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Патент USA US3024538

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March 13, 1962
3,024,528
A. A. KIELAR
METHOD OF‘ REMOVING SURFACE DEFECTS IN INGOTS
Filed Sept. 11, 1959
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United States Patent
3,024,528
Patented Mar. 13, 1962
2
1
apparent from a reading of the speci?cation when ex
3,924,528
METHOD OF REMOVING SURFACE
DEFECTS 1N INGOTS
Andrew Anthony Kielar, Chicago, Ill., assignor to In
tel-national Harvester Company, Chicago, 111., a cor
a)
amined in connection with the accompanying sheet of
drawing.
In the drawing:
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view, with portions thereof
in section, of an ingot mold of a type conventionally used
poration of New Jersey
Filed Sept. 11, 1959, Ser. No. 839,468
8 Qlaims. (Cl. 29-—526.4)
in the steel industry;
This invention concerns an improved method for re
mold;
moving surface imperfections in ferrous metal ingots after
casting.
In the casting of iron or steel ingots the molten metal
is poured into an ingot mold. The ingot mold is gen
erally of tubular construction and of substantially square
con?guration in cross section. After the ingot has cooled
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a typical and conven
tional ingot after it has been removed from an ingot
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view through a device show
ing the method by which an ingot may be removed from
an ingot mold and whereby the surface imperfections
are removed from the surfaces of the ingot; and
FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view through a modi?ed
apparatus showing a modi?ed ingot mold including means
for removing surface material from the ingot simulta
neously while the same is removed from the ingot mold.
Referring now particularly to FIG. 2, an ingot is
sutlicicntly within the mold it is extricated therefrom
by forcing it endwise or longitudinally with respect to
the mold until it is discharged. Certain of the ingot
molds comprise inner tapered walls which facilitate the 20 generally designated by the reference character 10. The
ingot 10 comprises a substantially square elongated body
removal of the ingot from the mold. While the ingot
11 having at one end four tapered side surfaces 12 ter
is cooling within the mold there is generally a tendency
minating in a ?rst end 13. The ingot is also provided
for the ingot to become substantially welded to certain
with an opposite end 14. The body 11 also comprises
portions of the interior of the mold. When this occurs,
a plurality of ?at or substantially parallel side surfaces
the surface of the ingot becomes rough and contains sur'
15 adjacent the end 14.
face imperfections and particularly after the ingot has
An ingot mold is generally designated at 16. The
been removed from the mold. Also, in many instances
ingot mold 16 is of tubular construction, substantially
the surface of the ingot is sometimes embedded with
square in design, and includes a bottom plate 17 upon
particles of slag which also create projections or surface
which the ingot sets during a casting operation. The
imperfections and defects. After the ingot has generally
ingot mold 16 comprises four side walls 18 and handling
been removed from the mold, these imperfections and
hooks 19 are disposed on opposite sides of said side
defects are removed by reheating the surface and grinding
walls 18. A plurality of inner tapering Walls 20 are
or chiseling away the imperfections. This is generally
provided within the ingot mold 16. The ingot mold
a costly procedure and is very unsatisfactory. Such im
perfections, when left in the surface of the ingot, con 35 further includes parallel or straight walls 2-1 de?ning
with the walls 20 a chamber generally designated at 22.
tinued to be in existence even after rolling of the ingot
The chamber 22, as best shown in FIG. 3, is provided
so that the resultant product (covers, bars, strips, sheets,
with opposed open ends 23 and 24.
plates, shapes, billets, slabs) has surface defects which
Referring now to FIG. 3, a support 25 is shown suit
are rejected by the ultimate consumer. In many in
stances the ingot contains such imperfections in its sur 40 ably supported on the ground. The support 25 comprises
a table 26 having a recessed portion 27 provided at one
face that the entire ingot has to be scrapped. It is there
end of a stop 28. The ingot mold 16 is shown positioned
fore a prime object of this invention to provide an im
within the recess 27 with one end of the mold 16 in
proved method for removing surface imperfections in
engagement with the stop 28. The support 25 is asso
ingots immediately after the ingots have been cast in an
45 ciated with a ?uid extensible device designated at 29.
ingot mold.
