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Патент USA US3022647

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Feb. 27, 1962
w. L. MORRISON
3,022,637
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FREEZING PERISHABLE MATERIAL
Filed ApNril 22, 1960
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FREEZING PERISHABLE MATERIAL
Filed April 22, 1960
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METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FREEZING PERISHABLE MATERIAL
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BY PARA/£1? 6402A
Arron/vers
United States Patent
ice
1
3,022,53?
Patented Feb. 27, 1952
2
of the container, there being a large number of them
3,022,637
in each wall, the total area of the gas ports being sub
METHOD AND APPARATUS FÜR FREEZING
stantially larger than necessary to accommodate the ñow
PERISHABLE MATERIAL
Willard L. Morrison, Lake Forest, lll., assignor to Lique 5 of gas evaporated from the liquid. Each of these ports
is provided with a separate closure. When it is desired
freeze Company, Inc., New York, NY., a corporation
of New York
Filed Aug. 22, 1960, Ser. No. 24,068
6 Claims. (CI. 62-64)
My invention is especially applicable to the freezing
or superchilling of foodstuffs and the like which are
to cool a particular part of the load, the Valve or valves
controlling the liquid iiow to that area are open and the
exhaust ports adjacent that area are open.
Then as the
evaporation takes place, the gas rushes rapidly toward
the open exhaust ports, entraining with it the liquid as
packed and shipped in insulated shipper containers. I
it continues to pour out into the container. Thus the
direction of ñow of the liquid as it cools the contents of
have illustrated my invention as applied to a truck trailer
the container is controlled by the control or rather by
body though it might be equally well applied to a freight
car, a ship or an airplane.
The material to be superchilled is normally frozen
down to a temperature in the order of zero degree F.,
the location at which the gas is allowed to escape.
Thus the liquid is entrained and directed to a desired
point merely by controlling the gas vent openings.
the small paper packages or cans being packed, quite
Other objects will appear from time to time through~
out the specilication and claims.
a number of them in rectangular, rough paper or corru
gated board cartons. These cartons are then packed
tically in the accompanying drawings, wherein»
The invention is illustrated more or less diagramma
in and substantially till the insulated container. The
container is closed and liquid nitrogen in the order of
_320 degrees F. and at atmospheric pressure is poured
URE l;
or flowed into `the container so that it may drench the
surfaces of the cartons, penetrate in the cartons as a
URE l;
FIGURE l is a side elevation of a shipper container;
FlGURE 2 is a section along the line 2_2 of FIG.
FIGURE 3 is a section along the line 3_3 of FIG
liquid, be absorbed by and pass through the carton walls
FiGURE 4 is a section along the line 4_4 of FIG
and contact the contents of the carton so as to reduce
RE l;
the temperature of the carton contents down to a desired
low temperature far below zero degree F.
FIGURE 5 is a side elevation of a part of FIGURE
4 taken in the direction of the arrows 5_5;
The cartons are packed closely together as they must 30
FIGURE 6 is a section along the line 6_6 of FIG
in order to take best advantage of the insulated con
URE 3;
tainer and in order to prevent damage in transit but be
FIGURE 7 is a section along the line ’7_7 of FIG
ing packed closely together, they inhibit convection cur
URE 6;
rents and to some extent retard liquid and gas iiow
FIGURE 8 is .la side elevation of an insulating plug
used to fill vents in the container;
FIGURE 9 is an exploded section of a different type
along the boundaries of the mass and along boundary
walls between the cartons. Hence the very great irn
portance of insuring that the liquid nitrogen flows as
liquid and contacts as liquid the cartons and their con
tents because liquid Will flow through said spaces more
readily.
of vent plug for use in connection with the ñller openings;
FIGURE l0 is a side elevation of the device shown
in FIGURE l showing some of the ducts plugged and
40 others open;
The liquid as -it contacts the warm cartons and their
contents, boils, is evaporated and expands some six hun
dred times, thus cooling the contents of the container
largely by latent heat, the gas rushing violently away
from the area of contact.
It is important to be able to diiferentially control the
temperature to which diiïerent parts of the cargo are
cooled. Perhaps part of the cargo goes to a further des
FIGURE ll is a section along the line 11-11 of
FIGURE l0 showing at least one sealing duct open;
FIGURE l2 is a section along the line 12-12 of
FIGURE l0.
Like parts are indicated by 4like numerals throughout
the specification and drawings.
-
The shipper container shown in side elevation in FIG
URE 1 is illustrated as an insulated truck trailer having
side walls i, front wall 2, rear end door 3 and roof 4.
the cargo are destined for storage under different cir 50 ïhe contents of the container are not illustrated in the in
cumstances and of course the top of the cargo being
terest of clarity but it must be understood that the car
exposed to the heat of the sun on the roof of the con
tons or other containers are packed as closely as possible
tainer needs to be cooler to start with than the remainder
to ñll the container. Extending across the container at
of the cargo and if the direction of travel is known as
the top are two manifolds 5, 6. There might be more
it always is, one side of the container may be Ámore 55 or one could be used. Extending longitudinally from
exposed to sun than the other so that for all these reasons,
these manifolds along the top of the container are grid
some means of controlling and directing the flow of
pipes 7, 8, 9 and l@ which may, if desired, terminate
tination than other parts.
