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Патент USA US3022888

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Feb. 27, 1962
R. SEIBEL ETAL
3,022,878
COMMUNICATION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 11, 1960
7 Sheets-Sheet 1
?1. 3
FIG.1
INVENTORS
ROBERT SEIBEL
NATHANIEL ROCHESTER
BY
AT
RNE
Feb- 27, 1962
R. SEIBEL ETAL
3,022,878
COMMUNICATIONDEVICE
Filed Jan. 11, 1960
7 Sheets-Sheet 2
18
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FIG. 4b
Feb. 27, 1962
R. SEIBEL ETAL
3,022,878
COMMUNICATION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 11, 1960 _
7 Sheets-Sheet 3
FIG. 5
Feb. 27, 1962
R. SEIBEL ETAL
3,022,878
COMMUNICATION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 11, 1960
'7 Sheets-Sheet 4
BSP= BACK SPACE
RTN= CARRIAGE RETURN
SP2=2 SPACES
SP3 =3 SPACES
SLK=SH|FT LOCK
' =UPPER CASE
FIG. 6
Feb- 27, 1962
R. SEIBEL ETAL
3,022,878
COMMUNICATION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 11, 1960
7 Sheets-Sheet 5
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United States Patent 0 " ICC
3,022,878
Patented Feb. 27, 1962
1
2
as a glove around the hand. When the operator?s hand
is placed between the metacarpus rest and control ele
3,022,878
,
COMMUNICATION DEVICE
ments, movement of the ?ngers with respect to the hand
(rather than with respect to the machine to be controlled)
controls the machine. The control elements have two or
Robert Seibei, Putnam Valley, and Nathaniel Rochester,
' Mount Kisco, N.Y., assignors to International Business
? Machines Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation
of New York
more positions?a center ?relaxed? position, and an in
ward ?gripped? position, and/or an outward ?extended?
position. Each transducer is mounted so that the direc
tion of movement of the control element is along the line
Filed Jan. 11, 1960, Ser. No. 1,768
14 Claims. (Cl. 197-19)
This invention relates to man-machine communications, 10 of easiest ?nger movement (that is, in the direction that
and in particular, to a novel keyboard with a shape de
a ?ngertip moves if a ?nger is gripped and then extended).
pendent upon the form of the relaxed human hand, and
A fourth ?depressed? position, which is a feature of the
keys arranged so as to reduce extraneous hand and arm
movements to a minimum.
preferred embodiment of this invention, is obtained by
depressing the ?nger.
The prior art shows keyboards of several types, none 15 A one-hand keyboard with a three-position transducer
providing deep ?nger recesses or supporting the operator?s
unit provides 243 (35) possible combinations. If one
hand in a relaxed position, and none permitting as great
neglects the position where all ?ngers are relaxed, there
a complexity of communications to be transmitted with
are 242 possible combinations remaining. If each hand
as little physical movement as is permitted in this inven
is provided with a keyboard there are 59,049 (31°) possi
tion. Keyboards mounted around the hand and remote
ble combinations. If one again neglects the position
from the machine to be controlled are likewise not shown
in the prior art.
where all ?ngers are relaxed, there are 59,048 possible
It is usually desirable, regardless of
combinations remaining.
the use of the keyboard, that the operator?s effort be
reduced as much as possible. If the keyboard is located
in a high-acceleration airplane or missile, it is highly
7 If a one-hand keyboard is connected to serve as the
input to a typewriting machine, an operator may strike
any of the approximately 90 symbols or functions of the
standard typewriter keyboard and still have more than
100 possible symbols left over for other uses. These
and control is as small as possible.
.
leftover symbols may be utilized in a form of keyboard
One object of this invention is to provide a man-ma
shorthand, such that each of these. stands for more than
chine communication device that surrounds the hand and 30 one letter or standard symbol. The leftover symbols
is remote from the controlled machine allowing relatively
could stand for such letter sequences as ?ed,? ?ing,?
desirable to reduce the amount of limb movement to a
minimum so that the mass which the operator must move
free movement of the hand, while controlling the machine
by moving the ?ngers with respect to the hand, rather
?tion,? ?and,? ?the,? etc., these sequences being chosen
on the basis of their frequency of occurrence in the
than With respect to the machine.
