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Патент USA US3024488

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March 13, 1962
J. PLUM
3,024,478
HARD-CHINE BOAT
Filed Aug. 7, 1958
6 Sheets~Sheet 1
.
INVENTOR
JOHN PLUM
A3 1. QM/MW
ATTORNEY
March 13, 1962
J. PLUM
3,024,478
HARD-CHINE BOAT
Filed Aug. 7, 1958
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INVENTOR
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March 13, 1962
3,024,478
J. PLUM
HARD-CHINE BOAT
Filed Aug. 7, 1958
6 Sheets-Sheet 3
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INVENTOR
JOHN PLUM ?
ATTORNEY
March 13, 1962
J. PLUM
3,024,478
HARD-CHINE BOAT
Filed Aug. 7, 1958
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INVENTOR
JOHN PLUM
E___.=5_7
BY
ATTORNEY
March 13, 1962
J. PLUM
3,024,478
HARD-CHINE BOAT
‘Filed Aug. '7, 1958
6 Sheets-Sheet 5 '
INVENTOR'
JOHN PLUM
3.2-
_ 8
BY
B A zkvm‘é/
ATTORNEY
March 13, 1962
J. PLUM
3,024,478
HARD-CHINE BOAT
Filed Aug. 7, 1958
6 Sheets-Sheet 6
INVENTOR
JOHN PLUM
BY
ATTORNEY
3,024,478
Patented Mar. 13, 1962
1
2
3,024,478
vention to distribute this wave impact to a substantially
greater number of frames.
‘It is pointed out that the severity with which a boat
pounds can be related to the accelerations felt by its oc
HARD-CHINE BOAT
John Plum, 1611 Connecticut Ave. NW.,
Washington, D.C.
Filed Aug. 7, 1958, Ser. No. 753,859
18 Claims. (Cl. 9-6)
(Granted under Title 35, US. Code (1952), see. 266)
The invention described herein may be manufactured
cupants. The acceleration felt by an occupant located
for example above the impact area, is directly propor
tional to the magnitude of impact force on the bottom
and inversely proportional to that part of the hull mass
which is accelerated by the blow. This fact can be ex
and used by or for the Government of the United States
of America for governmental purposes without the pay 10 pressed by the fundamental relationship from mechanics
ment of any royalties thereon or therefor.
This invention relates to a high-speed, hard-chine boat,
and more particularly to the combination of a metal
'11)
mln
framework in a wooden hull of the hard-chine type.
Where :
The choice of a hard-chine planing hull, over a round 15
f is the hydrodynamic force on the hull bottom
bottom boat of like size and power, is dictated where it
w is the weight that is accelerated
is desired to increase both the speed of the hull and its
a is the resulting acceleration in feet per second squared
load carrying ability inasmuch as a hard-chine hull pos
g is the acceleration due to gravity (32.2 feet per sec
sesses the quality of producing dynamic lift which at
ondz)
high speeds results in a considerable reduction in resist 20
ance. ‘In fact, a change from round-bottom hull lines
The signi?cance of this relationship can be illustrated by
to hard-chine lines may increase the obtainable speed of
example. Assume that a ‘20 ton boat strikes a partic-\
a given hull from 30 knots to 38 knots. Unfortunately,
ular wave at a speed and attitude that produce a hydro
the ability of a hard-chine boat to produced dynamic lift,
dynamic impact force of 30 tons. If the entire mass of
which is necessary for speeds higher than, say 30‘ knots, 25 the hull is effectively accelerated, as is the case with the
may also produce violent hull accelerations in rough
instant invention, the resulting acceleration will be:
Weather. Since the dynamic lift increases with the square
of the speed, and since the bottom of the hard-chine boat
is speci?cally designed to produce dynamic lift, the im
pact loads will increase many fold, while the transverse
strength obtained from the round-bottom skin has been
practically eliminated by the change to a hard-chine hull.
30
If we assume however, as a simpli?ed case, that this
same hull has such a degree of longitudinal and transverse
?exibility, as is the case with the prior art construction,
that the 30 ton impact force initially accelerated only
tribution to the transverse strength of the arch-shaped 35 one fourth of the mass of the hull, the acceleration of
the affected portion would be:
sections of a round-bottom boat. However, the shape
of the sections of a hard-chine boat is such that the skin
contributes little to the transverse strength, and therefore
The planking in a round-bottom boat makes a large con
attention must be focused to a greater extent on the
Accordingly, the acceleration experienced by an occupant
frames, which is one of the objects of this invention.
