until
poly-unit reactor 26 absorbs the unbalance component of
the load current so that only balanced currents ?ow in
series reactors 19, 20 and 21. With balance restored, any
third harmonic component in lines 22, 23 and 24 may be
minimized by third harmonic ?lter 71.
It should be apparent that variations may be made in
the arrangement without departing from the spirit of the
invention except as de?ned in the appended claims.
‘What is claimed is:
1. In a regulator or the like, the combination including
a source of polyphase A.C., a poly-unit polyp'nase reac
The com
are applied
tor means having at least three saturable cores, with load
The mag
Winding means and control winding means on each core,
determined
said reactor means being connected to said source, and
by the predetermined setting of tap 41a of autotrans
means for applying A.C. control power having double the
former 41. The magnitude of its double frequency A.C.
frequency of said source to said control winding means,
signal is determined by the level of the bias current
said A.C. control power producing a negative sequence
through bias windings 49b and 50b. The current level
through the bias windings is selected by the adjustment of 20 component of current in the A.C. load winding means of
said reactor.
tap 62 of autotransformer 63. The phase relationship of
2. In a regulator or the like, the combination including
the double frequency control signal with respect to the
a source of polyphase A.C., a poly-unit poiyphase reactor
phases of the power supply at lines 10, 1.1 and 12 is deter
means having at least three saturable cores, with load
mined by the adjustment of taps 57 and 58 of autotrans
winding means and control winding means on each core,
former 55 and-56. The ?lter formed by choke 42, capaci
said reactor means being connected to said source, means
tor 47 and choke 43 preventsthe double frequency from
for
applying At). control power to said control winding
?owing in recti?er 40.
means, and means for applying A.C. control power having
Capacitors 66, 67 and 68 may be connected in shunt
double the frequency of said source to said control
winding means, said A.C. control power producing a
30
circuits including capacitors and reactors 69a, 1), c and
across load 26 to improve the power factor.
Series L-C
70a, b, '0, respectively, may be connected across lines 22,
23 and 24 to form harmonic ?lter 71.
In the use of poly-unit saturable reactors 27 as a volt
age regulator for poly phase load 26, the reactor is sensi
tive to unbalances in the three-phase voltage supplied to
its terminals. This sensitivity may impair the usefulness
of the reactor voltage regulator in power-system applica
tion. When the poly-unit reactor is supplied with un
balanced three phase terminal voltage on lines 22, 23 and
24, the load currents of the reactor become unbalanced
‘and distorted. The distortion is due largely to a third
harmonic component. An appreciable second harmonic
negative sequence component of current; in the A.C. load
winding means of said vreactor.
3. In a regulator or the like, the combination including
a source of polyphase A.C., a poly-unit polyphase reac
tor means having at least three saturable cores, with load
winding means and control winding means on each core,
said reactor means being connected t said source, means
for applying A.C. control power having double the fre
quency of said source to said control winding means, and
means for adjusting the phase and magnitude of the A.C.
control power, said A.C. control power producing a nega
tive sequence component of current in the A.C. load
winding means of said reactor.
4. In a regulator or the like, the combination including
a
source
of polyphase A.C., a poly-unit polyphase reactor
45
desaturate in the same order as they did when the terminal
means having at least three saturable cores, with load
voltage was balanced, but the time interval during which
winding means and'control winding means on each core,
succeeding units remain unsaturated are no longer equal.
said reactor means being connected to said source, means
Unbalance conditions may also exist in load 26.
component is induced in the control windings. Under
these conditions, the individual reactor units continue to
for applying D.C. control power to said control winding
Unbalance supply-voltage on lines 16, 17 and 18 may
be indicated by means of voltmeter 72- and selector switch 50 means, means for applying A.C. control power having
double the frequency of said source to said control wind
72a. Unbalance load voltage across line 22, 23 and 24
ing means, and means for adjusting the phase and mag
may be indicated by means of voltmeter 73 and selector
nitude of the A.C. control, said A.C. control power pro
switch 74. Ordinarily, a balanced output voltage across
ducing a negative sequence component of ‘current in the
load -26 is required. This balanced condition exists so
long as the poly-unit reactor circuit, the input voltage and 55 A.C. load winding means of said reactor.
