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Патент USA US3025361

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March 13, 1962
E. P. G. WRIGHT ET A1.
3,025,351
EQUIPMENT FOR PERFORMING A COMPLEX SEQUENCE OF' OPERATIONS
Filed March 18. 1954
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March 13, 1962
E. P. G. WRIGHT ET A1.
3,025,351
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Filed March 18, 1954
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Filed March 18 , 1954
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March 13, 1962
E. P. G. WRIGHT ETAL
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Filed March 18. 1954
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March 1.3, 1962
E. P. G. WRIGHT ET AL
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EQUIPMENT F'OR PERFORMING A COMPLEX SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS
Filed March 18 . 1954
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March 13, 1962
E. P. G. WRIGHT ET AL
3,025,351
EQUIPMENT FOR PERFORMING A COMPLEX SEQUENCE OF' OPERATIONS
Filed March 18 . 1954
16 Sheets-Sheet 7
Attorney
March 1.3, 1962
E. P. G. WRIGHT ETAL
3,025,35Í
EQUIPMENT F‘OR PERFORMING A COMPLEX SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS
Filed March 18 . 1954
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March 1:3, 1962
E. P. G. WRIGHT ET AL
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EQUIPMENT FOR PERFORMING A COMPLEX SEQUENCE OE OPERATIONS
Filed March 18 , 1954
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March 13, 1962
E. P. G. WRIGHT ET AL
EQUIPMENT FOR PERFORMING A' COMPLEX S
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EQUENCE oF OPERATIONS
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E. P. G. WRIGHT ETAL
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EQUIPMENT FOR PERFORMING A COMPLEX SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS
Filed March 18 , 1954
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March 13, 1962
E, P, G, WRIGHT ET AL
3,025,351
EQUIPMENT 'FOR PERFORMING A COMPLEX SEQUENCE OF' OPERATIONS
Filed March 18 . 1954
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Filed March 18 . 1954.
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March 13, 1962.
E. P. G. WRIGHT E1: AL
3,025,351
EQUIPMENT FOR PERFORMING A COMPLEX SEQUENCE OF' OPERATIONS
Filed March 18 . 1954
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IN VEN TORS.
BY
¿Í P6. Wß/â//ï
J E/CE
Attorney
Ünited States Patent Ólitice
i
1
3,025,351
Patented Mar. 13, 1962
2
3,025,351
EQUIPMENT FOR PERFORMING A COMPLEX
SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS
Esmond Philip Goodwin Wright and Joseph Rice, Lon
don, England, assignors to International Standard Elec
tric Corporation, New York, N.Y.
Filed Mar. 18, 1954, Ser. No. 417,107
Claims priority, application Great Britain Mar. 20, 1953
6 Claims. (Cl. 179--7.1)
The present invention relates to equipment 4for per
forming a complex sequence of operations, withthe aid
quences of operations involved in the storage and re
transmission of impulse trains, and means in said con
trol circuit for causing said recording means to record
on said store a succession of binary numbers represent
ing the successive stages of progress of the sequences of
operations involved in said storage and re-transmission.
According to the invention there is still further pro
vided impulse storage and re-transmission equipment
which comprises a store with which is associated record
10 ing and reading means, means for causing a scanning
operation between said store and said recording and
reading means, a control circuit which is `associated with
said recording and reading means and which is tempor
ment for performing a complex sequence of operations 15 arily associated with said store on each scanning of said
store by said recording and readingmeans. means in_said
which comprises a store in which intelligence can be
control circuit responsive to the reception of digits to
» serially recorded, recording means for recording intelli
be stored and re-transmitted to cause said recording
gence element by element on said store, reading means
means to make recordings on said store representative
arranged to read recorded intelligence element by ele
of said digits, means in said control circuit for initiating
ment, a control circuit associated with said recording 20 and controlling- the re-transmission of said digits as re
and reading means and arranged to control said sequence
ceived, means in said control-circuit for causing said
of operations, and means in said control circuit for caus
recording means to make recordings on said store which
ing said recording‘means to record a succession of bi
indicates the process of the complex sequence of opera
nary numbers representing the successive stages of prog
tions
involved in the preception and re-transrnission of
ress of said sequence to be recorded on said store.