40
carried above the impact area of a ?exible prior art hull
In accordance with conventional practice, a wooden
structure would be four times that experienced in the
hull, hard-chine boat is constructed with a wooden skin,
rigid structure of the instant invention.
the sides and bottom of which are screwed and/or glued
The hull structure should therefore, transmit the whole
together at their points of juncture. A chine strip is
generally a?ixed to the interior of the hull to the sides 45 mass of the hull weight rigidly onto the planing surface
so that the entire hull weight contributes to the mass
and bottom along the line of connection between the
respective sides and the bottom, each of said strips being
glued and bolted to the respective sides and bottom. The
chine strip serves as one of the primary members to
resisting ?exing between the side and bottom panels.
In addition, the prior art practice has generally been
to use wooden frames and a wooden center-line girder
extending longitudinally of the hull. The respective
which must be accelerated by the impact force. It is
obvious that if only that part of the hull adjacent to the
impact area is initially accelerated, the movement of the
skin during the bending of the hull will put a great strain
on all the joints, especially along the hard chine which
is reluctant to participate in any longitudinal flexibility.
One of the prime disadvantages of the prior art ?exible
hard-chine boat construction is that the ?exing of the hull
frame members are glued and bolted to the sides and
bottom of the boat as well as to the longitudinal center 55 brings about loosening of the connections between the
frame members and the hull, and center line girders re
line girder, said connections of the frame members to
the sides, bottom and the center line girder being relatively
?exible in spite of diligent and skilled labor used, due to
the inherent ?exible nature of wood frame members and
glued and bolted joints.
Since the high pressure area for the impact of a wave
on the bottom of a hard-chine boat is comparatively
small, the mass of the hull is suddenly lifted by a force
applied on an area which extnds over only a limited num
ber of frames. Inasmuch as the hull weight cannot safe
1y be accelerated by these few frames, it is important
that the dynamic lift from the wave impact be transmit
spectively, thereby materially weakening the hull struc
ture and ultimately causing hull failure.
In the prior art boat structure the greater part of
the stiffness of the hull is provided by high sides, rather
than by the structure along the center line of the hull.
Because the chine structure is more reluctant to ?ex
than the structure along the center of the hull, almost
all of the hull weight is, at least at the very beginning of
65 a hull acceleration, transmitted to the ends of the frames,
while the high pressure caused by a. wave impact will
usually be near the center of the hull. In other words,
the downward reaction force is transmitted to the ends of
ted fore and aft to as many frames as possible. In the
the frames, while the upward acceleration force is near
prior art structure described above it has been found 70 the center. These forces combine to push the center of
the bottom upward in respect to the sides, that is, they
that the wave impact is transmitted to at best a very
limited number of frames and it is an object of this in
tend to ?atten out the dead-rise angle of the planing sur
3,024,478
3
face. In a conventional boat a change of dead-rise, or
“panting" produces an extreme strain on all joints be
tween the hull skin and wooden frame members, and is
particularly the arch enemy of all hard chine structures
4
wherein the frame members and center line girder may be
prefabricated outside of said hull.
Still a further object of the invention is to produce
a metal framework for a wooden hull, hard chine boat
inasmuch as it results in a tendency for the bottom of a
hard chine boat to flex relative to the sides thereof, there
wherein bottom frame members, side frame elements, and
by causing substantial bending motion at the chine with
another by means of ?xed aligning or universal joints.
a center line girder are respectively connected to one
a resultant weakening of ‘the fastenings at the chine and
An additional object of the invention is to produce a
ultimate fracture thereat. A further disadvantage of the
wooden hull, hard-chine boat that is substantially free
prior art boats is that the Wooden center line girders
of change in dead-rise angle caused by a wave-impact
generally used are not only lacking in longitudinal strength
force on the bottom thereof.
but are also lacking in lateral stiffness and therefore fail
to distribute unbalanced wave impact loads fore and aft
to neighboring frame members.
In accordance with the instant invention, a hard-chine
boat is produced comprising a wooden-hull preferably
made of plywood, and having a heat treated aluminum
A further shortcoming of an all-wooden boat con
struction is the difficulty involved in joining wooden
frames to a wooden girder. Each of these many joints
should, of course, be as strong as the frame itself. How
ever, the ?tting of a good glue joint requires skill and
patience which is not always available, while the Work
ing area of a bolt in single shear is very small. Also
the permanent set of wooden beams, as a result of uni
directional loads applied for an extended period, should
be considered; this factor alone makes an all-wooden
structure undesirable for high speed planing boats. From
the day they are launched the hull lines of such boats
are constantly changing, meaning that buttock slopes,
dead-rise angle, shaft alignment and many other important
framework on the interior thereof and rigidly connected
thereto. The hull comprises a pair of side panels and
bottom panels, the respective sides being connected to the
side edges of the bottom panels at the chine by means
of layers of resin bonded ?ber glass that overlap the
joints between said respective sides and the bottom, and
which are resin bonded to said wooden sides and bottom
members thereby connecting said sides to said bottom
panels. The two bottom panels are likewise joined to
gether along the centerline of the boat in the same bond
ing manner. It is pointed out that the aforementioned
?berglass bonding technique eliminates the need for the
conventional gluing and/ or bolting together of the parts
of a boat hull; the instant technique also eliminates the
need for the conventional chine-strip generally used on
effects of these changes on the performance of a conven 30 the interior of a hard-chine boat at the point of juncture
between the respective sides and the bottom of said boat.
tional boat are undesirable to say the least; but in hulls
In further pursuance of the objectives of this invention,
designed, for instance, for hydrofoils, their effect may
the instant boat is provided with a heat treated aluminum
be most damaging to the boat’s performance. It is
parameters vary from their designed conditions.