The ?uid extensible device 29 comprises a bracket 30
A still further object is the provision of an improved
process for removing surface imperfections in ingots while
simultaneously removing the ingot from the mold into
suitably connected, by means of bolts 31, to the support
25. The extensible device 29 comprises a cylinder 32
having a suitable hollow chamber 33 to which ?uid under
which it has been poured.
A still further object is the provision of an improved 50 pressure is introduced by means of a conduit 34 leading
inexpensive, efficient, and effective method of removing
surface imperfections from an ingot while the ingot is
to a source of pressure (not shown).
A piston 35 is
still substantially warm as a result of the casting op
eration.
move in a longitudinal direction toward the ingot 16 when
‘?uid under pressure is supplied to the chamber 33. The
adapted to reciprocate within the chamber 33 and to
A still further object is the provision of an improved 55 piston 35 is provided at one end with a suitable ram
member 36.
method of treating the surface imperfections of a cast
In the formation of ingots, the ingot mold 16 is suit
ingot with the utilization of a mold and certain portions
ably supported in an upright position on top of the plate
thereof which are effective in the accomplishment of the
17. The metal is then poured from a suitable ladle
method.
A further object of the invention is to provide an 60 (not shown) and the ingot mold chamber 22 is suitably
?lled. The ingot mold is then supported by means of the
improved method of removing an ingot from an ingot
hooks 19 from a suitable crane and is transferred to the
mold while simultaneously smoothing the surface of the
support 25 whereupon it is laid horizontally in the man
ingot to remove surface imperfections by displacement
ner shown in FIG. 3 with one end suitably supported
of metal.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an 65 against endwise movement by means of the shoulder 28.
The piston 35 is now moved in the direction of the arrow,
improved method of removing surface imperfections from
in FIG. 3, whereupon the end 13 of the ingot is engaged
an ingot while the said ingot is still heated from a cast
by the ram 36 and the ingot 16 is moved longitudinally
ing operation, the said method comprising the steps of re
or lengthwise of the mold 16. It is apparent that the
moving surface portions of the metal thereby simultane
ously deleting any surface imperfections which might 70 cross sectional diameter or dimension between the straight
walls 21 is of lesser dimension than a cross sectional
exist.
dimension taken at any point along the tapering walls 20.
These and other objects will become more readily
3,024,528
4
3
Thus the parallel or straight walls 21 form a restricted
surfaces or sides 41.
The movement of the piston 57
opening within the chamber 22 and upon the longitudinal
or endwise movement of the ingot, during its discharge
from the ingot mold, these walls will cause the surfaces,
in the area of the tapered walls 20, to become displaced
from the ingot mold 42 and rests upon the table 52. Any
surface imperfections on the ingot 40 are thereby removed
by peeling of the portions 66.
or a change in form is effected. Thus the tapering walls
therefore, has a smooth clean surface as it is discharged
20, or that portion between the said tapering walls, is
extruded through the restricted portion de?ned by the
from the die. Thus the ingot is simultaneously removed
continues until the ingot 40 is completely discharged
The ?nished ingot,
from the ingot mold while the surface imperfections are
also removed and while the ingot is still in a plastic
walls 21. The ingot shown in FIG. 2, therefore changes
to a substantially square or rectangular shape and simul 10 condition.
Thus it can be seen that the objects of the invention
taneously the imperfections which are in the surfaces 12
have been fully achieved and that an improved method
are removed by the displacement of metal which may be
similar to forging or extruding. The discharging and
surface treating method are accomplished while the ingot
11 is still substantially heated from the casting operation.
