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Патент USA US3025057

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March 13, 1962
Filed Oct. 11, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
ETC/‘I420 F. aes/vcwnz
March 13, 1962
Filed Oct. 11, 1960
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
210/420 F.
a 'rraP
United. htates Patent @Hice
Patented Mar. 13, 1.962
Kurt Reinfeid and Richard F. (Bbenchain, Pittsburgh, Pa.,
assignors to {toppers Company, Inc., a corporation of
Filed Get. 11, 1960, Ser. N . 61351
3 Claims. (Ci. 266--34)
This invention relates to apparatus for an oxygen steel
making converter, and more particularly, to apparatus for
opening in the hood and, once properly guided, the
lance is lowered to the desired position. Then the hood
rnounted clamp is closed about the lance to support and
restrain it positioning the ori?ce of the lance at the de
sired distance above the surface of the bath. As often
as 100 or more times per day during the oxygen blowing
periods it becomes necessary to change the relative posi
tion between the lance nozzle ori?ce and the top of the
bath, each time requiring the engagement and disengage
ment of the hood~rnounted clamp.
Unfortunately, during the repositioning of the lance,
the high velocity oxygen input must, of necessity, be
reduced considerably or completely shut off since during
force oxygen into contact with the surface of molten pig 15 this period the lance is substantially unrestrained against
vibration. Thus, each time the hood-mounted clamp is
iron in an oxygen converter as is required in conventional
released and then reengaged, the blowing operation is
steelmaking to eliminate certain chemical elements (sili
interrupted causing the timewise extension of this oper
con, manganese, sulfur, carbon and phosphorus) from
supporting a lance for supplying oxygen for such a con
It is typical in the art to use a long tube or lance to
ation and resulting in a marked decrease in ef?ciency.
the pig iron. The lance is usually inserted through an
An added disadvantage is that the openinU and closing
opening in the upper end of a closed bottom converter, 20
of the hood-mounted or otherwise independently mount
and a high velocity jet of substantially pure oxygen is
forced downwardly against the surface of the molten
metal in the converter from an ori?ce at the end of the
By ejecting the oxygen at velocities in the transonic
and supersonic ranees (velocities of Mach 2 are com
mon) the effect is to cause this oxygen to strike the sur
face of the bath and initiate reactions with the metalloid
impurities. These reactions in turn violently agitate the
ed clamp for each lance adjustment plus the maintenance
occasioned by frequently occurring clamp failures also
restrict the availability of the converter vessel itself for
the blowing operations.
Although some devices heretofore have mounted clamps
on structure other than the hood, in no case is the clamp
so arranged as to continuously accompany the lance sup
porting it through the repositioning thereof to obviate
reduction of the oxygen blast.
Also, any clamping or guiding devices placed at the
The violent agitation of the bath is due to the tem~
top of the hood must be cleared by the lance when it
perature and density differentials between that portion of
is withdrawn for charging or tapping. Therefore, the
the bath surface under the oxygen jet (primary reaction
height of the building housing the converter operations
area) and the rest of the bath. In the reaction zone,
must be increased in turn by the height of such clamping
temperatures close to the boiling point of iron prevail.
or guiding devices, a height of as much as 5 feet. The
Also, the evolution of CO is strongest in the immediate
expense occasioned thereby is a distinct drawback
vicinity of this reaction zone. As a result, the froth
to the use of such an arrangement.
and gases in the converter above the surface of the bath
it is therefore, an object of this invention to provide
are in a whirling turbulence. It is to be expected, as is
improved means for restraining and controlling the
in fact the case, that under the combined in?uences of 40 positioning
of an oxygen lance.
the reaction from the ejected oxygen blast and the buffet
It is another object of this invention to provide a guid
ing action of the churning gases in the converter, the
ing and restraining device for an oxygen lance to permit
lance will be subjected to forces tending to produce vio~
oxygen ?ow from the lance at full capacity throughout
lent rotating and rocking actions in the lance. These
the oxygen blowing operation.
actions induce such severe vibrations in the lance as to 45
An additional object of this invention is to provide
pose the problem of supporting the lance so as to oppose
equipment enabling a reduction in the
these forces and minimize the vibrations whereby to
height of the building required to house an oxygen steel
effectively restrain and control the lance during the blow
making operation.
ing operation.
Effective control of the lance during the blowing op
eration is desirable to permit accurate positioning of the
lance with reference to the surface of the molten metal.
