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Патент USA US3023669

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March 6, 1962
H. E. w. BODE
TRANSPOSITIQN APPARATUS FOR ELECTRICAL
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
Filed July 11, 1960
3,023,659
United States Patent G rlice
37,623,659
Patented Mar. 6, 1962
1
2
3,023,659
strument of this type, the highest octave of keys (twelve in
number) is connected to a series of twelve tone signal
TRANSPOSH‘ION APPARATUS FOR ELECTRICAL
MUSI€AL INSTRUMENT
Harald E. W. Bode, Corinth, Miss, assignor to The
ggirlitzer Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation of
[0
Filed July 11, 1960, Ser. No. 41,960
5 Claims. (Cl. 84-445)
sources or primary tone generators and each lower octave
of keys is connected to secondary tone generators in the
form of a set of aperiodic or nonresonant frequency di
viders. The frequency dividers corresponding to each
key are arranged in a chain and provide the requisite
octave range of the instrument. In accordance with the
invention in addition to the series of twelve primary tone
This invention relates to electronic musical instruments 10 generators there is provided an additional series of eleven
and more particularly to novel apparatus especially
adapted for use with keyboard instruments such as elec
tronic organs which enables the player of the instrument
to transpose music to different key signatures without
(or twelve) tone signal sources, which will also be de
nominated primary tone generators in the following de
scription, whose outputs are related to the principal series
to form a continuation of the output tone spectrum. In
necessitating an involved mental process for each note 15 terposed between the primary and secondary tone genera
so that each digital (key), actuated in normal manner,
tors (the latter being aperiodic dividers) is a switch net
may produce a musical sound from a tone generator that
work inclding twelve bus bars (one for each note of the
is selectively displaced a desired and similar amount from
octave). Each bus bar also has a digital associated with
it through which the highest octave of notes are played.
the note indicated by the musical score, for example. Mu
sical compositions are usually written in a particular key 20 Further, there is a set of swelve (or thirteen) ganged
switches corresponding, to at least the twelve possible key
signature but as it is often desired to play the instrument
signatures that need to be available for transposition pur
in conjunction with other instruments or to accompany
people in singing, for example, the key indicated on the
poses. A thirteenth key may be provided in order to
complete the octave by repeating as the highest key, the
score may not be suitable in particular instances and
therefore a transposition either to a higher key signature 25 key at the low end, as is frequently found in the design
of keyboards. Each switch set is arranged to selectively
or to a lower key signature is necessary. While transpo
connect a series of twelve adjacent tone generators to the
bus bars and each bus bar is ?xedly connected to a cor
too large a magnitude in most if not all cases and it is
responding one of the frequency divider chains. The
necessary to operate digitals (including adjustment for 30 switch sets are preferably interlocked so that only one
sition from one octave to the next, either higher or lower,
is comparatively easy, such octave transpositions are of
sharps and ?ats) that are displaced a uniform amount
of them can be in operated position at any one time. By
from the digitals indicated on the score.
operating a selected set of switches a series of twelve
primary tone generators is connected to the bus bars and
This is often
' an arduous task for even the professional to perform
easily and accurately and often is impossible for the
amateur to play so that the expected and desired satis
faction is obtained from the performance.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide
a simple key or pitch changing apparatus capable of easy
the secondary tone generator frequency divider chains.
35 The series of primary tone generators connected to the
bus bars and divider chains is easily varied to provide
effective transpositions so that a musician may play the
manipulation so that even a layman may play music in
any key signature by limiting himself to one and only one
keyboard instrument in the easiest manner (in the key of
C for example) and produce music transposed up a ?fth,
for example, to the key of G merely through an appropri
key (for instance the key of “C”).
