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Патент USA US3022575

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@talented Feb.. 27s lâh@
temperature above the second order transition point of
'the acrylonitrile polymer to produce a dimensionally ure
stable yarn, and concurrently inserting twist in thc yarn, '
F. Eitzgerald,
et corpernhon
. to The
Filed Sept. d, 2.958, der9 No. ’755332
cooling the yarn to set the latent twist, nntwisting the
yarn, and thereafter heating the stretched and twist-set
yarn to relax, longitudinally shrink, and develop crimp
therein, and thus produce a dimensionally stable yarn
having increased uniformity ‘,'oìuminositßI compactncss
'_lhis invention relates to a method for texturing yarns
and more particularly, to a method for ‘lecturing yarns
and elasticity.
'Yarns produced by the method of the instant inven
acrylonitrile polymer filaments.
Yarns or" iilaments produced ‘from largely acrylonitrile
polymers, suchfas those polymers, copolymers, and blends
tion can he processed through all the steps outlined above
of polymers and copolymers containing at least 70 percent
of acrylonitrile by weight in polymerized form, possess
stable yarn with ‘neat set latent twist may be packaged
and stored iorsubsequent use before conducting the re
a series of properties which render them peculiarly
laxation, shrinking, and crimp development operation.
adapted to texturing operations.
The yarn in the latter condition can be plied with other
The polymers from
and used in their iinished form for weaving, knitting or
tufting into fabrics. Alternatively, the dimensionally un
similarly treated yarns bet‘ore relaxation, shrinking and
crimp development to afford similar desirable qualities
when” heated such that-they will assume more or less
permanent form `in response to various deformations in 20 in the plied yarn. Further. the dimensionally unstable
yarn prior to relaxation, shrinking and crimp develop~
duced while heated, such-as twisting. `in addition, such
ment can be woven, knitted or tufted into fabrics and
yarns possess the further property of stretching when
which such yarns arevproduced become plastic and ductile
eated under tension to a metastable, or ldimensionally
unstable, form subject toV high longitudinal shrinkage.
thereafter relaxed by suitably heating tbe fabric. ' Such
relaxation in fabric form has been found to be particu
larly desirable in certain construction of knitted goods
and carpets.
mally stable state 'oy heating and shrinking the yarns.
The yarns produced by the method outlined above
This series of properties combine to enable the production
possess greater compactness and covering power than any
of' textured yarns of peculiarly excellent properties.
of the'prior textured yarns, as well as good elasticity.
Yarns can be produced lwith greater compactness, bulk,
and covering power than have been produced by other 30 These properties of compactness and high covering power
make the yarns produced by the method of the instant
textun'ng processes applied to other natural and synthetic
The dimentisional instability can be reduced to a nor
filaments and ñbers.
Such yarns can'> be produced with
invention peculiarly adapted for use in woven and tufted
carpets as well as knitted pile fabrics and high volumi
less physical damage to the filaments, such as in their
nosíty woven fabrics.
tensile strength and elongation, principally because oi' the
The method of the instant invention is more specitically
absence of severe mechanical action directly on the 35
described with reference to the attached drawing wherein:
FIGURE l is a diagrammatic view of the method of
Frevious methods ot' teaturlng other synthetic yarns
the invention, in which various Well-known forms oí
ihave depended on vdeformation of ñlaments in the yarns
apparatus are generally indicated; and
by means of drawing over a sharp blade, crimping by
FIGURE 2 is a diagrammatic side elevation of one
stuffing into confined heated or unheated vessels, and
highly twisting while heating and then untwisting, all of
which procedures have resulted in various degrees of
form oi apparatus for conducting the relaxation step of
the instant method.
With reference to FlGURE l, yarn or tow 2 of oriented
acrylonitrile filaments is drawn from a source of sup
ply il by feed rolls d and forwarded by the feed or
stretching rolls ‘7, which are driven at a higher peripheral
the bulk or voluminosíty of yarns to approach or surpass
speed than feed rolls 4. Intermediate the feed rolls 4
that of spun yarns but have involved no self~crimping of
and stretching rolls 'i the yarn or tow 2 is passed through
the yarns. Such procedures have included entangling
n heating means ä and false twist spindle 6. From
filaments bylj'ets of air or gases and bulking acrylic yarns
by stretching acrylonitrile polymer filaments under heat 50 stretching rolls ‘ì' the yarn or tow 2 is fed to take-up
rolls il through heated relaxation means 8 and forwarded
prior to breaking or cutting into libers and subsequently
by the take-up rolls 9 to package winding means ld.