The
framework mounted on the interior thereof and suit
known that the interrelationship between the angles
of the forward and aft foils is very critical and either 35 ably bolted to the wooden skin of the hull. The frame—
a longitudinal ?exibility or a permanent set of the whole
Work comprises, a center-line-girder extending the length
of the boat and attached to the bottom thereof, a plurality
foils.
of transversely extending, parallel bottom-frame members
extending from said girder toward the respective sides of
It is accordingly desirable that the frame structure of
a boat be made of metal and the skin of wood, particu~ 40 the boat, and attached to said girder by means of a pair
of universal joints hereinafter described in detail; in ad
larly since the skin of the hull requires a material that
dition each bottom frame member is bolted to the bot
combines the characteristics of elasticity and great local
tom of the boat. The framework further comprises a
strength, with the absence of galvanic action with shafts
plurality of vertical side-frame members bolted to the re
and propellers. Wood is therefore an acceptable mate
rial for the skin, especially since watertightness, elimina 45 spective side panels of the boat, each of said side-frame
members having its lowermost end attached to the out
tion of water absorption, protection of fastenings, and
board end of a bottom-frame member by a universal
cheapness of maintenance can be secured by an outside
structure will greatly in?uence the relative angles of the
layer of ?berglass.
joint of the same type as that used to connect the re
Insofar as prior art attempts to combine a metal frame
work with a wood hull structure are concerned, it is
spective bottom-frame members to the center-line girder.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages
of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same
pointed out that such attempts have met with only slight
becomes better understood, by reference to the following
success due to a failure to provide a satisfactory form of
detailed description when considered in connection with
connection between the center line girder of the boat and
the accompanying drawings wherein;
the transverse frame members associated therewith. Fur
thermore, such prior art attempts have been complicated 55 FIG. 1 is a plan view of the hard-chine boat, pro
duced in accordance with this invention, with the deck
by failure to provide a satisfactory means for simplifying
the frame construction so that the frame members may
portion thereof removed;
FIG. 2 is a plan view, partially in section, and partially
be satisfactorily fabricated at some point distant from
broken away showing side and bottom frame members,
the boat and then quickly and easily assembled Within the
boat hull.
at a plurality of longitudinal stations along the length
60 of the boat;
It is an object of this invention to overcome the afore
FIG. 3 is an elevational view, partially broken away,
mentioned disadvantages inherent in the prior art.
of the instant invention, showing the centerline girder
Another object of the invention is to distribute the
hull acceleration effect, of a wave impact force, over
thereof;
substantially the entire hull of a planing, hard chine boat. 65
FIG. 4 is a transverse sectional view of the boat pro
A further object of the invention is to provide a hull
duced in accordance with the instant invention;
structure in which impact forces are not transmitted
FIG. 5 is an enlarged transverse sectional view of
through the chine.
a portion of the hull and framework showing the latter
An additional object of the invention is to eliminate the
attached ot the hull;
need for a longitudinal chine piece conventionally found 70 FIG. 6 is a top plan view of the structure shown in
on the interior of a hard chine boat.
FIG. 5;
An added object of the invention is to provide a novel
FIG. 7 is an enlarged, transverse sectional view, par
and rigid framework and components thereof for a boat.
tially broken away, of the centerline girder showing the
Still an added object of the invention is to provide a
connection between the girder and a pair of bottom frame
wooden hull, hard chine boat with a metal framework 75 members;
3,024,478
.
5
‘a plurality of longitudinal stringers 44 extending the
FIG. 8 is an elevational view partially in section taken
on line VIII-VIII of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken on line IX-—IX of
length of the hull and attached thereto» by a suitable
adhesive and/or screws. It is pointed out that the longi
FIG. 7;
tudinal stringers a?ixed to the respective bottom panels
FIG. 10 is a transverse sectional view, partially broken
away of a side frame member attached to the instant
of wood in the manner shown in 'FIG. 5. In addition a
of the boat may each be composed of a plurality of layers
boat hull;
plurality of transversely extending strips of wood 46 are
FIG. 11 is a sectional view, partially broken away,
af?xed to the ‘bottom, longitudinal stringers 44, at inter
taken on line XI~XI of FIG. 10; and
vals of space corresponding to the space between succes
FIG. 12 is an enlarged, sectional view of a portion 10 sive bottom frame members hereinafter described in de
of the structure shown in FIG. 10.
Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference
tail. Each of the wooden blocks or transverse strips 46
has a resilient rubber pad or other resilient means 48 of
characters designate like or corresponding parts through
shock ‘absorbing qualities covering its upper surface. The
out the several views, there is shown in FIG. 1 in ac
elasticity of the wooden blocks 46 with their pads 48,
cordance with the invention, a plan view of a hard-chine 15 through which the impact load is transmitted to the
boat 20, comprising a wooden hull 22 and a metal frame
frames, will not only be instrumental in distributing the
work 24 ?xedly mounted therein.
1
load more evenly to the neighboring frames, but they
The wooden hull 22 comprises a pair of side panels
will also absorb at least part of the initial shock of the
26 and 28 joined to a pair of bottom panels 30 and 32,
impact. The side stringers 42 also have transverse
all of said panels in turn being joined, at their respective 20 wooden blocks 49 similar to- the blocks 46.
rearmost edges to a transom member 34.
The line of
jointure between the side panels and the bottom panels
forms the chine of the boat.
The side panels 26 and 28 are connected to the re
spective bottom panels 30 and 32 by one or more elon
gated strips of ?berglass cloth 36 extending the length
of the line of jointure between said panels both inside
and outside the hull, as can be seen in FIG. 5 for example.
Each ?berglass strip 36 is bonded to both the side panel
and the abutting bottom panel by means of a plastic
The aluminum framework 24 comprises a. rigid center
line girder 50, a plurality of longitudinally spaced trans
versely extending bottom frame members 52 attached to
said girder, and a plurality of side frame members 54
25 affixed to the respective side panels 26 and 28, and
attached to the respective outer ends of said bottom frame
members.
The center line girder 50‘ is connected to the bottom
of the hull along the line where the respective bottom
panels or skins 3t)‘ ‘and 32 meet and extends substantially
resin, such as either a polyester resin or an epoxy resin.
the length of said ‘hull, substantially as shown in FIG. 3.
The respective bottom panels 30 and 32 are connected
As shown in FIGS. 3, 5 and 8, the center line girder
together along the centerline of the hull in much the
50 comprises an upper elongated T-shaped aluminum
same manner that the side members are connected to the
beam 56 extending the length of the hull and a coexten
respective bottom members, that is, by resin bonding 35 sive lower plate-strip member 58. At a plurality of
elongated strips of ?berglass cloth 38 to the respective
points along their lengths, the beam 56 and plate 58 are
bottom members in overlapping relation therewith on
connected by means of a vertical brace 60. The braces
the inside and outside of the hull.
6% have a triangular bar 61 welded to each end through
In FIG. 12 there is shown a modi?ed structure for
which the braces are bolted to the beam 56 and member
joining the side panels 26 and 28 to the respective bottom 40 58. Each of the braces 60 also has a lug 63 welded there
panels 30 ‘and 32, wherein a plurality of laminated, resin
to at its respective ends which extends transversely out
bonded strips of ?berglass 36’ are used, instead of the
wardly therefrom; each of said lugs 63 having a suitable
single layer 36 described above. In addition a quantity
bolt receiving hole extending therethrough. The center
of ?berglass rovings 37 are inserted in a space between
line girder 50‘ is further braced by means of diagonally
the adjoining side and bottom panels 26 and 30, being
resin bonded to one another and to said panels.
extending bars 64 having their opposite ends ‘affixed to
The 45
approach shown in FIG. 12 may of course be used in join
ing the bottom panels 30‘ and 32 to one another. It
has been found that the above described bond between
wood. and ?ber-glass provides a substantially indestructi
ble chine connection ‘and also serves to eliminate the
need for conventional cumbersome and diliicult to pro
duce wooden chine strip generally used in connecting the
the T-shaped beam 56 and the lowermost longitudinal
plate member 58 by bolts 67. The diagonal bars 64 are
also bolted to the vertical angle members 66 by bolts 66,
as shown in PEG. 8.
