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Патент USA US3022786

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Feb. 27, 1962
G. STEINLEIN ETAL
'
3,022,776
SEPARATOR ARRANGEMENT FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filec? Sept. vl1 , > 1959
21
v Wgt:
INVENTORS.
Dan]?
Gustav Sr‘ezhfez'n
By My?!’
WM z‘rv/
"
United States Patent 0'”
1
3,h22,77§
Patented Feb. 27, 1862
2
3,022,776
SEPARATOR ARRANGEMENT FOR
RNAL
(ZOMBUSTION ENGINE
Gustav Steinlein, Mainberg, near Schweinfurt, and Willi
Trunk, Schweinfurt (Main), Germany, assignors to
Fichtel & Sachs A.G., Schweinfurt (Main), Germany,
a corporation of Germany
Filed Sept. 11, 1959, Ser. No. 83§A§8
Claims priority, application Germany Oct. 22, 1958
12 Claims. ((31. 123-73)
The present invention relates to separator arrangements
for internal combustion engines, and more particularly
Since the centrifugal force increases with the square
of the rotary speed, the efficiency of the centrifugal sepa
rator is greatly enhanced by a high rotary speed of the
basket or rotor. Means are provided for this reason to
drive the basket or rotor at a speed which is higher than
the speed of the engine, that is, the speed of the crank
shaft. The lubricant particles thrust against the housing
walls at very high speed are much less likely again to be
entrained by the stream of air through which they must
pass before abutting against the separator housing.
According to an additional feature of this invention, the
basket of the separator is provided with a ?lter element
to an arrangement for separating particles of a liquid
lubricant from a gaseous component of the fuel mixture
’ interposed in the path of the air between that portion
of the housing space which communicates with the crank
the_combustion of which provides the energy of the 15 case by means of the intake duct, and the interior space
engine.
of the basket. The ?lter element forms a portion of
In two-stroke cycle gasoline engines it is common to
the basket wall, and preferably a peripheral portion, and
provide the cylinder with a transfer port which connects
permits the passage of air into the basket, but inter
the crankcase of the engine with the combustion space
feres with the passage of oil particles into the basket.
in the cylinder. Air of combustion is drawn into the
crankcase and is compressed there during the downward
stroke of the piston. The precompressed air is then ad
mitted to the cylinder through the transfer port. While
passing through the crankcase, the air entrains droplets
of liquid lubricant which cause smoking of the engine
when they reach the combustion chamber and are ad
mixed to the fuel.
It is the primary object of the invention to provide a
The ?lter element may consist of a woven wire screen
or of a perforated metal sheet of substantially cylindrical
shape forming the axially extending wall of the sepa
rator rotor.
1
It has been found that the effectiveness of the sepa
25 rator arrangement of the invention does not increase in
de?nitely with increasing speed of the rotor. While the
rotor speed should be higher than the engine or crank
shaft speed under almost all conditions, the technical
and economic effectiveness of the device may actually be
the crankcase to the transfer port of the cylinder so as 30 decreased by too high a rotary speed of the separator.
to permit passage of the air and to return the separated
The centrifugal effect increases with speed as described
lubricant to the crankcase.
above. The ?ltering effect, however, has to be taken into
Another object of the invention is to provide actua
consideration as well when the rotary speed of the
tion of the centrifugal separator by the engine itself, but
basket is selected. Very high basket speed furthermore
centrifugal separator inserted in the path of air from
to permit operation of the centrifugal separator at a 35 may require appreciable energy to be diverted from the
rotary speed greater than the engine speed.
engine output for driving the basket. The structural
With these and other objects in view, the invention
strength of the rotor must be increased for high speed
provides in an internal combustion engine a centrifugal
operation. It will thus be understood that the best op
separator having a rotor, an intake duct communicating
erating speed of the centrifugal separator must be deter
with the crankcase of the engine, and a discharge duct 40 mined for each individual case; The optimum speed is
communicating with a port in the engine cylinder. The
also in?uenced by the nature of the lubricant which is
centrifugal separator is actuated by motion transmitting
to be separated from the air of combustion, and by vari
means connected to the rotor of the separator and to
able factors of engine operation such as the temperature
the crankshaft of the engine for rotating the rotor at a
prevailing in the crankcase.
speed different from, and preferably greater than the 45 It is, therefore, preferred to provide the rotor of the
rotary speed of the crankshaft.