relaxing the fibers when the yarns have been blended or
' The source of the yarn or tow of oriented acrylonitrile
« plied with already relaxed or untreated dimensionally
polymer filaments may be any suitable yarn package
stable yarns. None of these prior methods have resulted
in yarns of acrylonitrile lilaments possessing increased 55 such as a bobbin, pirn, or cone, such as illustrated in
FIGURE l, or, in the case of tow the source can be the '
bulk , and voluminositr, good um'formity, and greater
spinning line 'where such tow is produced directly or
covering power and at the same time greater compact
cans or boxes of tow obtained from such production line.
ness and the lelasticity associated with the socalled
The feed rolls ¿l are controlled variable speed driven
“stretch” yarns.
more or less permanent crimp imparted to the yarns so
treated. Other methods of producing textured yarns
have included those which are directed toward increasing
rolls of any desired design while the stretching rolls 7
The principal object of the present invention is to pro~
vide a method for producing textured acrylonitrile poly 60 are likewise controlled variable speed rolls adapted to
apply tension to and prevent slippage of the yarn 2.
mer yarns having greatly increased voluminosity. lbulk,
The stretching rolls ‘ì’ may comprise nip rolls, godets',
covering power and compactness as well as elasticity. A.
or the like. The yarn or tow 2' is passed through the
further object is the provision of a method for producing
such acrylonitrile polymer yarns in sizes appropriate for 65 heating means S wherein it is heated and while heated
it is twisted through the action of false twist spindle 6
woven and tufted carpets. Other objects will appear
and stretched by stretching rolls 7. The ratio of the
from the detailed description hereinafter.
peripheral speed of the stretching rolls 7 to the feed rolls
lt has been found that the objects of the instant inven
tion can be accomplished by a method of texturing acry
lonitrilc polymer tiliment yarns which comprises continu
¿l is referred to as “stretch ratio.” in the instant method
the stretch ratio can be varied from approximately l.l
ally drawing an acrylonitrile polymer filament yarn from 70 to 3.0 or more, but for best results it is generally preferred
a source of supply, stretching the yarn while heated to a
that the stretch ratio be between 1.2 and 1.8.
marmer without damage or loss of dimensional instability
due to relaxation. Relaxation subsequent to weaving,
lnn'tting, or turting can be achieved by subjecting the re
matically in FIGURE l, the yarn is relaxed a continuous
traveling yarn. Again with reference to PlGURE. l, the
yarn or tow 2 is fed into heated relaxation means ti by
sulting fabrics to heat in the same manner as the yarn is
means of stretching rolls ’J' and forwarded to package
winding means l0 by the take-up rolls És. ".'t‘lie heated ci: relaxed. Thus, the fabric can be heated by steam or
relaxation means may taire any or" several
dry heat in a chamber maintained at least at about 200°
l?, r‘rlternarively, the fabric may be heated in an aqueous
medium _maintained at least at about 160° l?. Suitably
this heating in an aqueous medium may be carried out in
.-rms, suoi
from trough,
a polished
bath oror‘the
a heated
liite. con
tinuous oven is satisfactory, so long as good heat »dis
tribution to all the ñlarnents is maintained in any ‘l'orrn
of the heated relaxation means employing
or dry
heat a temperature of about 200° F. is
for a time
sumcient to relax the yarn. When a heated aqueous bath
is used a temperature of at least 160° i?. is generally4
separate operation, or preferably, in conjunction with
C.’yeing, scouring, ñnishing, etc. of textile fabrics. Relaxa
on can also talee place after any subsequent processing
steps through which the yarn is put, such as plying, where
the unrclaxed yarn is plied with other yarns before re
laxation. Thus, one method for obtaining good tuft'
dehnt ion in a cut-pile tufted carpet has been found to
isiactory. The yarn Z must be under no tension and ccm
by to
relax with
or other
rlhe surfaces
yarn must
and must
consist in first plying two or more ends of unrelarted yarn
not be stuffed tightly in any form of heated relaxing means
since any unrelaxed and still strained portions will render
and then relaxing said yarn and developing the crimp
the yarn unsatisfactory.
The package-winding means lill may take the form
conc-Winder which produces cones o” the ¿Finished relaxed
and dîmensionally stable yarn ’”a. From such cones the
yarn may be transferred to any desired size and type of
bobbin, pirn or beam for storage and shipment in con
ventional manner. Alternatively, the ñnal packaging may
before tuiting a carpet fabric therefrom.
