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Патент USA US3024646

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March 13, 1962
Filed sept. 14, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
March 13, 1962
Filed Sept. 14, 1959
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
75 153
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Patented Mar. 13, 1962
Richard P. Higginbottom, 6659 Sherbrooke St. W.,
Apt. 23, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Filed Sept. 14, 1959, Ser. No. 839,840
2 Claims. (Cl. 68-5)
The present arrangement relates to the steam process
ing of materials, textiles, plastics, etc. and more particu
larly to an improvement in the apparatus used for the
steaming treatments of vat color prints, dyes, pads and
discharge prints or the like prepared for chemical reduc
tion processes.
It is well known that when steaming processes of this
nature are carried out, it is necessary to exclude air from
the steaming process chamber by passing through it a
sufficient volume of saturated steam to prevent air ad
mission into the chamber. It is also necessary to deal
with the exothermic heat of the chemical reaction which
or cylinders with which the material or fabric makes
The preferred construction of such a unit consists es
sentially of a metal cylinder somewhat similar to an ordi
nary textile drying cylinder made of copper, but mounted
on spaced apart partitions on a shaft having tubular ends
which protrude through opposite sides of the steaming
chamber, the spaced apart partitions providing an inner
cylindrical chamber or an annular ring through which
cooling water below 212° F. may be passed by means
of the tubular shaft ends, and thus providing a cool cen
tral cylindrical surface section within the steam chamber
causing “liquid” condensed from the steam chamber at
mosphere to become available for transfer by rolling con
tact to the material in its central course through the steam
ing chamber. `Control of the temperature of the circulat
ing water through the unit will determine the amount of
condensed “liquid” available for active use. Any heat ex
change unit may be rendered inactive by cutting off its
water supply.
In addition to and in accordance with the invention,
in excess causes a slow-down of the reactions, leading to
heated rollers or cylinders or suitable diameter are
vatting, dyeing and discharging processes and also to ab
action and thus of the dyeing and discharge processes fa
cilitating their completion; it should be also noted that
mounted transversely Within the air-free steam chamber.
inferior results.
The present heated roller units are disposed in staggered
The chemical reactions commence irnrnediatellÍ the pre
pared fabric enters the steam-filled process chamber 25 rationship with the heat exchange units so that the pre
pared textile material can pass continuously and alter
through the transverse entrance and exit slot or mouth
natively over such units. More specifically, the rotary
piece usual for such a chamber through which it passes
heat exchange units Will be preferably arranged along the
in continuous length and in open width.
lower part of the steam chamber with the control sec
The present invention contemplates the maintenance of
tions below 2l2° F. producing moisture for the chemical
a two phase water control balance in a process chamber
reactions, while the heated roller units will be arranged
of saturated steam, these process reactions take place on
for coordination along the top section of the chamber.
and in the prepared fabric within the steaming process
heated roller units will be maintained at a controllable
higher temperature up to or a little above 240° F. and
Two water phases are specified above. These are “gas
both the heat exchange units and heated roller units can
eous” and “liquid” which in process readily interchange
be individually controlled so as to vary as required the
around 212° F.
amount of moisture and the heat to be applied to the
The “gaseous” phase is largely supplied by the satu
prepared material as it is passed in process through the
rated steam passed through the air-free steaming process
air-free steaming chamber in direct rolling contact with
all units. The heated roller units in presence of the
The “liquid” is provided directly as water to the pre
moisture provided to the prepared material by the preced
pared fabric as it passes in process through the chamber.
ing heat exchange units will raise the temperature of re
Its function is ’to aid in the chemical reactions and the
sorb excess exotherrnic heat.
When assured that an adequate supply of additional
moisture as “liquid” has been provided, it becomes pos
sible and desirable to introduce a coordinating and con
trolled local addition of heat above 212° F. in order to
further facilitate the reactions to completion.
The present invention aims to provide a smooth and
rapid production process fully controllable with respect to
the application of water and heat.
With this in mind, the invention is embodied in an
apparatus to make available for the chemical and physical
reactions involved, supplementary moisture as liquid by
means of apparatus which shall be termed for the purpose
of the application as a rotary heat exchange unit or units.
This apparatus consists essentially of a cylindrical form
or forms mounted for rotation within the steam processing
excess moisture will be evaporated to maintain the at
mosphere of saturated steam in the chamber. Thus
there is proceeding at the same time a physical cycle of
steam-water-steam in operation. The water being con
densed is eminently suitable for the processes involved.
This application is a continuation-in-part of United
States application Serial Number 520,897, ñled July 8,
Having thus generally described the nature of the in
vention, particular reference will be made to the accom
panying drawings showing by Way of illustration a pre
ferred embodiment thereof, and in which:
FIGURE l is a diagrammatic view on side elevation of
a preferred steam chamber having alternate rotary heat
exchange and heated roller units in accordance with the
chamber, each form having a spaced apart inside central 60 invention.