5. in a ‘voltage regulator, the combination including an
the load are all balanced. Under the balanced condition
electrical load means, a source of A.C. connected to said
series reactors 19,20 and 21 each draw balanced load
load means, impedance means connected in series with
currents which meanspoly-unit reactor 27 must draw
‘balanced load currents. Upon the occurrence of an un
said load means and source, a poly-unit saturable reactor
winding 53 and the combined signal is inserted into con
substantially constant, and means for applying A.C. con
trol power having double the frequency of said source of
A.C. to'said control windings, said A.C. control power
balance supply or load condition, the resulting unbalanced 60 means connected in shunt with said load means, each of
the units of said reactor means having a load winding
load voltage is indicated by voltmeter 73. By means of
and a control winding, means for applying DC. control
adjustment of taps 57 and 58 and tap 62, the phase angle
power to said control windings, said DC. control power
and magnitude of the double-frequency A.C. control signal
being varied for variation in load voltage for all phases
across primary ‘winding 51 is adjusted. The A.C. control
signal is coupled with the DC. control system at secondary 65 from a reference value so as to maintain said voltage
trol winding 39‘. The adjustment of the phase angle and
magnitude of the A.C. control signal is continued until
being varied in magnitude and phase angle measured with
the voltage across load 26, as indicated by voltmeter 73
respect to the phase of said source of A.C. for variations
70
and selector switch 74, is balanced.
in load voltage of any phase with respect to the other
If the supply voltage is unbalanced, the phase angle and
phases to maintain said load voltage in said phases sub
magnitude 10f the double-frequency A.C. control signal is
stantially balanced.
varied until poly-unit reactor 27 causes unbalance cur
6. In a voltage regulator, the combination including an
rents to ?ow in series reactors 19, 20 and 21 to balance
the voltage across load 26. If load 27 is unbalanced and 75 electrical load means, a source of A.C. connected to said
3,022,426
5
6
load means, impedance means connected in series with
phases to maintain said load voltage in said phases sub
stantially balanced, and means in shunt with said load
means for absorbing the harmonic components of said
said load means and source, a poly-unit saturable reactor
means connected in shunt with said load means, each
of the units of said reactor means having a load winding
and a control winding, means for applying DC. control
power to said control windings, said DC. control power
load currents.
10. In a voltage regulator, the combination including
an electrical load means, a source of A.C. connected to
being varied with variation in load voltage for all phases
said load means, impedance means connected in series
with said load means and A.C. source, a poly-unit satura
ble reactor means connected in shunt with said load means,
having double the frequency of said A.C. source being 10 each of the units of said reactor means having a load
connected to said control windings, and means for vary
winding and a control winding, means for applying DC.
ing the magnitude and phase of said A.C. control power,
control power to said control windings, said DC. control
said A.C. control power being varied in magnitude and
power being varied for variation in load voltage for all
from a reference value so as to maintain said voltage
substantially constant, a source of A.C. control power
phase with variations in load voltage of any phase with
phases from a reference value so as to maintain said volt
respect to the other phases to maintain said load voltage 15 age substantially constant, means for applying A.C. con
in said phases substantially balanced.
trol power having double the frequency of said source of
7. In a voltage regulator, the combination including an
A.C. to said control windings, said A.C. control power
electrical load means, a source of A.C. connected to said
being varied in magnitude and phase angle for variations
load means, impedance means connected in series with
in load voltage of any phase with respect to the other
said load means and A.C. source, a poly-unit saturable re 20 phases to maintain said load voltage in said phases sub
actor means connected in shunt with said load means, each
stantially balanced, and capacitive reactance means in
of the units of said reactor means having a load winding
series ‘with said poly-unit saturable reactor means to im
and a control winding, means for supplying DC. control
prove transient behavior.