centrifugal separator with a variable speed transmission
in its more speci?c aspects, the invention provides a
connected to the crankshaft of the engine so that the rotor
housing, a centrifugal basket rotatably mounted in the
can be driven at a speed which is adjustable when changes
housing in such a manner as to separate the space in the
in operating conditions so require. The transmission may
housing into two portions. The basket communicates 50 be a belt transmission each pulley of which has two
with both portions so that ?uid may flow from one por~
conical faces the distance of which is adjustable so that
tion to the other through the basket only. These ele
a V-belt will travel over the pulleys at an effective radius
ments form a centrifugal separator the two space por
which can be increased by moving the pulley faces
tions of which communicate with the crankcase of the
towards each other, and vice versa. Such a pulley ar
engine and with a port of the cylinder by means of an 55 rangement provides a well-known steplessly variable speed
transmission.
intake duct and a discharge duct respectively. The basket
is rotated at a speed different from that of the engine
The transmission drives a shaft on which the separator
crankshaft.
'
is mounted. It is also contemplated to mount the rotors
of a plurality of separators on a common shaft. The
The air of combustion entering the separator housing
rotors are each interposed in the path of an air stream
is preferably passed through the centrifugal basket in a
?owing from the crankcase to one of a plurality of ports
radially inward direction. The lubricant particles en
on the same cylinder, or to the ports of a plurality of
trained by the stream of air are thereby caused to im
cylinders.
_
pinge ?rst on portions of the basket or rotor which are
- relatively remote from the axis of rotation.
Being some
The rotor shaft may also carry means for driving other
what tacky and viscous, they adhere to the rotor and 65 devices associated with the engine. In the case of a
motor cycle engine, a pulley arranged on the separator
are rapidly accelerated in a tangential direction by the
movement of the rotor until their speed is sufficiently high
shaft may serve as a source of power for driving a dy
to cause them to be thrust outwardly away from the
namo, a blower for cooling air, a rotary control valve,
rotor by centrifugal force. The lubricant particles are
or other auxiliary equipment.
thus collected on the walls of the housing portion com
The basket and cooperating portions of the housing
municating with the intake duct of the separator and may 70 should preferably be equipped with a seal which ensures
be returned therefrom to the crankcase by gravity.
substantially perfect separation of the two portions of the
3,022,776
space in the separator housing by the basket so that air
can pass from one space portion to the other through the
basket itself only. Since the seal must permit free ro
tation of the basket, it is preferably of the mechanical
type such as a labyrinth packing. If the cylinder co
operating with a single separator has two transfer ports,
the basket is arranged in the housing in such a manner
4
from the crankcase 1 to the transferports of the cylinder
31 only through the ?lter element 8, the interior of the
basket 7 and the openings 13.
The free end of the shaft 4 carries a V-belt pulley
15 which provides a convenient power take-off for aux
iliary-devices associated with or integrally connected with
the engine.
The driven pulley 6 consists of a ?xed pulley disc 17
which has a conical face arranged opposite an axially
movable pulley disc 18 of substantially the same con
other two respectively communicate with the cylinder
?guration. The movable disc 18 is urged toward the
ports.
?xed disc 17 by one end of a strong compression spring
Other features and many of the attendant advantages
15? the other end of which abuts ‘against a collar on the
of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same
shaft 4. A V-belt 20 is trained about the pulley 6. The
becomes better understood by reference to the following
detailed description when considered in connection with 15 effective diameter of the pulley 6 depends on the spacing
of the discs 17 and 18.
the accompanying drawings in which like reference. nu- The belt 2% is also trained about a second pulley con
merals designate like parts throughout the ?gures thereof,
stituted by a ?xed pulley disc 23 and a movable pulley
and wherein:
disc 22 substantially identical with the pulley discs 17
FIG. l'shows a fragmentary front view of an internal
combustion engine equipped with a preferred embodi 20 and 1S and mounted on a portion of the crankshaft 21
which projects from the crankcase 1. While the disc 23
ment of the centrifugal separator of the invention;
as to separate the space therein into three portions one
of which communicates with the intake duct whereas the
FIG. 2 shows the device of FIG. 1 in radial section on
is ?xedly secured to the crankshaft, the disc 22 ‘is axially
the line II-ll; and
FIG. 3 schematically illustrates the arrangement of two
slidable thereon, but secured against rotation by a key
arrangement ‘(not shown)._ The axial position of the disc
centrifugal separators of the invention on a common
22 is adjusted by a forked control member 24 in which
a portion of the disc is journaled. The control member
24 threadedly engages a threaded control spindle 25
shaft, the separators being shown in axial section.
Referring now to the drawing and ?rst to FIG. 1, there
is shown the crankcase 1 of a single-cylinder two-stroke
cycle gasoline engine on which the cylinder 31 is mounted.