Another object of the invention is to provide apparatus
a simple, easily operated apparatus for accurately chang
which enables a provision of a more versatile and im
ing the key signature of the music so that a musician
ate selection of a set of switches. The apparatus provides
proved electronic musical instrument.
may adjust the musical output of the instrument to that
A further object of the invention is to provide in an 45 of the associated instruments, voices or other equipment
electronic musical instrument having a series of tone sig
without any involved mental process of transposition.
nal sources each of which is adapted to be associated with
The apparatus of the invention thus enables the provi
a frequency divider chain to provide the several di?erent
sion of an improved and more versatile electronic musi
octaves of the note provided by that tone signal source, a
cal instrument.
switching circuit which enables selection in a simple and 50
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be
straightforward manner, an octave of tone signal sources
seen as the following description of a preferred embodi
corresponding to a key signature other than the one in
ment thereof progresses in conjunction with the drawing,
which the music is scored and connecting these sources
in which the single ?gure is a schematic diagram of the
to the frequency divider chains so that the musical output
primary tone generators, switching apparatus and second
will be transposed as desired without the necessity of
ary tone generator divider chains associated with the ac
operating digitals other than those indicated by the score
tuating key members in a preferred embodiment of the
for example.
invention.
There is shown in the single ?gure of the drawing a
A further object of the invention is to provide in an
series of primary tone ‘ generators 1i), twenty-three in
electronic musical instrument utilizing a series of tone
signal sources, a switching arrangement in which the tone 60 number, which provide two octaves (minus one semitone)
signal sources are selectively connected to the digitals so
of musical tones in semitone intervals. The semitone pro
vided by each generator is indicated by the key value on
that the tones produced by the digitals may be varied in
the block If} that represents the tone generator.
an effective transposition of the music as scored.
Also associated with the musical instrument are twelve
In the preferred embodiment of the invention, an elec
tronic organ, there is provided a series of digitals in the 65 chains 12 of frequency divider circuits (indicated by
blocks 14, 16, 18) connected in cascade and a series of
form of a keyboard each of which keys the audio signal
produced by tone signal source or frequency divider ele
twelve connector members or bus bars 20. These fre
quency dividers are of the aperiodic type in that they a0
ments to produce the desired combination of musical
curately generate output signals of one half the frequency
notes.
The digitals adjacent one another produce mu
sical sounds that are a semitone apart. In the musical in 70 of the input signal over a substantial range of input signal
3,023,659
3
frequencies. Each frequency divider may be a bistable
A
particular ganged switch 30 indicated in the horizontal
multivibrator, for example, designed to respond to signals
row above the table ‘body is set:
applied to its complement input and to have a resulting
output of suitable harmonic content. Each bus bar 26 is
connected to a corresponding chain of frequency dividers. 5
Thus the lowest bus bar is connected to the leftmost chain
(C) of frequency dividers, the next higher bus bar is con
nected to the chain (C#) of frequency dividers immedi
ately to the right of the C chain, etc. A suitable audio
control or gating means, in the form of a key element 22,
for example, which is actuated by a digital on the key
board of the musical instrument is associated with each
bus bar and with each secondary tone generator in the
frequency divider chains. Thus the audio control key 24
associated with the lowest bus bar, when actuated, pro
duces the highest note of a particular value (C); the audio
control key 26 associated with the ?rst frequency divider
14 in the leftmost chain, when actuated, produces the
A portion of the wiring and several switches in the cen~
same note value but one octave lower; the key 28 asso
tral part of the switching arrangement have been omitted
ciated with the next divider 16 when actuated also pro 20 in order that a representative portion of the switching ar
duces the same note in the next lowest octave and so forth.
rangement may be clearly illustrated. As the circuitries
It will be understood that additional secondary tone gen
not shown in detail are connected in the same pattern
erators may be added to the frequency divider chains so
as that shown it is believed that those of ordinary skill
that the number of octaves of the instrument may be eX
in the art will have no trouble in practicing the invention
tended as desired. As illustrated these keys 24, 26, 28
are positioned in the C location on the conventional key
board arrangement. The second bus bar and the second
chain of frequency dividers are actuated by keys in the
C# keyboard location; the third bus bar and the third
chain of frequency dividers are actuated by keys in the
D location; etc.
The primary tone generators are adapted to be con
nected to the audio control mechanism through a switch
ing arrangement which comprises a plurality of ganged
switches 30, one switch corresponding to each key signa
ture as indicated on the ?gure. Each switch element of
the ganged switches 36" has a contact 32 permanently se
cured to the corresponding location on the proper bus bar
so that when a ganged switch is operated the series of bus
by following this teaching.