The longitudinal plate 58 is attached to the hull bottom
by means of a pair of elongated ?berglass cloth strips 68,
each of which has a portion thereof resin bonded to the
inner ?berglass strip 38 connecting together the two bot
tom panels 30 and 32, while the remainder thereof is
side and bottom members of a hard-chine boat. The
application of one or more resin bonded strips of ?ber
glass to the wooden side and bottom members to pro 55 bonded to said plate 58. That portion of the respective
longitudinal strips 68 connected to the center line girder
duce the instant chine structure is a considerably simpler
is ‘held thereto, in addition to aforementioned bonding
and faster operation than that involving the production
means, by elongated, bolted strips of aluminum 70, as
and connection of a conventional chine strip to a wooden
shown in FIGS. 5, 7 and 8. Although the bond between
hull. It has been found that the instant chine construc
aluminum and ?berglass is not indestructible, the afore
tion is substantially as strong as the aforementioned con
mentioned linkage is as strong as if the bottom of the
ventional chine structure yet it is far simpler, and less
hull were attached to the girder 5t} with mild steel angles
expensive to produce.
fitted to both sides of the plate 58, as is conventional prac
Following the connection of the side panels 26 and 28
tice. It is pointed out that, since any force from an im
to the respective bottom panels 30 and 32, and the con
nection of said bottom panels to one another, the entire 65 pact load tending to separate the two bottom panels 30
hull, is covered with a resin bonded layer of ?berglass
cloth 40 that extendsv from gunwale to gunwale, as shown
in FIG. 4 for example.
’
Prior to the assembly of the framework 24 within the
and 32 bypasses the ?berglass “angle connection,” for
reasons hereinafter set forth, and, since the greatest part
of the impact load accelerates the hull through stringers
and frames in a manner hereinafter described, there is
70 only a small stress on the fastenings between the center
line girder 5t} and the hull bottom. In fact, the instant
attachment technique of bottom to girder is stronger than
of the boat and are connected to the sides 26 and 28 by
‘any wooden linkage heretofore used, although the latter
means of a suitable adhesive and/or screws (not shown).
may have been made by the most skilled and conscientious
The respective bottom panels likewise are provided with 75 craftsman.
hull 22, the interior of the hull is provided with a plural
ity of longitudinal side-stringers 42 that extend the length
3,024,478
7
As previously pointed out, the frame structure of the
boat consists of a plurality of bottom frame members 52
and side frame members 54 located at longitudinally
spaced intervals along the interior of the hull 22. Each
of the bottom frame members 52 varies in length and in
its dead-rise angle, depending upon the longitudinal sta
tion at which it is located; therefore suitable measure
8
the respective lug elements 80. Suitably sized bolts 86
extend through the holes in the yoke 82 and the yoke
straddling lugs 80 and are held in place by a nut 87
affixed to the threaded end thereof, whereby said yoke
member is adapted to pivot relative to each of the angle
members 72 and 74. Each of the spaced legs of the
yoke member 82 is provided with a bolt receiving hole
of the same size as the hole in each of the lugs 63 on
ments can be made, and, by virtue of the nature of the
the center-line girder, said spaced legs being arranged in
invention, the various bottom frame members 52 may be
assembled outside the hull and then connected to the cen 10 lug straddling relation with the respective lugs on the
center-line girder 50. A bolt 90 is inserted through the
ter line girder within the hull, as hereinafter described.
holes in the yoke arms and each lug 63 respectively and
Each of the bottom frame members 52 comprises an
bolted down with a suitable nut 92 on the threaded end
upper, aluminum structural member 72 of any desired
thereof. Thus it can be seen that each of the elements
shape, but is preferably an angle member 72, said mem
of the bottom frame member 52 is adapted to pivot rela
ber being welded to a similar slanting angle member 74,
tive to the center-line girder in a universal manner,
said angle members 72 and 74 being braced relative to
whereby it is possible to make slight adjustments for
one another by a plurality of bracing members '76 ex~
minor
variations in size and shape which may result dur~
tending therebetween and having their respective ends
ing manufacture of the various elements of the frame
welded to the respective angle members in the manner
work.
shown in FIG. 5. After each of the bottom frame assem
It is pointed out that the upper lug members 63 on
blies 52 has been completed outside the boat, it can be
the center-line girder 50 are thinner than the lower lugs
heat-treated in any desired manner to restore the full
63 thereby providing a slight gap between said upper lugs
strength of the aluminum alloy used. As a matter of
and the respective legs 88 of the yoke member 82 in
fact, all of the aluminum sub-assemblies may be heat
25 order to compensate for slight discrepancies in manufac
treated for similar purposes.
ture. The slack space between each upper lug 63 and
Each of the side frame members 54 is formed of an
the respective legs of each of the yoke members is taken
elongated aluminum section, preferably an angle member
that is cut to a suitable predetermined length at some
location outside the boat, and then heat-treated in the
same manner as the bottom frame assemblies 52.
Referring to FIGS. 5, 7 and 9, it is pointed out that
each of the bottom frame members 52 is connected to the
centerline girder 50 and to the side frame members 54,
respectively, by means of a plurality of aligning or uni
versal joints. Identical universal joints are used to con
nect the various frame members 52 to the centerline
girder 50 and the respective side frame members through
out the length of the boat, and, therefore, can be mass
produced at some point and time prior to assembly of
the frame members into the boat. In a high speed plan
ing boat the angle between the hull bottom and the
up by inserting suitably sized U-shaped shims 94 between
the respective surfaces of the lug member and the inner
30 surfaces of the respective legs of the yoke element.