This positioning is ditlicult, however, because the level
Still another object of this invention is to provide a
device for the restraint and control of an oxygen lance
in which the maintenance problem will be eliminated or
greatly reduced.
This invention provides a novel apparatus for continu
ously restraining and controlling an oxygen lance com—
prising an elevated support, elongated guide means for
ditions, frequent changes in the positioning of the lance
de?ning a substantially vertical path of travel for the
become necessary during each oxygen blowing period.
the guide means being pivotally attached to this
Apparatus for positioning and restraining the lance
support to provide for swinging movement thereof in a
heretofore has consisted of a Wire rope hoisting device,
a lance guide, and a clamp. The lance guide and the 60 horizontal direction, a lifting mechanism mounted on
these guide means, a guide carriage restrained by the
clamp are generally mounted on the top of the hood
means for vertical reciprocation relative thereto
above an opening therein. Alternatively, they have been
and a lance releasably af?xed to the guide carriage. The
mounted on some structure adjacent the converter but
lance moves with the guide carriage to which it is rigidly
completely independent of the lance itself as in the case
and the movement of the guide carriage in the
of the hood~mounted clamp. Since the lance has a Water
offers accurate control over the vertical
jacket thereabout and has hoses leading therefrom, the
positioning of the lance at any time.
eccentric force of these attachments to the lance prevent
In accordance with this invention, control of the lance
the lance from hanging with the axis of the lance verti
not hampered by clamping means mounted either at
cal. Therefore, in operation, the wire rope hoisting de
vice lowers the eccentrically supported lance until the 70 the point at which the lance passes through the hood
or otherwise independently mounted. The guide car
tip of the lance is engaged with the lance guide which
riage and the guide ways or tracks in which the guide
positions the end of the lance for passage through the
carriage travels serve to support the lance in a vertical
of the metal in the converter and the chemical analysis
of the metal vary. In response to these ?uctuating con
position against the eccentric force from the weight of
the hoses. These elements also oppose the rotation and
rocking of the lance under the buifeting action within
the converter While moving with the lance and continu
ously aligning and rigidly restraining it against vibration.
Thus, there is no need for shutting off or cutting back
the high velocity oxygen jet during the frequent lance
or cradle 18 is shown permanently mounted in tracks
33. However, it is but a simple expedient to permit
carriage 18 to accompany lance 17 even while lance 17
is not positioned for vertical motion. Thus, it may be
convenient for each spare lance to be supplied com
plete with a carriage permanently or semi-permanently
affixed thereto. A hinged portion of tracks 33 can be
provided having a hydraulic actuator to open it to permit
entry of carriage 18 and thereafter to retain the hinged
repositionings. As a result, a marked decrease in the
blowing time is effected with consequent increase in con
10 portion in closed position pending removal of carriage
verter tonnage output.
Also, since the mechanism supporting the lance is at
During the charging and tapping operations of the
a greater distance from the heat of the converter and
converter 11, the entire arrangement of guide tracks 33,
since it is necessary to unclamp the lance from the guide
guide carriage or cradle 18, and lance 17 with the ac
carriage only when a new lance is to be inserted, there
tuating mechanism therefor may be easily swung to one
is a marked decrease in the maintenance costs incurred
side or the other, the pivotal connections being so de
with the present device. Since the failure of hood
signed as to permit a swing of at least 90°. As is shown
mounted clamps usually occurs during the blowing op
in FIGURE 1, the load of the entire assemblage is trans
eration, the present improvement serves to decrease the
mitted to structural steel column 47 supported on girder
length of the blowing operation by the removal of these
48 which is in turn supported on columns 49 and 51
placed at some distance from the converter 11 to avoid
Other objects will
ci?cally pointed out in greater detail in the following
description wherein:
FIGURE 1 is an elevational view showing the posi
tioning of a preferred embodiment of this invention rela
tive to the converter;
FIGURE 2 is a section taken on line 2--2 of FIG
URE 1;
‘FIGURE 3 is an elevational view showing the guide
carriage-lance connection with the lower clamp pivoted '
to the open position, and
FIGURE 4 is a plan view showing the device of FIG
URE 1 swung to one side to permit charging or tapping
of the converter.
As shown in FIGURE 1, this invention may be ad
vantageously used with the closed bottom converter 11
in an oxygen steelmaking process. This invention may
also be used for the steelmaking process in other types
of furnaces as, for example, in an open hearth furnace.