The alternative method shown by the broken line of
lïlGURi-’î l illustrates the application of the principles dis
cussed above. With reference to the broken line of FIG
URE l, the dimensionally unstable yarn or tow 2 having
latent twist set therein from stretchin;J rolls '7 is processed
through the desired fabrication operation i3 of knitting,
weaving, or tuitirig and the yarn in the resulting fabric i9
take place directly from the taire-up rolls 9 by employing
other well-known package winding means il@ in place of
thereafter relaxed by means of heat. The heating as ap
iied in heating zone 20, may occur in a separate operation
a cone-Winder.
or in the subsequent operations of scouring, dyeing, finish
`In another form of the instantl method the
or tow 30 ing, etc. The relaxed fabric i9 is forwarded by conven
tional rolls El to conventional fabric take-up means 22
which emerges from the stretching rolls 'l can be relaxed
in skein form, not shown, by heating with steam or by
from which the fabric may be suitably packaged for stor~
means of dry heat in a chamber maintained at least at
about 200° E., or in an aqueous bath maintained at least
at, 160"
Preferably, a chamber using live steam at
age or shipment. Wet heat of at least 160° F. or dry
heat of at least 200° F. is suliicient to relax the yarn in
the form or” knitted, woven or tufted fabric. Since tern
peratures of at least lo0° F, are customarily maintained in
about 260° F. is used. However, dry heat at 200°
an even and an aqueous bath at lotta E. have proved satis
aqueous baths during the operations of scouring, dyeing,
factory.l When relaxed in the iorrn of skeins the relaxed
and dimensionally stable yarn thereafter is rev/sund on
some form of yarn package prior to use in textife operetionsï Such rewinding operations are not iliuslzrated _in
the drawing since any or' the wcll-lrnown commercially
finishing, etc. this alternative means of relaxation is con
veulent. Upon relaxation in the form of fabric, the pre
viously unrelaxed yarns in the fabric will have been
shrunlt and rendered dirnensionally stable and the latent
practical methods may be employed.
the yarns.
FlGURE 2 illustrates one preferred form of apparatus
for conducting the relaxation step of the instant method,
With reference to FIGURE 2, dimensionally unstable yarn
or tow 2, having latent twist set therein, which emerges
from stretching rolls 7 is conducted over guide roller ill,
or any other known~ yarn-guiding means, and into a wig
The method of the instant invention pertains to all
continuous multiiilament yarns, tows, etc. and to plied
twist set therein will have been developed as crimp in
yarns resulting from plying two or more ends of such
continuous tilarnent yarns composed of predominantly
acrylonitrile polymers. it is applicable to all acrylonitrile
polymer yarns of filaments produced from polymers, in
wag piddler 12. The yarn or tow 2 is forwarded by the 50 cluding copolymers and interpolymers, containing 70 or
more percent by weight of acrylonitrile in polymerized
piddler l2 onto conveyor belt i3 and carried thereby
form and bler-ds of such polymers with blending poly
through a heated relaxing zone i4 to which heat is sup
mers, which preferably contain acrylonitrile. The co
plied by a bank of infra-red heat lamps i5. From the
polymers and interpolymers can be polymers of 70 or
rolls 16 and forwarded to package winding means l’i, 55 more percent of acrylonitrile and minor proportions of
other mono-Oleiinic monomers copolymerizablc therewith.
corresponding~ respectively to taire-up rolls El and package
Among the mono-olefinic monomers useful for copoly
winding means l0 in FlGURE l. The wig-Wag pidcller
' conveyer belt 13 the yarn or tow is drawn off by taire-up
rncrization with acrylonitrile are vinyl acetate and other
12 distributes the yarn 2 back and forth onto conveyer
vinyl esters of monocarboxylic acids having up to four
belt 13. This form of distribution on the conveyor belt
leaves the yarn totally free to relax. in place of infra 60 carbon atoms, methyl acrylate and other alkyl acrylates
having up to four carbon atoms in the alkyl radical,
red heat lamps l5 the heat for the heated relaxing zone
methyl methacrylate and other alkyl methacrylatcs having
14 may be derived from a steam chamber or dry heat oven.
ïrrespective'of the heating means used, suriicient heat
up to four carbon atoms in the alkyl radical, acrylic,
must be transrnited to all the filaments in the yarn to
alpha-chloroacrylic, and mcthacrylic acids, vinyl chloro
substantially completely relax and shink the yarn and to
acetate and other vinyl esters of halogen-substituted mono
develop the crimp therein.