The cylinder is of the kind usual in this type of engine
and has three kinds of ports, an intake port 33, an ex;
haust port 34, and two transfer ports 35 (only one of
which is visible in the drawing) for receiving air ofcom
bustion from the crankcase I from which it is drawn
through a port 36. A piston 37‘ is reciprocably mounted
in the cylinder and actuates rotation of a crankshaft 21
mounted in the crankcase 1 and having a portion pro
jecting from the crankcase as will become apparent as
which is rotatably mounted in the crankcase but the
axialposition of which is ?xed. The spindle 25 is equipped
with a crank by means of which the relative distance of
the discs 22 and 23 can be adjusted. Movement of the
discs 22 and 23 toward and away from each other re
sults in an increase and decrease respectively of the effec
tive diameter of the driving pulley jointly formed by them
and thus varies the tension of the belt 25} which causes
the pulley discs 17 and 18 to, move relative to each other.
The entire pulley arrangement described constitutes a
well-known stepless variable-speed transmission which
permits the separator rotor to be operated at a speed
The substantially cylindrical housing 2 of a cen 40 different from, and preferably greater than the speed of
the crankshaft 21.
trifugal separator is mounted on the crankcase 1 by
It is apparent-that the variable belt transmission illus
means of a ?anged connection 3. The intake duct con
trated in FIG. 2 may be replaced by any other variable
necting the housing 2 and the crankcase 1 has across
speed transmission of known design, such as a gear or
section as great as that of the housing itself and is down
wardly inclined towards the crankcase 1. The rotor shaft 45 friction drive, without departing from the spirit of the
invention.
4 of the centrifugal separator projects through the hous—
As shown in FIG. 3, the single rotor of FIG. 2 com
ing wall and passes also through a discharge duct 11
municating with two discharge ducts may be replaced
which communicates with the interior of the housing 2
the description proceeds.
at one end thereof whereas the other end is connected to
by two rotor ararngements 16 mounted on a common
50 shaft 32 and cooperating each with a single intake duct
a transfer port 35 of the cylinder 31.
33. The arrangement otherwise is ‘the same as shown in
As best seen from FIG. 2, which shows the separator
FIGS. 1 and 2.
assembly of FIG. 1 in axial and radial ‘section along line
When operating the device of the invention of FIGS. 1
11-11, the rotor shaft 4 is journaled in bearings 5 and
and 2 for the ?rst time with an untried combination of
both ends thereof project from the housing 2.4 One end
of the shaft carries a driven pulley 6. The basket-shaped 55 lubricant and operating conditions, the crank of the
control spindle 25 is turned forth and back until the
separator rotor 7 is ?xedly mounted on the shaft 4. It
most favorable rotor speed is experimentally determined.
consists essentially of two annular end plates‘ ‘9 axially
The variable speed transmission is selected in such a man
spaced from each other and'connect'ed by ‘a plurality of
ner that the speed of the rotor even at the highest engine
axially extending ribs 10 which support a cylindrical ?lter
speed and the highest transmission ratio will not exceed
element 8. The annular end plates 9 are connected to
the safe structural limits of the basket and of the ?lter
the shaft by radial ribs between which axial openings 13
material which is also subjected to appreciable centrifugal
permit ?ow of ?uid between the interior of the rotor 7
force.
and a‘ space in the housing 2 which communicates with
Air drawn from the crankcase 1 passes into the cylin
two discharge ducts 11 provided with flange connections
12 for attachment to the transfer ports 35 of the cylinder 65 dri'cal tubular space between the basket or rotor 7 and
the cylindrical wall portion of the housing 2. It is then
31.
>
forced through the ?lter element 8 by the suction of the
The space in the housing 2 communicating with the
vengine and the pressure created in the crankcase. Lubri
discharge ducts 11 is separated from the remainder of the
cant particles impinging on the ?lter element 8 and on
annular elements 14a and 14b arranged on the outer 70 other parts of the basket 7 adhere. A plurality of drop
lets coalesce to form larger drops which ‘are no longer
surfaces of the end plates 9 and the innercircular sur
held to the basket by adhesion but which are ‘thrown ‘off .
faces of the housing 2 respectively. The sealing elements
housing space by mechanical seals having cooperating
form a labyrinth packing which offers very high resistance
centrifugally against the housing v2 on which they flow
downward under the in?uence of gravity, ‘and ?nd their
to the passage of ?uid but perm-its the rotor to ‘rotate
‘
.
freely about the axis of the shaft 4. Fluid may thus how 75 way back into thecrankcase 1. '
3,022,776
6
5
The air freely passes through the ?lter element 8 in a
radially inward direction, and leaves the basket 7 in an
axial direction through the openings 13 to reach the cylin
der through the discharge ducts 11 and the transfer ports
35 of the cylinder.