In summary there are twenty-three (or twenty-four)
primary tone generators, twelve adjacent ones of which are
connected through the switching arrangement to bus bars
29 and divider chains 12 when a single ganged switch 30
is operated. This simple arrangement enables the selcc~
tive shifting of the tones produced as the keyboard digitals
of the intsrument are operated through an entire octave in
a transposing operation.
Thus it will be seen that the invention provides a very
simple and straightforward apparatus which may be used
for the selection of various key signatures so that a trans
position effect may be easily obtained even by persons
comparatively unskilled in the art of playing the electronic
musical instrument. It will be understood by those hav
bars 20 are connected to a rredetermined series of tone 40 ing ordinary skill in this art that various modi?cations
generators through contacts 32. Each primary tone gen
of the disclosed embodiment of the invention may be made
erator is connected to one or more switches 30 so that
therein. Therefore, while there has been shown and de
each primary tone generator note value is connected to a
scribed herein a preferred embodiment of the invention it
total of twelve switches. Thus the primary tone genera
is not intended for the invention to be limited thereto or to
tor for note E is connected to one switch contact of all
details thereof and departures may be made therefrom
twelve switches while the tone generator for the lower P
within the spirit and scope of the invention as de?ned in
note is connected to only one switch element while the
the claims.
higher F note generator is connected to a contact of each
of the other eleven switches. In like manner the lower
Fit generator is connected to the elements of two switches
I claim:
1. In an electronic musical instrument, apparatus for
enabling an effective transposition of output musical notes
and the higher F# generator is connected to elements of 50 relative to music as scored without the actuation of digi
the remaining ten switches. The switches 3t! may be 0p
tals other than those indicated on the score comprising in
erated by push buttons 34, or for instance by the keys of
combination, a plurality of sets of secondary tone genera
a little single octave keyboard with appropriate coloring
tors, each set including a corresponding plurality of sec
of naturals and sharps, or by solenoids, foot controls or
55 ondary tone generators connected in cascade arrangement,
other suitable means. These switch operating means are
a bus bar conductor means connected to each said set of
preferably interlocked so that only one ganged switch is
operated at any one time. Associated with each switch
secondary tone generators, a series of primary tone gen~
erators greater in number than the number of sets of sec
operator means is a suitable marking or other indication
ondary tone generators, each said primary tone generator
of the resulting degree of effective transposition as the
being adapted to generate an electrical signal adapted to
arrangement enables the sound of the music to be shifted 60 produce a predetermined musical note and said primary"
upwardly or downwardly as desired in accordance with
which set of ganged switches is selected.
For example, if the leftmost ganged switch, denomi
nated 'F, is depressed, as shown in the drawing, the left
most primary tone generator F is connected to the C bus
bar and the C chain of frequency dividers. Thus de
pressing any C digital on the keyboard to close the keying
means 24, 26, 28 will sound the note F, its octave depend
tone generators being arranged relative to one another to
produce a continuous series of musical notes, ganged
switch transposition means adapted to simultaneously con
nect said bus bar conductor means to a corresponding
number of serially related primary tone generators to
apply the electrical signals from said primary tone gen
erators to said bus bars and the associated secondary tone
ing on which particular digital is depressed. Similarly the
C# digitals will sound Fit notes, etc. The following table
generators, a multiplicity of digitals arranged in key
board relationship in repetitive groups, the number of
digitals in each group being equal to the number of bus
sets forth the various note transpositions which are
bar connector means, audio keying means operable by a
achieved by operating various pitch selection switches, the
digital associated with each said secondary tone generator,
body of the table indicating the note that is sounded by
and audio keying means operable by a digital in the
depressing the digital in the leftmost column when the 75 highest group of said keyboard associated with each said
3,023,659
5
6
bus bar conductor means for enabling the generation of
audible musical notes related to the signals provided by
the connected primary tone generators in response to the
actuation of said digitals.
2. In an electronic musical instrument, apparatus for
enabling an effective transposition of output musical notes
relative to music as scored without the actuation of digitals
to which said secondary tone generator is connected, and
other than those indicated on the score comprising in
switch means adapted to connect said conductor means to
twelve serially related primary tone generators for en
abling the effective selection of an appropriately related
signal from a primary tone generator to provide an out
put musical note in response to the actuation of a particu
lar digital.