Perhaps diiîerent parts of
liquid to speciñc points as desired must be provided.
in cross pipes 11. The manifolds, the grid
This is accomplished by having at the top of the con
the cross pipes 11 are all perforate as at 12.
tainer a grid of pipes permanently established there, the 60 forations l2 discharge either horizontally or
pipes being apertured along their lengths, the apertures
upwardly and are so positioned that they
being of substantial size, preferably laterally directed.
The grid will be associated with an outside manifold
built into the container through which the liquid may
masked by the load in the car.
pipes and
The per
diagonally
cannot be
The purpose is that as
the liquid jets through these perforations, it will be dis~
be caused to ñow and various parts of the grid may be 65 charged in part horizontally and in part upwardly to im
pinge on the underside of the car roof and be deflected
separately valve controlled so as to direct the ñow of
diagonally downwardly along the loading. Valves 14
liquid into a desired part or parts of the container.
with operating hand wheels 15 outside the container may
Since the liquid expands six hundred times, the ve
locity of gas escape from the container is quite high and
be manipulated to open or close as desired one or al1 of
exhaust ports for the gas must be provided many times 70 the pipes 7, S, 9 and 10.
in cross sectional area than the cross sectional area of
Ports 16 are spaced along the upper and lower por
the pipe. Such exhaust ports are provided in both Walls
tions of the walls 1. The spacing may be close or far
3,022,637
3
apart as desired, the spacing or arrangement being a
matter of preference except that there must be ports ad
jacent the top and adjacent the bottom of the load.
Each of these ports communicates with the interior of
atmospheric in connection with the nitrogen and the gas.
by similar plugs 19, flanged at 20. The upper boundary
By this I mean that the pressure in the container in the
car is not great enough to substantially affect the temper
ature of evaporation or boiling is not great enough sto
put any substantial load on the structure. The pressure
on the liquid nitrogen as it ñows into the car is, of course,
sufficient. There may be a pressure equal to the pressure
of the duct at its inner end being far below the lower
boundary of the port 16. Each of these ports at the
of an inch or so of Water to cause it to flow into the
car. The pressure in the car may be a few more inches
inboard end is masked by a cross bar 18 and each of
of water resulting from the evaporation of the gas is great
enough to insure violent discharge of the gas from the
the container by a downwardly inclined duct 17 . Vertical
ports 17a are disposed in the roof of the car being closed
these ducts may be closed by an insulating plug 19,
flanged at 20 which may be locked in place, if desired.
car at a rate suflicient, as `the gas travels Íthrough the car
to entrain the liquid, thus moistening the selected area
between liquid supply land gas discharge to insure a
cooling of the contents.
matter how tightly packed the packages are, the package
The apertures in the pipes are as indicated generally
wall will not close the aperture so that liquid may ñow
horizontal or perhaps upwardly inclined. What is desired
out of that aperture as a liquid without any atomization
is the liquid as it ilows will be discharged laterally along
or without any substantial increase in pressure so that the
the surface of the load. The load, of course, cannot be
liquid may be entrained by the gas as it rushes toward
20 put in above the pipes. Perhaps some of the liquid may
the selectively opened gas ports.
impinge on the ceiling of fthe car and rain down and as
The reason for the bars 18 is the same. It insures
soon as the surface is at the temperature of the liquid,
that no matter how closely the cartons are packed, they
no further vaporization at that point will occur. Thus
will not mask the exhaust ducts 17.
there is a tendency toward distribution of the liquid on
The drip pan 22 at the bottom of the container is
masked by a flange 21 so that any liquid as it pours down 25 the surface of the load so that the liquid may spray
out and with the help of the injection or entrainment
will be caught and retained long enough for evapora
action of the gas cover the Whole upper surface of the
tion without saturating the lower portion of the insula
load and be able thereafter to ñow down along the out
tion. Insulation of this type being tight enough to nor
side boundaries of the load toward the bottom of the
mally inhibit gas flow but not enough to be liquid tight.
The use and operation of the invention are as follows: 30 load in a bath of liquid trapped in the bottom of the car,
The reason for having the apertures 12 above the
lowest boundary of the pipes is to make sure that no
Assuming for example that it is desired to especially
cool that part of the load immediately below the longi
tudinal pipe 7, valve 14 in connection with the pipe 8
will be closed. A sealing plug will be taken out of one
thus differentially cooling top, side and bottom of the
load.
Since each manifold extends clear yacross the car and
may be opened at either end, it is necessary to close one
end of the manifold 5, the sealing plug remaining in the 35 end when liquid is to be supplied through the other end.