During fabrication, each of the side frame members
54 is provided at its lower end with an inwardly extend~
ing lug 96 having a bolt hole extending therethrough,
said lug member being the same in size and shape as
the lowermost lug 63 on the centerline girder. Each lug
96 extends inward of the side frame member substan
tially at right angles to the surface to which it is welded
before the frame member is heat-treated as previously
described. The outermost end of the lower angle element
40 74 of the bottom frame member 52 is provided with a
pair of spaced lugs 98 welded thereto in the same man
ner as the inboard lugs 80 are welded to its opposite
horizontal, that is the “dead-rise angle,” usually varies
end, said lugs being spaced apart the same distance as
throughout the length of the boat. Metal frame con
said ?rst-mentioned pair of lugs 80 and having the same
struction in the past has therefore required a slightly
sized bolt holes provided in each thereof. Another yoke
different joint con?guration for each frame member. The 45 member 82 of the same size and shape as the yoke
purpose of the instant universal joint is to make the
members used on the inboard universal connection be
joint between the frame and centerline girder identical at
tween the bottom frame member and the centerline gir
each frame location and, accordingly, to reduce the de
der is provided for connecting the outboard end of each
sign and construction costs. The instant universal joint
bottom frame member with the respective side frame
adapts itself to the particular angle of the hull bottom 50 members and is connected to each of said frame mem
at each frame location. Furthermore, the universal joint
bers by means of suitable bolts 100 and 102 extending
connection adapts itself to the inevitable small errors
at right angles to one another in substantially the same
that arise in the manufacture of the parts of the boat.
manner as the connection between the inboard ends of
It, for example, the lug members 63 on the centerline
each bottom frame member and the centerline girder,
girder are situated at a slight upward or downward 55 all as shown in FIGS. 5 and 6.
angle instead of being horizontal, the universal joint con
nection adapts itself to this angle and makes it possible
Thus it is emphasized that, by virtue of the universal
joint connection described above, the applicant has pro
to obtain the desired tight-?tting connection between
vided a simple and rigid connection means between the
frame and the centerline girder. Each of the universal
respective bottom frame members 52 and the centerline
joints connecting a bottom frame member to the center 60 girder 50 and also with each of the side frame members
line girder includes a pair of spaced lugs 80 on the in
54,- each of said connections being substantially identical
board end of the upper and lower angle members 72 and
and being capable of connecting together the respective
74, respectively, said lugs being laterally spaced from
bottom frame members with the centerline girder re
one another in the manner shown in FIG. 9, and each
gardless of the particular dead-rise angle at the point
has a bolt hole extending through it, the axis of each of
where the respective bottom frame members are located,
said holes extending at right angles to the axis of the
and also regardless of the angular relationship between
hole in the respective lug 63 on the vertical brackets 60
the respective side frame members and the associated
attached to the center line girder 50. It is pointed out
bottom frame members; the latter feature being shown
that the lugs 80 on the bottom frame members 52 may
in FIG. 2.
be formed in any desired manner. Each universal joint 70
Each of the bottom frame members 52 is ?rmly con~
further comprises a U-shaped yoke member 82 having a
nected to the respective bottom panels of the hull by
bolt receiving hole 84 extending through the bight por
means of a plurality of suitably sized bolts 104, each
tion thereof, said bight portion being located between the
of which has one end anchored in the respective bottom
lugs 80 on each of the bottom frame members 52 and
panels and extends through suitably sized holes in the
having the hole therein in alignment with the holes in 75 longitudinal stringers 44, the strip 46, the resilient pad
3,024,478
48 and a portion of the lower angle member 74, each
of said bolts being anchored with a nut 106 threaded
onto the free end of said bolt that extends through the
angle member 74.
Each of the side frame members 54 is, in turn, anchored
to the respective side panels by means of suitable bolts
108, each of which has one end ‘anchored in the side
panel, and extends through the respective stringers 42
and a portion of said side frame member, all in much
the same manner that each of the bottom frame mem
bers 52 is anchored to the bottom of the hull.
‘It is emphasized that the aforementioned connections
between the various framework elements, and between
the framework and the hull serves to provide an excep
tionally rigid connection between the respective bottom
frame members 52 and the centerline girder 50. Thus
any impact load applied to the bottom of the hull is
transmitted through the vertical plate member 58 on the
centerline girder, to the centerline girder, thence through
gm
the outboard endhthereof, said framework being“ free of
attachment to said hull along the respective chines thereof;
2. A boat construction as setforth in claim 1, wherein
each of said bottom frame members is located in a vertical
plane and is substantially V-shaped having the apexthere
of connected to a said side frame member, the spaced
ends of said V-shaped member being connected to said
center-line girder.