English language. Those used most frequently could be
Another object of this invention is to provide improved 35 assigned to ?nger positions easiest to effect. In addition,
man-machine communication comprising a keyboard con
some of the leftover symbols could be reserved for fre
taining a hand and/or arm rest and ?ngertip recesses so
quently used word combinations, in the manner disclosed
that the operator?s hand and arm are supported in a
in a patent to R. R. Seeber, Jr., 2,717,686, issued Septem
relaxed position.
ber 13, 1955.
.
Another object of this invention is to provide a key 40
'in the preferred embodiment of this invention, four
board of the kind stated having keys or transducers asso
position transducer units are mounted around each ?nger
' ciated with individual ?ngers of one or both hands. These
tip providing l,023 (45?1) possible combinations for the
transducers are movable by the ?ngers with a minimum
of extraneous motion of hand(s), arm(s), and momen
tarily unused ?nger(s).
,
one-hand keyboard. Ten ?nger operation raises the num
ber of possible combinations to 1,048,575 (41°?1).
The foregoing and other objects, features and advan
'
t A further objectof'this invention is to provide a key
tages ofthe invention will be apparent from the follow
board of the kind described which utilizes the gripping
and extending motion of the ?ngers, and also the usual
ing more particular description of preferred embodiments
of the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying
depressing motion of the ?ngers if desired. -.
drawings.
_
»
Y
.
.
.
A further object of this invention is to provide a key
In the drawings:
'
.
board of the kind described which utilizes movements of 60
FIG. 1 is an orthographic projection of an operator?s
one ?nger or combinations of?ngers, permitting a greater
hand when in the relaxed position assumed for operating
complexity of communication to be transmitted with
reduced physical movement.
,
~
a keyboard in accordance with the invention. ,
'
p. ,
FIG. 2 .is an orthographic projection of a one-hand
A further object of this invention is to provide a key
board into which the hand is inserted, much as the hand 55 ?keyboard and a remote machine controlled by theltey
is inserted into a glove. Such a keyboard is adaptable to
FIG. 3 is an orthographic projection of a one-hand
being ?tted intoa glove.
keyboard, with the casing in cross section, embodying the _
The above and further objects of the invention are
accomplished by means of a special keyboard with a
' FIG. 4a is an orthographic projection of a three-posi
shape dependent upon the shape of the ?operator?s relaxed 60 tion
transducer unit used in the invention.
(semiclosed) hand. A rest is provided for the metacarpus
FIGURE 4b is an orthographic projection of a two
board.
invention.
(that'part of the hand that is between. the wrist and
phalanges). {The phalanx farthest from the metacarpus
(distal phalanx) of each. ?nger, including vthe thumb,
controls the operation of a transducer unit. The trans
.ducer units contain control elements in whichthe respec
?
,
.
?
.-
,
_
_
p
-
piece thimble element suitablev for use in the transducer
65
unit in FIG. 4a.
FIG. 5 is an orthographic projection of a four-position
transducer unit used in the inventiom
FIG. 6 is a chart illustrating a sample keyboard output
nomenclature to be used? in conjunction with a one-hand.
tive distal phalanges can be securely socketed. The
metacarpus rest is spaced close}. enough to the control
three-position keyboard and an electric typewriter.
_ elements to prevent the?ngers from being removed from 70 ? FIG._7 is a diagram? showing the layout? of FIGS. 7a,
the? elements without'a serious?effor't. Thus, the com
7b andj7c.
,
j
.
bination of'the metacalpus rest and control elements acts FIGS. 7a, 7b and ?70 together constitute a schematic
3,022,878
3
diagram of a one-hand, three-position keyboard in con
junction with an electric typewriter.
FIGURE 7d is a schematic diagram of two circuits
shown as blocks in FIGS. 7a and 7c.
The human hand is shown in its approximate com
fortably relaxed (semiclosed) position in FIG. 1. The
keyboard in this invention is designed for this relaxed
4
dicated is based partially on the standard typewriter key
board (e.g., ?m? is struck by moving the ?rst ?nger down
ward), partially on the frequency of occurrence of the
characters and the ease of making certain ?nger combina
tion movements (e.g., ?e? is struck by the relatively
simple extended movement of two adjacent ?ngers), and
partially on a logical basis suitable for rapid memory
hand position. FIG. 2 shows a one-hand keyboard casing
1, connected by a cable to the machine to becontrolled.