FIGURE 2 is a View in end elevation of the construc
section which by internal cooling maintains a wet exter
nal surface area designed to enable all over rolling con
tact to be made with the prepared material or fabric in
its central running course in process through the air-free
tion shown in FIGURE l showing the end portions only.
FIGURE 3 is a longitudinal section of the construction
shown in FIGURES l and 2 to illustrate an arrangement
of alternate heat exchange and heated roller units.
steaming chamber in active operation.
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged detailed View partially in
More speciñcally, in accordance with the present inven
section of a typical heated roller unit in accordance with
tion, a preferred form of rotary heat exchange unit con
the invention, and
sists of a hollow metal cylinder of high heat conductivity
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged diagrammatic View partially
which makes direct and rolling contact with the material
in section of a typical rotary heat exchange unit as pre
or fabric in process through the chamber. It is mounted 70 viously described.
FIGURE 6 is a diagrammatic side view in section of
transversely for rotation parallel with all other rollers
an air-free textile processing chamber wherein five rotary
heat exchange units have been combined.
FIGURE 7 is a View in longitudinal section of a pre
so that the moisture formed products of condensation,
in this case water, are brought into reactive contact with
the prepared material during the heat generating chemical
ferred rotary heat exchange unit of the primary type
wherein the center portion is battled and both ends are
reactions. Steam is introduced through a perforated
bottom plate 121 mounted within the chamber 140.
FIGURE 8 is a view in longitudinal section of a fur
With particular reference to FIGURES 7, 8 and 9,
three alternative constructions of the rotary type of
ther preferred rotary heat exchange unit with an internal
closed cylinder mounted in the center portion of the unit
providing an internal annular ring for cooling ñuid cir
FIGURE 9 is a view in longitudinal section of a fur
ther preferred rotary heat exchange unit with an internal
fluid conducting spiral coil forming the core for cooling
In FIGURE 1, the air-free steam or processing cham
ber 10 is shown diagrammatically wherein spaced apart
rotary heat exchange units 12 are journalled for rotation
between the side walls of the chamber 1() in an arrange
ment substantially along the lower portion of the cham- _
ber. In a corresponding straight line arrangement ad
jacent the upper portion of the chamber, there is mounted
a spaced apart row of heated rollers 14 in accordance
with the invention (see FIGURE 3). The rollers 14 are
also mounted for rotation with means being provided to
supply heat to the interior of the rollers as will be de
scribed in more detail later.
heat exchange unit are shown in section. The construc
tion shown in FIGURE 7 is of the basic type indicated
at 12 and previously described. In operation, fluid of a
lower temperature than that of the steam filling the proc
essing chamber is supplied to the center portion 75 of
the unit. The outer ends 77, 79 are open to the atmos
phere of the enclosure so that in effect three zones of
varying temperature are created. The ends 77, 79 reach
a temperature the same as the atmosphere of the charn
ber, the center portion 75 is cooled by the fluid passing
therethrough to a temperature below the atmosphere of
the enclosure and the portions of the unit intervening
the ends, and the center portion, at the partitions 72, 74,
has a temperature intermediate the temperature of the
ends and center.
The construction shown in FIGURE 8 acts in a similar
manner with the difference that a further cylindrical
baille 80 is mounted concentrically of the center portion
175 of the unit body 170. The partitions 172, 174 are
the same in location and construction as previously de
A plurality of spaced apart material supporting rollers
scribed and the hollow shafts 176, 178 are adapted to
pass ñuid by means of the openings 151, 153 through
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 are also provided so as to support
the run of the material after it passes over the processing 30 the center portion 175 of the unit between the outer
surface of the bafñe 80 and the inner surface of the
rollers. As shown in FIGURES 2, 3, 4 and 5 for example
cylinder 170.
the fabric A is guided about `the various rollers so as
to be centrally disposed of the processing units in the
The construction shown in FIGURE 9 is also of
similar design and function. In this case, the cylindrical
axial direction. In the construction shown, saturated
unit or body 270 is provided with partitions 272, 274 as
steam is introduced to the chamber through a perforated
before and a spiral coil 290 is mounted within the center
false bottom plate 22 (see FIGURE 3) mounted within
portion 275 with the outer ends passing out through the
the enclosure so as to maintain the necessary air-free
steam atmosphere within the chamber.
hollow shafts 276, 278. A suitable coolant fluid can be
pumped through the coil 29€) producing the effective
In one preferred construction, see FIGURE 4, the
heated rollers 14 are shown as comprising hollow cylin~ 40 three zones of temperature to the cylindrical body 270
ders closed at each end and supported on hollow shafts
as described.
39 mounted in suitable rotary bearings and couplings 32.
Heated ñuid is provided through the conduits 34 and
are not under a pressure load and that the liuid used as a
the shafts 30 to the interior 36 of each heated roller 14.
A control valve 35 is provided at each end of the roller
14 in the conduits 34. Since the atmosphere within the
chamber is already at elevated temperature, about 212°
F., the additional heat to the rollers 14 will be under
thermostatic control to the temperature required.