_
3. A boat construction as set forth in claim 2, wherein
10 each of said bottom frame members is connected. to the
center-line girder and the side frame member with uni
versal joints.
''
4. A boat construction as set forth in claim 3, wherein
each of said universal joints comprises a U-shaped yoke
member having the bight portion thereof pivotly con
nected to one of said interconnected frame members and
the legs thereof pivotly connected to the other of said
interconnected frame members, the axis of the respective
pivots extending at right angles to one another.
the universal connections to the respective bottom frame 20
5. A hard chine boat construction comprising a hull
members 52 immediately adjacent to the area of impact
having a pair of side panels, a pair of bottom panels, said
application.
vside panels each being connected to respective bottom
Furthermore, since the overall framework is extremely
panels by a layer of ?ber glass resin bonded to both
rigid, the force of an impact load is transmitted along
said side panels and an immediately adjacent bottom
the centerline girder 50 to adjacent bottom frame mem 25 panel, said bottom panels being connected to one another
bers, and thence through said bot-tom frame members to
along the centerline of said hull by a layer of ?ber glass
the side frame members 54 to the side of the hull, thereby
resin bonded to both bottom panels, a metal framework
substantially bypassing the chine of said hull, thus elim
within said hull that includes a centerline girder, a fiber
inating excessive strain on said chine. This is accom
glass member resin bonded respectively to said centerline
plished by letting the chine “?oat” on the side and bottom 30 girder and the layer of ?ber glass connecting together the
panels which are both free to flex at the chine, while the
bottom panels, whereby said centerline girder is con—
impact load is transmitted directly from the bottom panel
nected to said hull; said framework further including a
or skin to the side panel or skin. For example, in FIG.
plurality of bottom frame members each of which is con
10, an impact load on the bottom panel 30 passes through
nected to said centerline girder and extends transversely
stringers 44 into the metal framework and back to the 35 thereto toward the respective sides of the hull, a tighten
side panels through side stringers 42, thereby bypassing
able universal joint connecting each of said bottom frame
the chine. ‘Flexibility rather than rigidity is provided
members to said centerline girder.
in the chine.
6‘. A hard-chine boat construction as set forth in claim
The chine is not called upon to transmit the full forces
5, wherein said framework includes a plurality of substan
on the hull but is made ?exible but waterproof so as to 40 tially vertical side frame members connected to the respec
accommodate itself to the applied forces.
tive side panels of said hull, and universal joint means
The instant invention also provides a rigid metal frame
connecting said side frame members to said bottom frame
work for use within a wooden hull,..which framework is
members, said framework being free of connection to
so constructed and arranged as to distribute over substan
said hull along the respective chines thereof.
tially the entire hull any impact load which may be ap
7. A boat construction as set forth in claim 6, wherein
plied to the bottom of the hull, thereby materially re
each of said universal joints comp-rises a U-shaped yoke
ducing acceleration loads on the hull brought about by
member having the bight portion thereof pivotly con
impact with waves. In addition to the framework being
nected to frame members and ‘the legs thereof pivotly
extremely rigid, it is ‘also quite simple to manufacture
connected to the other of said interconnected frame
and, by its very nature, need not be assembled piece
members, the axis of the respective pivots extending at
by piece Within the boat, but rather can be manufactured
right angles to one another.
in the form of sub-assemblies at some remote point.
8. A boat of a type described comprising a hull having
The instant invention also provides a simple connection
a bottom skin, a side skin and a longitudinal joint joining
between a centerline girder of a boat and the bottom
said bottom and side skins along a chine line, a plurality of
frame elements that extend laterally therefrom by utiliz 55 spaced longitudinal wooden bottom stringers along said
ing a universal connection, all the elements of which are
bottom skin, a plurality of spaced transverse wooden
substantially identical throughout the boat construction,
blocks across said stringers, a plurality of transverse metal
thereby materially reducing the cost of construction and
bottom frames along said wooden blocks, means securing
the time required therefor.
said bottom skin, bottom stringers, transverse blocks and
Obviously many modi?cations and variations of the 60 bottom frames together and a resilient pad sandwiched
present invention are possible in light of the above tea-ch
between each of said transverse blocks and the bottom
ings. It is therefor to be understood within the scope of
frame resting on said block being in contact with both,
the appended claims the invention may be practiced other
whereby impact forces applied to the bottom of said
wise than as speci?cally described.
hull are transmitted by said bottom stringers longitudinally
What is claimed is:
65 of said hull to a plurality of adjacent transverse metal
1. A boat construction comprising a hard-chine hull,
bottom frames; a plurality of spaced longitudinal wooden
a metal framework within said hull and rigidly fastened
side stringers along said side skin, a plurality of spaced
thereto at selected points, said framework comprising a
center-line girder attached to the bottom of the hull along
transverse metal side frames, means securing said side skin,
the center-line thereof, a plurality of transverse bottom 70 side stringers, and side frames together, said bottom
frame members attached to said center-line girder and
frames and side frames being arranged in substantially
extending laterally therefrom toward the sides of said
aligned transverse pairs, and means securing an end of
hull, a plurality of side frame members equal in number
a side frame to the adjacent end of a bottom frame of each
said pair.