(e.g., the digits 1, 2, . . . 9, 0 are in a modi?ed binary
that the ?ngers are maintained in position in the trans
ducer units 4 when no serious eifort to remove the hand
Certain simple motions control, or partially control, basic
operations, all numbers have the common requirement
that the thumb be gripped. All upper case (?) characters
(except upper case numbers) have the common require
ment that the thumb be extended. Some special char
acters (upper case number) have the common require
ments that the thumb be gripped and the fourth ?nger
code). Optimum assignment of characters to ?nger
FIG. 3 shows a one-hand keyboard comprised of a cas 10 movements would result from previously established prow
cedures of experimentation as shown in A. Dvorak, N. L.
ing 1, and attached to the casing by brackets 2, :1 meta
Merrick, W. L. Dealey and G. C. Ford, Typewriter Be
carpus rest 3, and ?ve transducer units 4 mounted for
havior, 1936; and R. T. Gri?ith, The Minimotion Type
operation by the distal phalanges (?ngertips). The meta
writer Keyboard, November 1949, I. Franklin Institute.
carpus rest 3 has the function of holding the hand so
is present. If transducers 2. were mounted in or around
the glove of a pressurized suit, the glove itself could
provide the rest.
An example of a simple transducer unit 4 is illustrated
in FIG. 4a. A thimble element (control element) 6
contains a circular or oval recession 8 into which one of
the operator?s ?ngertips is placed.
Thimble element 6
is slidably mounted within transducer frame 9 and re
siliently maintained at its center position by two springs
10 attached to brackets 12- and pins 14. The thimble ele
ment 6 could have a variety of shapes, including ring
extended. Gripping both the thumb and the fourth ?nger
indicates carriage return, regardless of the positions of
the ?rst, second? and third ?ngers. Many combinations
are unassigned and could signify extra characters or even
entire words and could be used in conjunction with the
previously?mentioned ?Word Writing Typewriter."
' FIGS. 7a, 7b and 7c show a decoding
shaped, and could have a square or otherwise non-cit»
to control a typewriter such as shown
cular or non-oval recession. Similarly, the thimble ele
ment could be split into two pieces, with one piece slid 30 Tholstrup, 2,573,370, issued October 30,
of the patent shows a remotely-operable
able in each direction, as shown in FIG. 4b. In this
case the ?ngertip would be placed between the opposing
curved or ?at surfaces of the pieces. Two rails 16 and
the associated grooves 18 (in the thimble element 6) hold
circuit suitable
in a patent to
1951. FIG. l
typewriter with
keys replaced by solenoids.
The symbols used are de?ned in R. K. Richards, Digital
Computer Components and Circuits, D. von Nostrand
Company, Inc., 1957. Flip-?ops 411 through 50 are shown
on page 71 of the reference, ?and? gates 51 through 55
Movement of the operator?s ?ngertip away from the
and ?or? gate 86 are shown on page 38, and the diode
relaxed position causes thimble element 6 to be displaced
matrix
56 is shown on page 57. The ?and? and ?or?
from the center of the frame 9? causing transducers to be
gates shown as blocks on FIGS. 7a, 7b and 7c are shown
operated. In the embodiment shown, the transducers
are normally open switches 26 and normally closed 40 schematically on FIG. 7d.
As the ?ngers are extended or gripped, each thimble
switches 28 (mounted on end pieces 9b) which are op
element operates its respective switch contacts 26 and 28
erated when thimble element 6 is displaced to either limit
setting one of the ?ip-?ops 41 through 50. As soon as
position. The switches 26 and 28 may be connected to
any ?nger is extended or gripped, one of the switches 28
the eight output leads 24 as shown. The number and
is opened, releasing relays 60 and 61. Capacitor 62 is
type of switches 26 and 28 used is dependent upon the
discharged through normally-closed contacts 63 of relay
requirements of the circuit connected to the output
61 and arc-suppressing resistor 65. The normally-open
leads 24.
contacts 58 of the reset relay 60? inhibit matrix 56 from
The preferred embodiment of transducer unit 4 is
operating. This is necessary to permit the operator to
shown in FIG. 5 where, in addition to the extended, re
move all of the thimble elements pertaining to a character
laxed, and gripped positions, a depressed ?nger position
before the decoder outputs are used. If this were not
is included. When the ?nger is depressed, the trans
true, all ?nger movements would have to be simultaneous.