25 said digits and means in said control circuit `arranged to
According to the invention there is further provided
be controlled in respect of subsequent operations in said
equipment for performing «a complex sequence of op
sequence by said progress recordings in said store each
erations, which comprises a store, recording means, read
time said control circuit is temporarily associated there
ing means, means for causing a scanning operation be
with.
tween said store and said recording and reading means 30
The term “store” as used in this specification means a
respectively, a control circuit associated with said re
device in which intelligence can be recorded-by creating
cording and reading means and arranged to control said
internal strains in the material of the store, and in which
sequence of operations, means in said control circuit
stored intelligence or predetermined portions thereof can
for causing said recording means to record in said store
be detected by detecting the state of the strain in the ma
information representing the progress of said sequence 35 terial
or in corresponding portions thereof.
'
of operations at intervals during said sequence, means
Examples
of
internal
strain
which
are
used
to
store
in said control circuit responsive to progress informa
intelligence are magnetisations of either one of two
tion read by said reading means from said store at inter
polarities, as in the magnetic drum, tape or wire, or in the
vals during said sequence of operations, and means in
magnetic matrix, electrificationsof either one of
said control circuit controlled by said progress infor 40 static
two polarities, as in the ferroelectric storage matrix, elec
mation responsive means to control successive portions
tric charges of either one of two polarities, as in the cath
of said sequence of operations.
v
ode raytube storage device, and compression waves in
According to the invention there is further provided
acoustic delay lines, such as mercury delay' lines and
equipment for performing a plurality of like comp-lex se
magnetostrictive delay lines.
quences of operations, which comprises a number ,of
The term “store” as used in the present specification
stores, recording «means and reading means for said stores, 45 and in the claims appended thereto should therefore be
means for causing a scanning operation between said
interpreted to include any device falling with the terms
stores and said recording and reading means respec
of this deñnition, and in any case includes all the exam
tively, whereby said stores -are scanned successively by
ples listed in the preceding paragraph.
of stores.
,
According to the invention there is provided equip
said recording and reading means, a control circuit as
The invention will now be described with reference to
sociated with said recording and reading means and ar 50
the
accompanying drawings -Which show an impulse re
ranged to control said sequences of operations, means in
generator
embodying the present invention, and in
said control circuit for causing said recording means to
which:
f
record information representing the progress of a se
FIG.
1
is
a
schematic
layout of the equipment.
quence of operations momentarily being performed in
55
FIG.
2
is
one
of
«a
number
of communication channels
the store momentarily being scanned by said recording
served by the equipment, together with a number of elec
means, means in said control circuit responsive to prog
tronic gate circuits which are individual to that chan
ress information read by said reading means, and
nel. These gate circuits act, in etîect, as a finder switch.
means in said control circuit controlled by said progress
The figure ’also includes certain additional control equip
information responsive means to control the correspond
ment.
ing sequence of operations, whereby said control circuit 60
FIGS. 3-8 show the remainder of the control equip
ment by which access lto the storage is obtainable and
by which the digits to be regenerated are stored in lthe
dynamic store and are thereafter regenerated.
FIGS. 9 to 11 show explanatory waveforms encoun
vided impulse storage and re-transmission equipment 65 tered
in the circuit to be described.
which comprises a store inwhich intelligence can be
FIGS.
l2 to 14 show selected parts of the circuit
serially recorded, recording means for recording intelli
“translated” to more detailed circuits.
gence element by element on said store, reading means
FIGS. l5 and 16 show sutiicient det-ail of a static
`arranged to read recorded intelligence element by ele
magnetic
matrix store to understand how the invention
70
ment, a control circuit associated with said recording and
may be used therewith.
'
,
reading means and -arranged to control the complex se
FIG. 17 shows sutlicient detail of a stat-ic ferroeleetric
is arranged to control said like sequences in portions,
portions of different sequences being controlled succes
sively by said control circuit.
According to the invention there is still further pro
3,025,351
3
matrix store to understand how the invention may be
used therewith.