Furnace or converter 11 as illustrated herein is a con
ventional closed-bottom steelmaking oxygen vessel hav
ing an outer shell 12 with a basic refractory lining there
danger from slag and metal spills at yard level. Thus,
the entire support for lance 17 is elevated or spaced
a safe distance from converter 11.
In addition to the
aspect of safety, the proposed mounting of lance 17 re
quires less room on the operating floor 52 and also at
yard level.
The mechanism for lifting lance 17 together with car
riage 1% is best shown in FTGURE 4. A mounting
plate 53 is provided as a support for the actuating mecha
nism including motor 5-1 coupled to motor reducer 56
which in turn drives hoist drum 57 to raise and lower
lance 17. Since lance 17 is placed substantially at the
center of gravity of carriage 18 and chain yoke 58 picks
up at the center of gravity of the carriage-lance assem
bly, the arrangement shown permits an in-line lifting
and lowering of lance 17 as well as in-line restraint and
control thereof. The driving mechanism being affixed to
mounting plate 53 moves with the guide tracks 33, car
riage 18 and lance 17 to whichever position is assumed
by pivoting the assembly about pins 44 and 46. Al
though not shown in the drawings, the guide tracks 33
are interconnected by bracing members to keep them
parallel to each other and provide stiffer guide means.
for composed of magnesia ramming mix 13 and tar
bonded dolo-magnesia bricks 114.
Auxiliary equipment includes hood 16 for removing 45 In operation, once a new lance has been inserted into
place in recess 19 and clamped ?rmly thereto by clamps
fumes and smoke from converter 11, and lance 17.
21, the lance 17 is rigidly held in substantially vertical
Lance 17 is protected in a conventional manner by a
in spite of the weight of hoses 59 exerting an
water jacket, but for the sake of simplicity this structure
eccentric force theeron. In preparation for the blow
has not been shown.
ing operation, once converter 11 has been charged, the
In accordance with this invention, clamping means
to continuously accompany lance 17 is supplied, lance 50 entire assemblage of lance 17, carriage 18, and tracks
33 with the super-imposed lifting mechanism are swung
17 being rigidly clamped to guide carriage or cradle 18
over converter 11 and lance 17 is lowered through open
by placing lance 17 in semi-cylindrical recess 19 formed
ing 61 in hood 16 until the end of lance 17 is properly
in cradle 18 and holding it in place by means of arcuate
over the bath. The lowering is, of course,
clamps 21. Clamps 21 are pivotally supported by pro 55
effected by playing out wire cable 62 from the hoist
jections 22 which are formed or welded on the body
drum 57 which lowers carriage 18 with lance 1'7 rigidly
of cradle 18. When each clamp 21 is swung about pins
af?xed thereto. Whenever repositioning of lance 17 is
23 into the closed position, tongue-like projection 24
required within converter 11, carriage 18 is moved carry
formed on the end of clamp 21 Swings between verti
ing lance 17 with it to the new position and remaining
cally spaced projections 26 and 27. Wedge 28 is then
at all times rigidly ?xed to lance 17 ?rmly restraining
forced through slot 29 in each projection 26, through
it against the forces acting thereon to permit continuous
opening 31 in tongue 2.4 and slot 32 in each projection
27 to urge arcuate clamp 21 forceably against lance 17.
Since there is at least a four-foot spread between the
arcuate portions 21 the connection between lance 17
and guide carriage 18 is a very rigid one.
Carriage 13 is adapted for vertical motion on struc
tural steel guide tracks 33 by means of a series of ?anged
wheels 34 and 36, which run on rails 37 and 38. Al
though not shown, the weight of carriage 18 and lance
blowing of the oxygen blast throughout the entire re
positioning operation.
The typical oxygen steelmaking blow heretofore has
lasted about 15 to 30 minutes, with as much as 3 or 4
minutes of this time being due to the lengthening of the
blowing time as a result of oxygen in-put cessation or
cutback during the repositioning of the lance. It may
readily be appreciated that the present arrangement for
17 can be partially offset by the use of a counter-bal 70 continuously, rigidly restraining the lance 17 through the
ance. Guide tracks 33 are a?ixed in a substantially
entire period of utilization of the lance, whereby no in
vertical position by means of struts 39 and 41 which are
terruption of the oxygen blast need occur, will effect
pivotally connected to bearing brackets 42 and 43 by
additional economies in this new art of steelmaking.
means of pins 44 and 46.
the present invention contemplates an in-line
In the present illustration of the invention, carriage 75
arrangement for the control of the lance, should it be
desired to use a cluster of lances some small eccentricity
may be required to facilitate arranging the cluster.