ducer frame 9 rotates about pivot 30?, which is attached
After all thimble elements 6 required by the combination
to extensions 32 of bracket 2, operating normally-open
chosen from FIG. 6 have been moved and have been
switch 34 and normally-closed switch 35. A spring 36
returns the transducer frame 9 to its rest position when 55 returned to the relaxed position, relay 61 operates through
closed switches 28, opening the discharge circuit for
pressure is removed. A stop 38 limits the motion of the
capacitor 62, and relay 60 operates through switches 28
frame 9.
and series capacitor 62, permitting matrix 56 to provide
Whereas the keyboard is suitable for control of all
a signal to the appropriate typewriter key solenoids 65
cases where man-machine communication is employed,
through the associated ampli?er of ampli?ers 66. An
including a space vehicle, a computer, etc., the-embodi
example of the operation of the decoder is found in the
ment following shows the keyboard controlling an elec
next paragraph. Operation of relay 60 also discharges
_ tric typewriter. FIG. 6 indicates the possible combina
capacitor 68 through contacts 69 and an arc-suppressing
tions of ?nger movements with a one-hand keyboard
resistor 70. As current to capacitor 62 decreases to be
comprising ?ve three-position transducers as shown in
low a critical value, relay 60 releases, applying a positive
FIG. 4. A chart indicating the four-?nger combinations
voltage to capacitor 68 through contacts 58. Charge
of the preferred embodiment is not shown due to the large
current to capacitor 68' through resistor 72 develops a
number of combinations available. In the chart, the let
positive voltage at the intersection of resistor 72 and
ter ?T? indicates the thumb, and ?1,? ?2,? ?3? and "4?
the thimble element within the sides 9a of the frame 9.
capacitor 68, resetting ?ip-?ops 41 through 50. The value
of
capacitance for capacitor 62 is determined by the time
thumb. An arrow pointing upward indicates an extended 70
required for solenoids 39 to operate their associated type
motion, an arrow pointing downward indicates a gripped
writer keys; and is chosen, dependent upon the resistance
- motion, and a blank space indicates no motion. A char
and inductance of the winding of relay 60.
acter followed by a prime (?) symbol indicates a shifted
The following example of the operation of the cir
or upper case character. Any assignment of characters
cuit
is based on the selection of the special character
75
to ?nger motions could be made. The assignment in
indicate the remaining four ?ngers in order from the
3,022,878
obtained by selecting 5' (shifted 5). In this case, FIG.
6 indicates that for the special character 5? the thumb
is gripped, the ?rst, third and fourth ?ngers are extended,
and the second ?nger is relaxed. This sets ?ip-flops
41, 43, 47 and 50, developing a positive voltage at cor
responding leads '74. Since the remaining ?ip-?ops are
not set, a positive voltage also appears on correspond
6
tioned so as to be individually operated in different posi
tions of said control element.
4. A man-machine communication device, comprising
a plurality of movable control elements, each having a
thimble-shaped ?nger depression to surround the distal
phalanx of a ?nger, said control elements being relatively
oriented so that their ?nger depressions are presented
to distal phalanges of a relaxed hand, means mounting
ing leads 76. A positive voltage is also present on lead
each of said control elements so that it is movable in the
78, as ?and? gate 33 has both inputs present. As a
corollary, leads 8%) are not positive. Vertical leads 82 10 direction of movement of the corresponding distal phalanx
as the respective ?nger is extended, relaxed and gripped,
and 84 in matrix 56 pass a positive output voltage to
and a plurality of separate signal control means for each
their respective ampli?ers of the ampli?ers 66 (the volt
of said control elements positioned so as to be individual
age at lead 84 is applied through ?or? gate 86); no other
ly operated by the respective control element in different
vertical leads are positive as at least one diode connected
' to each of the other vertical leads is conducting through 15 positions of the latter.