carboxylic acids, dialkyi fumarates, maleatcs, and cro
Another aspect of the instant method is the fact that
the dimensionally unstable yarn having latent twist set
therein, which emerges from thestretching rolls, can be
relaxed and the crimp developed after the yarn has been
woven, knitted or tufted` into fabrics. When conducting
tonates having up to four carbon atoms in the alkyl radi
the method in the latter manner, the yarn or tow from the
stretching rolls, with no further processing, can be wound
upon rigid cones by means of a constant tension cone
wlnder and may be stored for extended periods in this
cals, styrene, alpha-methylstyrene, and other vinyl or
allrenyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons, vinyl chloride,
vinylidene chloride, and other vinyl and vinylidene halidcs,
methacrylonitrile, methyl vinyl ketone, N-vinylcar‘oazole,
vinyl Íurane, and vinyl or alkenyl-substiuted N-hetero
cyclic tertiary amines, such as the vinylpyridines and
alkyl-substituted vinylpyridirles, vinylimidazolc and alkyl
substituted vinylinridazoles, vinylquinolines and alkyl
substituted vinyloninolines, 'v'
stituted vinylpyrazines, vinyl
azoles. ` The blended compositto
of the above copolymers
:ratori is
uniform ne àhe prop
_onya‘ is. Mechanical process«
~ i
- _ reciente! ali unevenness and irregu»
proportions or“ one or more bl uf
at least 30 ‘percent of e. reed'1
such as 'the vinyl or a
rEhe chief source of irregu
í îwl's ting employed, but since
tertiary amines above 'e
the yarn in stretched forro, any
J resulting therefrom are greatly
Among the mono-oieiiuie mono
n. The yarns produced by the
vantagcous properties of re~
f', oornpactness und streich~
m 'zatìon with the 'ving/ì or elke
amines to forro vinyl
the bien"
idene chloride, y
yl rice
acryiouitrile, memacrylonitriie.
acids7 the alkyl ecrylatesî ai
tomates, alkyl fumarates, eik;
. it is to be understood that the
rade 'without departing from the
Acrvloniîrile is ‘the nrererïed 5^"
polymers because
‘ffrdely different embodiments o;
fil@ SPCCÍÜC @mbodïmcïlîs
except as defined in the zo
vent resistance of .such
There are ser out bei
typesl of textured yarn
method of the instant in
factory carpet yarn for
method oi' îexturing ecrylonltrile polymer carpet
continually drawing a continuous
ryiori rile polymer tow of at least 750
there was used n continuous
composed of a blend o
rner of 94 percent acryl'
tate by weight and l2 per
The coniinuous
and SO
posed of '150 ñlaments of
2250. lThis tow was he
.e -icrylonitrile polymer to produce a dimen
concurrently inserting twist in the
ner veine of from 8 to l5 to form
_ .e yarn ’oelow the second order transition
¿he ì " t inserted therein, untwisting
‘he twist, ano" thereafter heating the
tube for a residence time o
employing set` rn
thus beate-d î
ratio of 1.5 a t
inch by a false t
. y there is produced a dimensional
tl ele-.Stic carpet yarn.
stable yarn
by heating
in s
etl'iod ci? tof-:turion ecryloniîrile polymer carpet
live steam
for one
at minute,
vacuum for one minute to :MM «e
sulting yarn was _Found
60 to 65 percent from its
innally drawing a continuous
" "
polymer low of et least 750
letal c'Y er Li
n source of supply, stretching the tow
a stretch rullo ‘from about l.l to 3.0 while heated to a
’ '
very uniform and bulky and
.ses c
te'nrßerature above second order transition iernperature of
the acrvionitrile polymer to produce a dimensionaiiy unm
stable tow, concurrently inserting,7 twisi in the tow ut a
iwi“ multiple; value of from 8 to l5 to form a yarn, cool
elastic with crimp well develope ` „
found to demonstrate Supefigf
poweï, and freedom from 5;;
.„., ynri?- below the second order transition tenu
perature to set the twist inserted therein untwisting the
A smaller ¿Engel- Cm-peg
m -~ fr@ ¿md5 ~'
of filaments of the Same bien@
as above wherein the tow was eornoo
Vof ljdenieì- „fg r a 'total 10W Egg-Säge; ¿i 75 _
heated on a gmgved hearing b
-:he stretched and twist-set yarn to heut at a
W»oratore selected„ from the group
of at least
îoít" . wet and at least 200° te. dry for a time sufficient
.Dié 1.0
., shrink and `eyelop crimp in the yarn, whereby
dem@ ïime gf approximate@
to a 1.11 stretch ratio and a twist of
a false twist spindle. rille dimeosi
was then relaxed and the cr
in a chamber supplied wi‘îh satt
pressure for about l5 secon Cit. .
yarn to remove the twist, thereafter fabricating the yarn
„rio carpet- fabrio and subjecting the resulting fabric
there is produced a carpet fabric containing a dimensional
ly stable, crimp-ed and elastic yarn.
irl e
donned in claim î; wherein the yarn
` ated into a knitted fabric.
outhori as defined in claim 2 wherein the yarn
produced by increasing the residence time or
block to about 3 seconus.
The resulting yu 1^ i
to have contracted approximately' `f-
unrelaxed lengths. These yarns oeinorrsmal o pro?
stretchlness and bull(~ as well es good compos*
covering power. These properties indicate 5uc_ 1
be suitable for knit goods and e rpeîs,
.From the foregoing it may oe :een i` ' -
the instant invention is 7eroe"
wide range of extremely useful ie".
nitrile iliamente. The method rest
ity inyarns
the yarns
to uniform
of tern
sion while stretching and twis
as defined in claim 2 wherein the yarn
tufted fabric,
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