Thus the ingot, which may have surface imperfections,
comprising projections or depressions or slag elements,
are in effect removed during the discharging operation
since the shape of the ingot 11 changes and the surfaces
are worked upon.
for removing surface imperfections in ingots and a modi
?cation thereof have been described. It must be realized
that changes in the method or in the apparatus which
may perform the method, may be made without depart
ing from the spirit of the invention as disclosed or
from the scope thereof as de?ned in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A method of removing surface imperfections in
a metal ingot after pouring of the metal into an ingot
Thus it is clear that the ingot is changed in shape
while it is simultaneously discharged from the ingot mold.
mold, the ingot mold having inner tapering walls and
The change in shape causes the removal of surface im
perfections thus substantially reduces or entirely elimi
parallel walls forming a chamber open at opposite ends,
said tapering walls converging toward the parallel walls
nates any rework, scar?ng, or other process to remove 25 whereby said portion of the chamber adjacent said paral
lel walls is narrower in cross section than other portions
these imperfections. The piston 35 and ram 36 may be
suitably returned to their original position, either by
spring elements or by other suitable means.
Thus the normal interior wall structure found in
of said chamber, said ingot mold having outer tapering
and parallel walls conforming to said walls of said
chamber, consisting of supporting said ingot mold against
the outer surface of the ingot to effectuate the removal
of surface defects.
In FIG. 4 the ingot is designated at 40, and in this
lengthwise movement with said ingot in a heated con
dition, applying a force against one end of said ingot
adjacent one open end of said chamber to move said ingot
lengthwise relative to said chamber toward and through
said narrow portion and the other open end of said
I‘ chamber, whereby said tapered walls of said ingot are
case the ingot 40 comprises four parallel sides 41 which
may be of square con?guration. An ingot mold is
designated at 42, the said ingot mold having inner walls
and projections are removed by the displacement of the
metal.
43 de?ning a chamber 44 open at opposite ends as indi
2. A method of treating a metal ingot, having a cer
tain cross sectional dimension, after it is formed in an
conventional ingot molds is effective during the present
improved process, for restricting the movement of the
ingot during discharge while simultaneously working upon
cated at 45 and 46. One end of the ingot 40 is provided
with outer ?anges 47. A supporting structure is desig
nated at 48 and comprises a substantially ?at table 49
suitably supported on the ground. The table 49 is pro
vided with a recess 50 having at one end a shoulder
51. A second table 52 is positioned adjacent one end of
the ingot mold 42 for receiving the ingot 40 as it is
discharged.
A ?uid extensible device 53 comprises a cylinder 54
which is suitably connected, by means of a bracket 55,
to the table 52. The cylinder 54 comprises a chamber 56
within which a piston 57 is mounted for reciprocation.
A conduit 58, similar to the conduit 34 in FIG. 3,
is provided to deliver ?uid under high pressures to the
chamber 56. A ram 59 is connected to the piston 57 at
one end thereof. The supporting structure 48 also in
cludes a ?ange 60 projecting longitudinally for engaging
the ingot mold 42 to retain the same in horizontal dis
formed substantially parallel and surface indentations
ingot mold, said mold having opposed open ends; con
sisting of supporting said mold against longitudinal move—
ment, applying a force through one of said open ends
against said ingot while said ingot is in a heated condi—
tion thereby moving said ingot longitudinally relative
to said mold, and providing means associated with said
mold having a restricted opening of lesser cross sectional
dimension than said ingot through which ingot is moved
and discharged from the mold, whereby surface imperfec
tions in said ingot surface are removed by the displace
ment of metal.
3. A method of treating a metal ingot, having a cer
tain cross sectional dimension, after it is formed in an
ingot mold, said mold having opposed open ends; con
sisting of supporting said mold against longitudinal move
ment, applying a force through one of said open ends
against said ingot thereby moving said ingot longitudinally
placement.
relative to said mold, and providing means associated with
said mold having a restricted opening of lesser cross sec
A die element 61 is provided with a restricted open
ing 62 having at one end a foursided square shaped 60 tional dimension than said ingot through which ingot is
cutting edge 63. The shape of the cutting edge 63 con
forms to the shape of the chamber 44. Spacers 64 dis
posed between the die 61 and ?anges 47 suitably space
the die 61 which is rigidly held on the ?anges 47 by
means of bolts and nuts 65.
moved and discharged from the mold, whereby surface im
perfections in said ingot surface are removed by the dis
placement of metal.