5. A man-machine communication device, comprising
a lead 80. The positive signal on lead 82 operates the
a plurality of movable, depressible, control elements,
?5? solenoid and the signal on lead 84 operates the ?shift?
each having a thimble-shaped ?nger depression to sur
solenoid through ?or? gate 86.
round the distal phalanx of a ?nger, said control ele
What has been described is a technique of man-ma
ments
being relatively oriented so that their ?nger de
20
chine communication involving a maximum of informa
pressions are presented to distal phalanges of a relaxed
tion transmitted through a minimum of physical motion
hand, means mounting each of said control elements so
through the utilization of all combinations of distinguish
that it is movable in the direction of movement of the
able directions of motion of all digital extremities. The
corresponding distal phalanx as the respective ?nger is
invention has been illustrated showing the realization of
letters and symbols on a conventional typewriter through 25 extended, relaxed and gripped, and movable in another
direction as the respective ?nger is depressed, and a plu
the use of two directions of physical motion of the ?ve
rality of separate signal control means for each of said
digital extremities on one hand as an indication of the
control elements poistioned so as to be individually op
information density achievable with a portion of the
erated by the respective control element in different posi
available digital extremities employing only two direc
tions of the latter.
30
tions of physical motion.
6. A man-machine communication device, comprising
While the invention has been particularly shown and
a plurality of movable control elements, each having a
described with reference to a preferred embodiment
thimble-shaped ?nger depression to surround the distal
thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art
phalanx of a ?nger, said control elements being relative
?that the foregoing and other changes in form and details
may be made therein without departing from the spirit 35 ly oriented so that their ?nger depressions are presented
and scope of the invention.
We claim:
1. A man-machine communication device comprising,
in combination: a plurality of digital extremity receiving
to distal phalanges of a relaxed hand; means mounting
each of said control elements so that it is movable in the
direction of movement of the corresponding distal
phalanx as the respective ?nger is extended, relaxed and
elements disposed about the relaxed position of an op 40 gripped; resilient means to bias said control element to
erator?s ?ngertips, each said digital extremity receiving
element being movable in at least two distinguishable
directions; a plurality of transducer means each actuated
by motion of each digital extremity receiving element
a predetermined position corresponding to the relaxed
position of the respective ?nger; and a plurality of sepa
rate signal control means positioned so as to be indi
vidually operated in diiierent positions of said control
_
in one direction; and signal means conditioned by com 45 element.
7. A man-machine communication device, comprising
binations of actuated and non-actuated ones of said trans?
a plurality of movable, depressible, control elements,
ducer means for delivering a signal indicative of com
each having a thimble-shaped ?nger depression to sur~
binations of movement by digital extremities in contact
round the distal phalanx of a ?nger, said control elements
with said digital extremity receiving elements.
being
relatively oriented so that their ?nger depressions
2. A man-machine communication device, comprising 50 are presented
to distal phalanges of a relaxed hand; ?rst
a plurality of movable control elements, each comprising
two or more elements to present opposing surfaces to
supporting means mounting each of said control ele
partially surround the distal phalanx of a ?nger, said con
trol elements being relatively oriented so that their ?nger
of the corresponding distal phalanx as the respective ?nger
ments so that it is movable in the direction of movement
1 depressions are presented to distal phalanges of a relaxed 55 is extended, relaxed and gripped; ?rst resilient means to
bias said control element to a predetermined position
corresponding to the relaxed position of the respective '
?nger; second supporting means mounting said ?rst sup
corresponding distal phalanx as the respective ?nger is
porting means so that said control element is movable in
extended, relaxed and gripped, and a plurality of separate
direction of movement of the distal phalanx as the re
signal control means for each'oi said control elements 60 the
spective ?nger is depressed and relaxed; second resilient
positioned so as to be individually operated by the respec
means to bias said ?rst supporting means to a predeter
tive control element in different positions of the latter.
mined position corresponding to the relaxed position of
. '3. A man-machine communication device, comprising
the respective ?nger; and a plurality of separate signal
a plurality of movable control elements, each comprising
two elements to present opposing surfaces to partially 65 control means for each of said control elements and re
spective ?rst and second supporting means positioned so
surround the distal phalanx of a ?nger, saidcontrol ele
as to be individually operated in different positions of said
ments being relatively oriented so that their ?nger de
control element.