As shown in detail in FIGURES 5, 7, 8 and 9, the f
heat exchange units 12 are each provided with a cylin
It will be appreciated that in all cases the cylinders
cooling medium merely flows into and out of the center
portions to give the desired reduction in temperature.
It should be mentioned that while the cylinder units are
preferably made of copper since this material has a high
degree of heat conductivity, other metals having similar
properties of heat conduction would be suitable.
drical body partitioned transaxially with spaced par
The principal advantage of the rotary type unit of
the invention is that the metal heat exchange cylinder
employed is a unit having three external sections of differ
titions positioned adjacent each end.
ing surface temperatures:
In this construc
tion, as shown in FIGURE 5, the interior 42 of the units
12 is provided with hollow shafts 44 which are mounted
(a) A hot dry section at each end (at steam tempera
in bearing and rotary joints 46. Fluid is supplied to the
(b) A cool wet phase represented by the cylinder
hollow shafts 44 through a conduit 48 controlled by a
valve 50. In operation, ñuid of a lower temperature
center section (maintained as a rotary heat exchange
section below 212° F.).
(c) A merger phase section intermediate the hot and
than that of steam filling the processing chamber is sup
plied to the center portion 42 of each of the heat exchange 60 cool phase Where the moisture tapers olf from the cool
phase to the hot phase.
units 12. This, as is well known, causes condensation
As shown most clearly in FIGURES 2 and 5, the fabric
and provides a thin film of moisture on the exterior of the
heat exchange cylinder which is transferred by direct
A as it proceeds through the chamber comes into corn
contact to the material as it passes over these cylinders.
plete contact with the cool wet center portion of each
heat exchange unit with the selvedges located on the merg
As shown in FIGURE 6, it is contemplated that the
heat exchange units might be utilized without the heated
rollers 14.
In the construction illustrated there are five such units
indicated at 70a to 70e mounted in spaced apart rela
tionship with the material guiding rollers 142, 144, 146,
148, 150, 152, 154, 156, 158, 160, 162, 164, 166, so that
the material in part is guided by the rollers and in part
by the roller units 70a to 79e. This brings the outer
peripheral surfaces of each of the cooling units into
rolling contact with the material as it is being processed
er sections.
Preferably, in accordance with the invention, the
heated roller units 14 are supplied with heated ñuid so
that their exterior surfaces are controlled at a tempera
ture above 212° F. and up to or above 240° F. This en
sures that the surfaces of the rollers 14 are dry and due
to their higher temperatures, are adapted to exert heat
ing action to the material passing around each unit after
moisture has been alternately supplied by the heat ex
change units.
Accordingly, since the units 12 and 14 are arranged
in staggered relationship, a web of prepared textile ma
terial when fed through the entry 60 of the steam chamber
10 and alternately over the rollers 12, 14 as shown, will
be subjected to an alternate moistening and heating proc
ess which will in conjunction with the air-free steam con
siderably accelerate the chemical and physical reactions
required to complete the dyeing and/or discharging of
the prepared material.
high degree of heat conductivity with ñuid conduit mem
bers leading into and out of said body at opposite ends,
and partition means disposed within the interior of said
body in spaced apart relationship dividing the interior of
said body in the axial direction into three separate sec
tions of varying surface temperature under operating con
ditions, and being adapted to provide extra moisture by
direct supporting and rolling contact with the material
being processed, a plurality of rollers mounted within
As will be appreciated, the number of units 12 and 10 said chamber, means to heat said roller to temperatures
up to and slightly above 240° «F. and being adapted to pro
vide extra heat by direct supporting and rolling contact
the maximum requirements to which the textile material
with the material being processed, a plurality of material
is to be subjected, and as the units can be individually
14 or 170 and 270 initially installed can be varied to suit
controlled, a greater or lesser degree of moisture can be
applied by the heat exchange units 12, and a greater or
lesser `heating action can be performed by the heated
units 14.
This arrangement provides a great versatility in mois
supporting and guiding rollers mounted within said cham
ber, all of said heat exchange cylinder units and heated
rollers being mounted parallel and in spaced relationship
with each other and the said material guiding and sup
porting rollers within said chamber, and a source of steam
connected to said chamber adapted to supply a continuous
ture and temperature control as applied to air-free steam
ing of prepared textile materials which has not hitherto 20 ilow of saturated steam during all process times.
2. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said
been possible in the prior art structures available up to
heat exchange units are mounted for rotation within the
the present time.
said chamber.
I claim:
1. An apparatus for the controlled forming of supple
mentary moisture and the supply of supplementary heat 25
in the treating of prepared textile fabrics for the con
trolled acceleration and completion of the chemical and
physical reactions involved in the steaming process de
velopment comprising in combination a steaming process
chamber, a plurality of three~phase rotary heat exchange 30
units mounted within said chamber, each of said units con
sisting of a hollow cylindrical body of metal having a
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
Humphreys ___________ __ Aug. 27,
Nuttall ______________ _- Aug. 10,
Banbury ______________ __ Dec. 6,
Sjostrom _____________ __ June 22,
Jacoby ________________ _- June 9, 1953
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