to said bottom frame members, each of said side frame
members being fastened to a bottom frame member at 75
9. A boat as de?ned in claim 8 but further characterized
3,024,478
12
1l
by the last said means comprising a lockable universal
a relatively adjustable manner, said means comprising a
joint.
plurality of lockable aligning joints interconnecting said
10. vA boat as de?ned in claim 8 but further charac
terized by a centerline girder, and a lockable universal
tions together during assembly, although they may be
joint securing the neighboring ends of said bottom frames
slightly out of line.
to said girder, and by the last said means comprising a
lockable universal joint.
11. A boat of a type described comprising a hull having
a bottom skin and a side skin, a transverse metal frame
bottom and side frame sections, whereby to lock said sec
'
17. A boat comprising a bottom and sides, a plurality
of spaced stringers extending lengthwise of the bottom,
a framework resting on said stringers, said framework
comprising a center line girder along said bottom, and a
along said bottom skin, a transverse frame member along 10 plurality of pairs of frame members spaced lengthwise,
each of said pairs of frame members comprising a frame
said side skin, and a lockable universal joint interconnect
member disposed transversely on each side of said center
ing said frame and frame member.
line girder, and lockable aligning joints ?xedly connecting
12. A boat construction comprising a hard chine hull,
each of said frame members to said center line girder, each
a metal framework within said hull and rigidly fastened
thereto at selected points, said framework comprising a 15 of said joints having parts that are relatively movable
when the joint is unlocked to provide for alignment of said
center line girder attached to the bottom of the hull along
frame members to said center line girder when the joint is
the center line thereof, a plurality of transverse bottom
locked.
frame members a tightenable universal joint connecting
18. A boat construction comprising a hard chine hull
each of said bottom frame members to said centerline
girder, and said transverse bottom frame members extend 20 having a bottom and sides interconnected with said bottom
ing laterally from the centerline girder toward the sides
at its lateral edges thereby forming a plurality of chines,
of said hull, a plurality of side frame members, each of
said side frame members being fastened to a bottom frame
member at the outboard end thereof, said framework
a plurality of stringers extending in a direction substan
tially parallel to said chines, a metal framework within
said hull resting on said stringers and fastened there
being free of attachment to said hull along the respective 25 through to said hull, said framework comprising bottom
and side frame sections and means joining said sections
chines thereof.
13. A boat construction as set forth in claim 12, where
in a relatively adjustable manner, said means comprising
a plurality of lockable aligning joints interconnecting said
bottom and side frame sections in a region substantially
to one of said interconnected frame members and the legs 30 juxtaposed to said chines, said region of interconnection
being spaced from and free of attachment to said hull
thereof pivotally connected to the other of said intercon
along the chines thereof, whereby said bottom and side
nected frame members, the axis of the respective pivots
panels are capable of movement relative to each other in
extending at right angles to another.
said region of interconnection.
14. A boat construction as set forth in claim 12, where
in each of said universal joints comprises a U-shaped yoke
member having a bight portion thereof pivotally connected
in each of said bottom frame members is connected to a 35
side frame member with a universal joint.
15. A boat construction as set forth in claim 14, where
in each of said last named universal joints comprises a U
shaped yoke member having a bight portion thereof
pivotally connected to one of said interconnected frame
members and the legs thereof pivotally connected to the
other of said interconnected frame members, the axis of
the respective pivots extending at right angles to one
another.
16. A boat construction comprising a hull having inter 45
connected bottom and sides, a plurality of stringers extend
ing lengthwise along said hull, a metal framework within
said hull resting on said stringers and fastened there
through to said hull, said ‘framework comprising bottom 5 O
and side frame sections and means joining said sections in
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,067,659
Kankkonen ___________ .. July 15, 1913
1,114,996
1,333,248
Lawson ______________ __ Oct. 27, 1914
Di Carlo ______________ __ Mar. 9, 1920
1,636,076
1,679,630
Ruthenburg ___________ __ July 19, 1927
Roys _________________ __ Aug. 7, 1928
2,412,455
Hall ________________ __ Dec. 10, 1946
2,547,146
2,612,129
2,746,891
Anthony ______________ __ Apr. 3, 1951
Burch _______________ __ Sept. 30, 1952
Doane _______________ __ May 22, 1956
328,458
541,178
Great Britain __________ __ May 1, 1930
Great Britain _________ __ Nov. 17, 1941
FOREIGN PATENTS
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