Because of the high rotary speed of the basket, the
?lter element is practically self cleaning and requires but
a minimum of maintenance.
The kinetic energy of the
5.v In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
a cylinder formed with a port for admitting ?uid to said
cylinder; a crankcase; a crankshaft rotatably mounted
in said crankcase; a piston reciprocable in said cylinder
for rotating said crankshaft; a centrifugal separator hav
ing a rotor, an intake duct communicating with said
crankcase, and a discharge duct communicating with said
port; and variable-speed transmission means connected
lubricant particles thrown off from the basket at high
to said rotor and to said crankshaft for rotating said rotor
speed toward the housing 2 is too high to permit them 10 at a plurality of selected speeds, at least one of said speeds
to be again entrained by the stream of air moving radially
being diiferent from the speed of said crankshaft.
inward toward and through the ?lter element.
6. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
t should be understood, of course, that the foregoing
a cylinder formed with a port; a crankcase; a crankshaft
disclosure relates to only a preferred embodiment of the
rotatably mounted in said crankcase; a housing enclosing
invention and that it is intended to cover all changes and 15 a space therein; a rotor shaft spaced from said crankshaft
modi?cations of the example of the invention herein
and mounted in said housing; centrifugal basket means
chosen for the purpose of the disclosure which do not
mounted on said rotor shaft in said housing space so as
constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the in—
to separate two portions thereof; a ?lter element on said
vention set forth in the appended claims.
basket means, said ?lter element forming a wall of said
We claim:
20 basket‘ means and being located in one of said portions
1. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
for permitting passage of a gaseous ?uid from said one
a cylinder formed with a port for admitting ?uid to said
portion into said basket means, said basket means being
cylinder; a crankcase; a crankshaft rotatably mounted in
formed with an opening communicating with the other
said crankcase; a piston reciprocable in said cylinder for
one of said portion; an intake conduit communicating
rotating said crankshaft; a centrifugal separator having a .25. with said crankcase and said one portion; a discharge con
rotor, an intake duct communicating with said crankcase,
duit communicating with the other one of said portions
and a discharge duct communicating with said port; and
and with said port; and motion transmitting means con
motion transmitting means connected to said rotor and to
nected to said rotor shaft and to said crankshaft for ro
said crankshaft for rotating said rotor at a speed different
tating said basket means at a speed different from the
30 speed of said crankshaft.
from the speed of said crankshaft.
2. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
7. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
a cylinder formed with a port; a crankcase; a crankshaft
a cylinder formed with a port; 'a crankcase; a crankshaft
rotatably mounted in said crankcase; a housing enclosing
rotatably mounted in said crankcase; a housing enclosing
a space therein; a rotor shaft spaced from said crankshaft
a space therein; a rotor shaft spaced from said crankshaft
and mounted in said housing; centrifugal basket means 35 and mounted in said housing; a centrifugal basket means
mounted on said rotor shaft in said housing space so as
rotatablymounted on said rotor shaft in said housing
to separate two portions thereof, said basket means com
space so as to separate two portions thereof; a ?lter ‘
municating with said portions; an intake conduit com
element on said basket means, said ?lter element forming
municating with said crankcase and one of said portions;
a peripheral wall of said basket means and being located
a discharge conduit communicating with the other one of 40 in one of said portions for permitting passage of a gaseous
said portions and with said port; and motion transmitting
?uid from said one portion into said basket means, said
means connected to said rotor shaft and to said crank
basket means being formed with an opening communi
shaft for rotating said basket means at a speed differ
cating with the other one of said portions; an intake con~
ent from the speed of said crankshaft.
duit communicating with said crankcase and said one
3. In an internal combustion engine, in combination, 45 portion; a discharge conduit communicating with the other
a cylinder formed with a port for admitting ?uid to
one of said portions and with said port; and motion trans
said cylinder; a crankcase; a crankshaft rotatably mounted
mitting means connected to said basket means and to
in said crankcase; a piston reciprocable in said cylinder
said crankshaft for rotating said basket means at a speed
for rotating said crankshaft; a centrifugal separator hav
different from the speed of said crankshaft.
ing a rotor shaft, spaced from said crankshaft, a rotor 50
8. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
mounted on said rotor shaft, an intake duct communi
a cylinder formed with a port; a crankcase; a crankshaft
cating with said crankcase, and a discharge duct com
rotatably mounted in said crankcase; a housing enclosing
municating with said port; and means for rotating said
a space therein; a rotor shaft spaced from said crankshaft
rotor at a speed different from the speed of said crank
and mounted in said housing; centrifugal basket means
55 rotatably mounted on said rotor shaft in said housing
shaft.
4. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
space so as to separate two portions thereof; a screen
a cylinder formed with a port; a crankcase; a crankshaft
rotatably mounted in said crankcase; a housing enclosing
a space therein; a rotor shaft spaced from said crankshaft
and mounted in said housing; centrifugal basket means
mounted on said rotor shaft in said housing space so as
to separate two portions thereof, said basket means being
secured to said rotor shaft for joint rotation about an
element on said basket means, said screen element form
ing a wall of said basket means and being located in one
of said portions for permitting passage of a gaseous ?uid
from said one portion into said basket means, said basket
means being formed with an opening communicating with
the other one of said portions; an intake conduit com
municating with said crankcase and said one portion; a
axis and formed with a ?rst and a second opening com
discharge conduit communicating with the other'one of
municating with a ?rst one and a second one of said 65 said portions and with said port; and motion transmitting
portions respectively, said ?rst opening being spaced a
means connected to said basket means and to said crank
greater radial distance from the axis of rotation of said
basket than said second opening; an intake conduit com
municating with said crankcase and with said ?rst'portion;
shaft for rotating said basket means at a speed different
from the speed of said crankshaft.
9. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
a discharge conduit communicating with said second por 70 a cylinder formed with a port; a crankcase; a crankshaft
tion and with said port in said cylinder for passage of
rotatably mounted in said crankcase; a housing enclosing
a gaseous ?uid from said crankcase in a radially inward
a plurality of spaces therein; rotor shaft means spaced
direction through said basket means to said cylinder; and
from said crankshaft and mounted in said housing; cen
means for rotating said rotor shaft at a speed different
trifugal basket means rotatably mounted on said rotor
from the speed of said crankshaft.
shaft means in each of said housing spaces so as to sep
8,022,776
g
?
a'r'ate two ‘portions thereof, said basket means communi
cating with said portions; a plurality of intake conduits
respectively communicating with said crankcase and one
of said portions of each one of said plurality of housing
spaces; a piurality of discharge conduits respectively corn
'171. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
acylinder formed with a port for admitting ?uid to said
cylinder; at crankcase; a crankshaft rotatably mounted
in said crankcase; a piston reciprocable in said cylinder
for rotating said crankshaft; a centrifugal separator having
municating with the other one of said portions of each one
a rotor shaft spaced from said crankshaft, a rotor
of said plurality of housing spaces and with said port;
mounted on said rotor shaft, an intake duct communi
and motion transmitting means connected to said plurality
cating with said crankcase, and a discharge duct com
of basket means and to said crankshaft for rotating said
municating with said port; and motion transmitting means
basket means at a speed different from the-speed of said 10 connected to said rotor and to said crankshaft for rotating
crankshaft.
,
said rotor at a speed greater than the speed of said crank
10. In an internal combustion engine, in combination,
a cylinder formed with a port; a crankcase; a crankshaft
shaft.
.
'
12. In an internal combustion engine as set forth in
a plurality of spaces therein; a ‘rotor ‘shaft spaced from 15 claim 2, said motion transmitting means including a vari
rotatably mounted in said crankcase; a housing enclosing
said crankshaft and mounted in said housing; centrifugal
able-speed transmission interposed between said rotor and
basket means mounted on said rotor shaft in each of
said crankshaft for rotating said basket means at a plu
said housing spaces so as to separate two portions thereof,
said basket means communicating with said portions;
rality of selected speeds, at least one of said speeds being
di?erent from the speed of said‘ crankshaft.
a plurality of intake conduits respectiveiy communicating 20
with ‘said crankcase and one of said portions of each one
of said plurality of housing spaces; a plurality of discharge
conduits respectively communicating with the other one
of said portions of each one of said plurality of housing
spaces and with said port; and motion transmitting means
connected ‘to said rotor shaft and to said crankshaft for
rotating said basket means at ‘a speed‘different from the
speed of said crankshaft.
References Cited in the tile of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,303,207
2,547,327
2,893,362
2,959,164
Kelly et al _____________ _- May 6, 1,919
King _________________ _.. Apr. 3, 1951
Dalrymple __.____ _______ .__ July' ,7, 1959
Janeway et al __________ __ Nov. 8, 1960
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