power for said control windings, said DC. control power
In a voltage regulator, the combination including
being varied for variation in load voltage for all phases 25 ‘an 11.
electrical load means, a source of AC. connected to
from a reference value so as to maintain said voltage sub
stantially constant, and means for supplying A.C. control
power having double the frequency of said source of
A.C., the magnitude and phase angle of said A.C. control
power being varied for variations in load voltage of any
phase with respect to the other phases to maintain said
said load means, a reactor means connected to series
with said load means and A.C. source, a poly-unit satura
ble reactor means connected in shunt with said load
means, each of the units of said reactor means having
a load winding and a control winding, means for apply
an electrical load means, a source of A.C. connected to
for applying A.C. control power having double the fre
said load means, impedance means connected in series
with said load means and A.C. source, a poly~unit satu
rable reactor means connected in shunt with said load
said A.C. control power being varied in magnitude and
phase angle measured with respect to the phase of said
ing DC. control power to said control windings, said
load voltage in said phases substantially balanced, and
DC. control power being varied for variation in load
means for coupling said DC. control power and said
voltage for all phases from a reference value so as to
A.C. control power into said control windings.
maintain said voltage substantially constant, and means
35
8. In a voltage regulator, the combination including
quency of said source of A.C. to said control windings,
source of A.C. for variations in load voltage of any phase
with respect to the other phases to maintain said load
means, each of the units of said reactor means having a
load winding and a control Winding, means for supplying
DC. control power for said control windings, said
DC. control power being-varied for variation in load
voltage in said phases substantially balanced.
12. In a voltage regulator, the combination including
an electrical load means, a source of A.C. connected to
maintain said voltage substantially constant, means for 45 said load means, a reactor means connected in series
voltage for all phases from a reference value so as to
with said load means and source, a poly~unit saturable
reactor means connected in shunt with said load means
supplying A.C. control power having double the fre
quency of said source of A.C. for said control windings,
said A.C. control power being varied in magnitude and
and comprising at least three multi-winding saturable
reactors, each having its load turns and core area related
phase angle for variations in load voltage of any phase
with respect to the other phases to maintain said load 50 to those of the others so that twice during each cycle of
A.C. from said vA.C. source, the reactor units will de
voltage in said phases substantially balanced, means for
saturate in a predetermined manner so as to provide a
coupling said DC. control power and said A.C. control
desired wave form, each of the units of said reactor means
power into said control windings, and means for blocking
having a control winding, means for applying D.C. con
said A.C. control power from said means for supplying
55 trol power to said control windings, said D.C. control
D.C. control power.
power being varied for variation in load voltage for all
‘9. In a voltage regulator, the combination including
phases from a reference value so as to maintain said
an electrical load means, a source of A.C. connected to
voltage substantially constant, and means for applying
said load means, impedance means connected in series
A.C. control power having double the frequency of said
with said load means and A.C. source, a poly-unit saturable
reactor means connected in shunt with said load means, 60 source of A.C. to said control windings, said A.C. con
trol power being varied in magnitude and phase angle
each of the units of said reactor means having a load
with respect to the phase of said source of A.C. with
winding and a control winding, means for applying DC.
variations \in load voltage of any phase with respect to
control power to said control windings, said DC. control
power being varied for ‘variation in load voltage for all
phases from a reference value so as to maintain said volt
the other phases to maintain. said load voltage in said
65
phases substantially balanced.
age substantially constant, means for applying A.C. con
trol power having double the frequency of said A.C.
source to said control windings, said A.C. control power
being varied in magnitude and phase angle for variations
in load voltage of any phase with respect to- the other 70
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,572,648
Mittag ______________ __ Oct. 23, 1951
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