pressions are presented to distal phalanges of a relaxed
8.'A man-machine communication device, comprising
hand; means mounting each of. said control elements so
that it: is movable in the direction of movement of the 70 a plurality of movable control elements, each having a
hand, means mounting each of said control elements so
that it is movable in the direction of movement of the
corresponding distal phalanx as the respective ?nger is
extended, relaxed and gripped; resilient means to bias
said control element to a predetermined position corre
thimble-shaped ?nger depression to surround the distal
phalanx of a ?nger, said control elements being rela
tively oriented so that their ?nger depressions are pre
sented to distal phalanges of a relaxed hand,? means
v and a plurality of separate signal control means posii 75 mounting each of said control elements so that it is mov
sponding to the relaxed position of the respective ?nger;
3,022,878
7
able in the direction of movement of the corresponding -
distal phalanx as the respective ?nger is extended, re
laxed and gripped, and signal means conditioned by com
binations of actuated ?and non-actuated ones of said indi
anges of ?a relaxed hand; means mounting each of said
control elements so that it is movable in the direction of
movement of the corresponding distal phalanx as the re
spective ?nger is extended, relaxed and-gripped; resilient
cating means for delivering a signal indicative of combi
nations of movement of distal phalanges.
9. A manually-operable, man-machine communication
device comprising, in combination: a rigid frame compris
ing means whereby it can be relatively ?xed in position
means to bias said control element to a predetermined
phalanx; and means responsive to movement of said con
ing means whereby it can be relatively ?xed in position
with respect to the metacarpus of a hand and free to
position corresponding to the relaxed position of the re
spective ?nger; ?and a plurality of separate signal control
means, including a ?exible conductor connected to the
machine, positioned so as to be individually operated in
with respect to the metacarpus of a hand and free to 10 di??erent positions of said control element.
move With the metacarpus; a movable control element
14. A manually-operable, man~machine communica
shaped and mounted on said frame to surround a distal
tion device comprising, in combination: a frame compris
trol element with respect to said frame for delivering ?a
signal to the machine.
10. The device described in claim 9, characterized by
the fact that the frame is shaped to provide a rest for the
back of the metacarpus When the distal phalanges are in
position to operate the control elements.
11. The device described in claim 9, characterized by
the fact that the movement-responsive means comprises
?exible conductors for transmitting signals to the machine.
12. A manually-operable, man-machine communica
tion device comprising, in combination: a rigid frame
comprising means whereby it can be relatively ?xed in
position ?with respect to the metacarpus of a hand and
free to move with the metacarpus; a plurality of digital
extremity receiving elements, each said digital extremity
move with the metacarpus; a plurality of digital extremity
receiving control elements, each having a thimble-shaped
?nger depression to surround the distal phalanx of a
?nger, said control elements being relatively oriented so
that their ?nger depressions are presented to distal phal
anges of a relaxed hand; ?rst supporting means mounting
each of said control elements so that it is movable in
the direction of movement of the corresponding distal
phalanx as the respective ?nger is extended, relaxed and
gripped; ?rst resilient means to bias said control element
to a predetermined position corresponding to the relaxed
position of the respective ?nger; second supporting means
mounting said ?rst supporting means so that said control
element is movable in the direction of movemn-t of the
receiving element being movable in at least one distin
distal phalanx as the respective ?nger is depressed ?and
guishable direction; transducer means actuated by motion 30 relaxed; second resilient means to bias said ?rst support~
of each digital extremity receiving element; and signal
ing means to a predetermined position corresponding to
means, comprising ?exible conductors connected to the
the relaxed position of the respective ?nger; and a plu
machine, conditioned by combinations of actuated and
rality of separate signal control means, said plurality
non-actuated ones of said transducer means, for delivering
comprising a ?exible conductor connected to the ma~
a signal indicative of combinations of movement by digital *_
extremities in contact ?With said digital extremity receiving
elements.
13. A manually-operable, man-machine communica
tion device comprising, in combination: a frame compris
ing means whereby it can be relatively ?xed in position 40
chine, for each of said control elements and respective
with respect to the metacarpus of a hand, and free to
move with the metacarpus; a plurality of digital extremity
receiving control elements, each having a thimble-shaped
?nger depression to surround the distal phalanx of a
?nger, said control elements being relatively oriented so
that their ?nger depressions are presented to distal phal
?rst and second supporting means, positioned so as to be
individually operated in dii?erent positions of said con
trol element.
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
2,581,665
Jarmann ______________ __ Jan. 8, 1952
153,527
308,048
Germany ____________ __ Aug. 4, 1904
Germany __________ __ Sept. 24, 1918
FOREIGN PATENTS
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