This is done by means of a screw plug 30 threaded in the
end of the manifold at 31 and this screw plug may be
other end. A hose will be inserted in the manifold 5 to
replace the plug and the hose can well be screwed into
place to make a tight joint. The sealing plugs on some
insulated and masked by an insulating plug 32.
or all of the ports on the side of the vehicle nearest the
will never be more than one end of the manifold open
pipe 7 will be open, all the other plugs remaining closed.
Liquid nitrogen will ñow in, pouring as liquid out upon
the upper portion of the load. As it evaporates the gas
violently seeks an outlet. It rushes out at high velocity
through the container past the load and out through the
open port. Traveling at high velocity, it tends to entrain
and after the freeze down, both ends of the manifold Will
be closed.
There
The ports in the door of the container may be opened
or closed depending on the direction of flow of liquid
and gas desired. In FIGURES l0 and l2, I have illus
trated some of the lower ports 16 as being open so that
the liquid, thus increasing and spreading the cooling
e?ect, the liquid evaporating as it is entrained. The
gas will rush out at that point entraining the liquid toward
it from the source of liquid supply. In FIGURE ll, I
irrigated with the liquid nitrogen.
portion thereof by inducing the high velocity flow of the
have shown a port in the top of the container open so that
more liquid that goes in, the colder the packages, the
gas may rush out at that point.
further the liquid can go before it evaporates until ñnally
I claim:
you might get a situation where the liquid gets clear 50
l. The method of chilling perishable material, which
down to the port. Under those circumstances the liquid
consists in filling a closable insulating zone with a multi
will be deflected, will not flow upwardly through the ex
plicity of packages of the material, pouring liquid nitrogen
haust ducts.
into the zone at substantially atmospheric pressure, for
When the proper »degree of cold has been reached which
may be determined by any suitable means, liquid flow 55 contact with and boiling by the heat of the contents of
the zone, conveying the liquid in the Zone to a selected
will be stopped and other parts of the package may be
It is of the utmost importance that the liquid flow onto
the goods as liquid, not as a spray because if the nitrogen
is sprayed, it Vaporizes before it reaches the goods and 60
heat exchange with a vapor, or gas is much less eifective
and much more wasteful than heat exchange with a liquid.
Under some circumstances, frost may accummulate in
the ducts 17 but because the ducts are downwardly in
clined and because the bar 18 is tangent to the upper
wall of the duct, frost may be knocked out by pushing
a rod through the port 16 and along the duct 17. The
duct 17 being downwardly inclined serves as a baille so
resultant gas from the area Where boiling occurs toward
one of a plurality of selected gas discharge points.
2. The method of chilling perishable material, which
consists in filling a closable insulating zone with a multi
plicity of packages of the material, pouring liquid nitro
gen into the zone at substantially atmospheric pressure in
contact with and boiling by the heat of the contents of
the zone, discharging the resultan-t gas at high velocity
from the Zone at one of a plurality of selected points far
removed from the area Where the boiling occurs, the
Velocity of the gas as it flows from the point Where boil
ing occurs to the point of discharge being such that liquid
circumstances escape through the port 16 and since the 70 is entrained by the gas toward the point of discharge.
3. Means for chilling perishable material including a
ducts are all upwardly inclined and much of the gas
closable insulated container in which a multiplicity of
comes from above, there will be a sudden change of
relatively warm packages of the material may, before
direction, thus separating out the liquid from the gas by
that horizontally flowing liquid will not under ordinary
centrifugal force.
closing, be packed, means for discharging liquid nitrogen
I have used the term Kapproximately or substantially 75 at atmospheric pressure into the container into contact
3,022,637
5
5
with the Warm packages at any one or more of a plurality
with the Warm packages at a selected station, means for
discharging vthe resultant gas from the container at a
of selected locations whereby the liquid is vaporized for
discharging the resultant gas from the container at any
one or more of a plurality of selected locations.
selected station far removed from the point of supply.
6. Means for chilling perishable material including a
4. Means for chilling perishable material including a 5 closable insulated container in which a multiplicity of
closable insulated container in which a multiplicity of
relatively Warm packages of the material may, before clos
relatively warm packages of the material may, before
ing, be packed, means for discharging liquid nitrogen at
closing, be packed, a liquid pipe supply system Within the
yatmospheric pressure into the container in Contact with
container, a plurality of liquid supply pipes adapted to
the warm packages at a selected station, means for dis
discharge liquid nitrogen at atmospheric pressure into 10 charging the resultant gas from »the container at a selected
the container, valve means controlling ñow through said
station far removed from the point of supply, said means
pipes, a plurality of gas discharge ports extending through
including a multiplicity of gas discharge ports in the
container and means for selectively opening and closing
ing selected ports.
them.
5. Means for chilling perishable material including a 15
References Cited in the tile of this patent
closable insulated container in which a multiplicity of
FOREIGN PATENTS
relatively Warm packages of the material may, before
the wall of the container and means for opening and clos
closing, be packed, means for discharging liquid nitrogen
at atmospheric pressure into the container in contact
1,166,555
France ______________ __ June 23, 1958
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