4. A method of treating a metal ingot having a certain
cross sectional dimension after it is formed in an ingot
apparatus shown in FIG. 4 the cylinder 57 is moved in
the direction of the arrow whereupon the ram 59 engages
mold, said ingot mold having opposed open ends; con
sisting of supporting said mold against longitudinal move
ment, applying a pressure longitudinally against said ingot
the ingot 40 to move the same endwise or longitudinally
while in a heated condition to move said ingot longitudi
In the method accomplished by the utilization of, the
from the chamber 44. During this movement, the ingot 70 nally within said mold, providing means associated with
said mold, said means having an opening with a cross
40, which is still in a heated condition just after casting,
sectional dimension less than the cross sectional dimen
has its outer surfaces or parallel sides 41 engaged by
sion of said ingot, said opening being in registry with one
the cutting edges 63. The opening 62 is of smaller cross
sectional dimension than the cross sectional dimension of
the ingot 40 so that a thin edge 66 is peeled from the
of the open ends of said mold, and continuing said pres
sure whereby said ingot is moved longitudinally through
3,024,528
6
chamber, said ingot mold having outer tapering and paral
said opening and is discharged from said mold whereby
lel walls conforming to said walls of said chamber, con
metal is displaced by said means from the surface of said
sisting of supporting said ingot mold against lengthwise
ingot and surface imperfections in said ingot are removed.
movement, applying a force against one end of said ingot
5. A method of treating a metal ingot having a certain
adjacent one open end of said chamber to move said in
cross sectional dimension after it is formed in an ingot
got lengthwise relative to said chamber toward and
mold, said ingot mold having opposed open ends; con
through said narrow portion and the other open end of
sisting of supporting said mold against longitudinal move
said chamber, whereby surface indentations and projec
ment, applying a pressure longitudinally against said ingot
tions are removed by the displacement of the metal.
to move said ingot longitudinally within said mold, pro
8. A method of removing surface imperfections in a
viding means associated with said mold, said means hav 10
metal ingot in an ingot mold, said ingot mold having a
ing an opening with a cross sectional dimension less than
tubular chamber with opposed open ends, said tubular
the cross sectional dimension of said ingot, said opening
chamber including an inner wall, and said ingot having
being in registry with one of the open ends of said mold,
an outer peripheral wall conforming to the wall of said
and continuing said pressure whereby said ingot is moved
chamber, said inner wall including between the open ends
longitudinally through said opening and is discharged from
of the chamber a restriction having a smaller cross sec
said mold whereby a layer of metal is sheared by said
tional dimension than said ingot, applying a force on one
means from the surface of said ingot and surface imperfec
end of said ingot to move the same longitudinally within
tions in said ingot are removed.
the chamber while in a heated condition, through the
6. A method of improving the outer surface of an ingot
after casting in an ingot mold having an open end; con~
sisting of moving the ingot longitudinally from the mold
restriction and outwardly from one of said open ends
20 whereby said restriction engages the outer peripheral wall
through the open end While the mold is in a heated con
of said ingot and displaces metal therefrom to remove sur
dition and simultaneously displacing material from the
face imperfections.
outer surface of the ingot to provide a surface substan
tially free of imperfections.
7. A method of removing surface imperfections in a 25
metal ingot after pouring of the metal into an ingot mold,
the ingot mold having inner tapering walls and parallel
walls forming a chamber open at opposite ends, said taper
ing walls converging toward the parallel walls whereby
said portion of the chamber adjacent said parallel walls
is narrower in cross section than other portions of said
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
418,999
1,101,546
1,672,999
2,499,292
2,878,537
Wellman _____________ __ Ian. 7,
Hixon _______________ __ June 30,
Eyermann ____________ __ June 12,
Black ________________ __ Feb. 28,
Brennan _____________ __ Mar. 24,
1890
1914
1928
1950
1959
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