In the present invention, the movement of lance 17
being limited to a given path by carriage 18 and tracks 33,
limit switches (not shown) may readily be employed to
tracks, a carriage mounted in said guide tracks for verti
cal movement relative thereto, means on said carriage for
rigidly a?ixing the upper end of said lance to said car
riage throughout repositionings of said lance in said fur
nace during the blowing cycle, and means interconnect~
ing said carriage with said lifting mechanism for vertical
control the extent of downward movement of carriage
repositioning of said carriage, lance and a?ixing means
1S and lance 17. Also, in the event that wire cable 62
along said guide ways.
should break, a positive stop (not shown) to prevent the
2. Apparatus for introducing ?uid into a furnace com
downward movement of carriage 18 and lance 17 may be
provided. The present invention readily lends itself to 10 prising in combination, an oxygen converter, an elevated
support, a pair of vertical disposed interconnected guide
the application of such a safety measure due to the
ways offset from said support, means for pivotally mount
?xed vertical path of movement. Free-falling lances have
ing said guide ways on said support for swinging move
been known to drop into the bath still spewing oxygen
resulting in the burning through of the refractories and 15 ment, a lifting mechanism mounted atop said guide ways,
a lance having a substantially rectilinear axis, a carriage
shell with consequent loss of metal and delays in opera
rigidly a?ixed to the upper end of said lance through
tions. The possibility of loss of life from such an acci~
out repositionings thereof in said furnace, said carriage
dent is sutliciently imminent to warrant the exercise of
being mounted in said guide ways for vertical reciproca
these safety measures for this reason alone.
Further, while the lance is inserted within the converter 20 tion relative thereto, and means for suspending said car
riage from said lifting mechanism with the center of
a build-up of spatter occurs thereon. Such a build-up
often becomes so large and unwieldy as to interfere with
the blowing operations. In the prior art lance suspen
sion systems (eccentric hang from wire cables) as the
gravity of the carriage and lance assembly substantially
in line with the application of force by said lifting mecha
buildup reached troublesome proportions it becomes 25 3. Apparatus for introducing a high velocity jet of ?uid
into a furnace comprising in combination with an oxygen
necessary to remove the build-up material by pounding or
by the use of a cutting torch. The present device, on the
contrary, lends itself to the installation of a vibrator or
converter, an elongated lance having a substantially rec
rapping device (not shown) to apply su?’icient vibration
tilinearaxis, an elevated substantially vertical support,
a pair of rigidly interconnected vertically disposed tracks,
solidi?ed, permanent build-up.
and pivotable therewith, a carriage having ?anged wheels
to the rigidly supported lance while in place to shake 30 means for pivotally mounting said tracks parallel to said
support, a lifting mechanism mounted atop said tracks
loose the material striking the lance before it becomes
interposed between said tracks for vertical rolling move
ment relative thereto, means on said carriage rigidly ai?x
tion in which the entire assembly of carriage, lance, guide
track, and lifting mechanism are pivoted to the side, it 35 ing the upper end of said lance to said carriage through
out repositionings thereof, the center of gravity of the car
may be seen that the lateral movement of such entire
riage and lance assembly being substantially in line with
assembly on a mono-rail, for example, is equally feasible.
the application of force by said lifting mechanism.
It should be understood, of course, that the foregoing
disclosure relates to only a preferred embodiment of the
References Cited in the ?le of this patent
invention and that numerous modi?cations or alterations 40
may be made therein without departing from the spirit
Although the present disclosure shows a lance installa
and the scope of the invention as set forth in the ap
pended claims.
McFeaters ____________ __ Feb. 4, 1958
Great Britain ________ .._ Feb. 19, 1925
Great Britain ________ __ Oct. 13, 1954
France ______________ __ June 30, 1958
What is claimed:
1. Apparatus for introducing a high velocity jet of fluid 45
into a furnace comprising in combination with an oxygen
converter a support, a lance having a substantially recti
linear axis, vertically disposed interconnected guide tracks,
means for pivotally attaching said guide tracks to said
support, a lifting mechanism supported by said guide 50
Jour. of Metals, pp. 396400, March ‘1953.
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