4. in an electronic musical instrument, the combina
combination, twelve sets of aperiodic frequency divider cir
tion comprising a series of twenty-three primary tone
cuits, the frequency divider circuits in each set being con~ 10 generators, each said primary tone generator being adapted
nected in cascade arrangement, twelve bus bar conductor
to produce a predetermined musical note one semitone
means, one conductor means being connected to each said
different from the immediately adjacent tone generator
set of frequency dividers, a series of primary tone gen
erators greater in number than the number of sets of
so that said tone generators are arranged to produce a
frequency dividers, each said primary tone generator
15 a set of digitals arranged in keyboard form in octaves
being adapted to generate an electrical signal adapted to
produce a predetermined musical note and said primary
continuous series of musical notes in semitone intervals,
with twelve digitals to the octave, twelve secondary tone
generator chains, each said chain change including a plu
tone generators being arranged relative to one another to
rality of aperiodic frequency dividers connected in cas
produce a continuous series of musical notes, ganged
cade arrangement, audio keying means associated With
switch transposition means adapted to simultaneously 20 each said frequency divider, each said keying means
connect said bus bar conductor means to a corresponding
adapted to ‘be operated by a digital, twelve conductor
number of serially related primary tone generators to
means, each having associated therewith an audio keying
apply the electrical signals from said primary tone gen
means adapted to be operated by a digital in the highest
erators to said bus bars and the associated frequency di~
octave of the keyboard, each said conductor means being
viders, a multiplicity of digitals arranged in keyboard re 25 connected to a particular frequency divider chain so that
lationship in repetitive groups of twelve each, audio key
the frequency dividers of that chain are arranged to pro—
ing means operable by a digital associated with each said
duce the same note value in lower octaves as is pro
frequency divider, and audio keying means operable by
duced by the connected conductor means, and switch
a dgital in the highest group of said keyboard associated
means adapted to connect said conductor means to twelve
with each said bus bar conductor means for enabling the
serially related primary tone generators for enabling the
generation of audible musical notes related to the signals
effective selection of a primary tone generator or con~
provided by the connected primary tone generators in
nected frequency divider to provide an output musical
response to the actuation of said digitals.
note in response to the actuation of a particular digital.
3. In an electronic musical instrument, the combina
tion comprising a series of twenty-three primary tone gen
erators, each said primary tone generator being adapted
to produce a predetermined musical note one semitone dif
ferent from that produced by the immediately adjacent
5. In an electronic musical instrument having a series
35 of digitals arranged in octaves as audio output keying de
vices for producing individual and distinct musical notes,
a pitch selection apparatus including an aperiodic fre
quency dividing means connected to each digital in all the
primary tone generator so that said primary tone gen
octaves of the instrument except the highest, the frequency
erators are arranged to produce a continuous series of 40 dividing means which are adapted to produce the same
musical notes in semitone intervals, a set of digitals ar
notes being connected in a cascaded chain arrangement,
ranged in keyboard form in octaves with twelve digitals
to the octave, twelve sets of secondary tone generators,
means for connecting each said frequency divider chain
arrangement to the digital in the highest octave that is
each set including a corresponding plurality of secondary
adapted to produce the same note as said chain, a series
tone generators arranged to produce that same musical 45 of electronic tone generators adapted to provide signals
note in descending octave relationship, twelve conductor
to said digitals for the production of said musical notes,
means, each said conductor means being connected to a
and switch means adapted to selectively connect a serial
particular set of secondary tone generators so that the
secondary tone generators of that set are arranged to
group of tone generators equal in number to the number
of notes in ‘an octave to said connecting means to pro—
produce the same note value in lower octaves as is pro 50 vide audio signals from said generators via said connecting
duced by the conductor means to which that set is con
means and said frequency dividers in response to the ac
nected, audio keying means operable by a digital in the
tuation of said digitals for enabling an effective trans
highest octave of the keyboard associated with each said
position relative to said digitals of the key in which music
is to be played.
conductor means, audio keying means associated with each
said secondary tone generator operable by each digital in 55
No references cited.
the lower octaves corresponding to the conductor means
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