Tlze Storage Equipment
In the embodiment `of the invention which has been
described, the form of dynamic storage equipment used
4
always being associated with the same communication
channel. However, as the regenerator is only used for the
receipt and subsequent retransmission of data, which oc
cupies only a short period of time, whereas the com
munication channel is in use throughout the connection,
this would mean that the storage was used ineñiciently.
is a magnetic drum or disc such as has been used in elec
trical brains as a storage device. It consists, for exam
ple, of a hollow brass drum having a magnetic skin on
Therefore the number of stores provided is less than the
number of communication channels, and arrangements
when numbers are recorded they are conveniently re
ple 100 conversational circuits could be associated with
are provided to temporarily associate any store and any
its cylindrical surface. This skin provides a number of 10 channel requiring regeneration. The recordings effected
on the store when seized for use are such that on future
closely-spaced peripheral tracks, with each of which there
excursions of the store under the read head the control
is associated a recording head and a reading head. Each
equipment “recognises” that that store has been seized
track provides a number of separate stores. In the ar
for use by, i.e. has been temporarily allocated to, a par
rangement to be described there is also provided an auxil
iary recording head whose purpose will be described later. 15 ticular channel.
'The stores of one particular peripheral track form a
The drum is mounted on a spindle rotatable at high speed
group associated with a group of conversational circuits
by an electric motor.
which may be, say, ten times greater in number than
Intelligence is recorded in the form of successive un
the number of stores. A single common interconnection
spaced longitudinal magnetisations of either one of two
and control circuit is provided between the group of
kinds, which can conveniently be designated “0” or
conversational circuits and the track. In a typical exam
“zero” and “1” or “.One.” Hence it will be seen that
10 stores. However, in the interests of simplicity it will
be assumed in the succeeding description that the stores
are possible. When a recording is to be altered this is
done by recording on top of the former recording, i.e. 25 of a track are available to any one of 10 channels.
The time charts of FIGS. 9, l0 and ll show how a sec
by the magnetic recording technique known as overprint
tion of track forming a store and comprising 48 elements
ing.
is used for the association of a communication channel
Each track is divided into a number of separate lengths
with a store, and for the storage and regeneration of
of track. How this is effected will be described later,
it being clear that there is no physical indication of this 30 digital impulse trains during a series of excursions of the
store under the read head. The elements are numbered
division on the actual track. The recording and read
1 to 48 and FIG. 9 shows how they are grouped, these
ing heads are spaced from one another, and two separated
elements being used, some singly and some in groups,
lengths of track form a single storage section, or dynamic
for various purposes. When a group of successive ele
store. When the reading head is reading one length of
track of a store, the recording head is in operative rela 35 ment positions are used for the same purpose, that group
of element positions clearly form a storage portion within
tion with the other length of track of that store. Thus
corded in binary digital code although other code forms
the dynamic store.
the recorded intelligence is read off, and re-recorded in
a corresponding position, this being effected with each
As has been pointed out above,
each element is read off and re-recorded either with or
without modification at a definite position in a repetitive
modification of the recording as is necessary. Systems
of this type are described in our co-pending applications 40 cycle of time positions determined by the rotation of the
drum.
Serial Nos. 289,383, 289,384, 289,386, filed May 22,
The time pulses generated from the element track in
1952, application Serial No. 289,384 having been aban
the various element positions are used as controls for
electronic gates, and are identified by the prefix T. Where
provision of two separated lengths of track per store,
a single length of track could be used, in which case `a 45 an element forms part of one of the groups illustrated on
doned. It is contemplated that, as an alternative to the
FIG. 9, this prefix Vis followed by the group reference.
compound recording and reading circuit would be em-
The prefix T, or T followed by a group reference, is itself
followed by the element number. Thus gate G16, FIG.
ing continuous rotation of the drum, but at any time the
4 has a 'control TL24, which indicates a time pulse in
intelligence read off can be routed to outside equipment.
Additional to the tracks on which intelligence is stored 50 group L covering element No. 24.
As has been pointed out, the element pulse cycle is
there is a track having a recording per element position
also used in known manner Áto derive three cycles of nar
on all storage tracks. Associated with this track, known
row pulses, with their pulses staggered, each being one
as the “clock track,” there is a read head known as the
third of the duration of an element pulse. These narrow
“clock head” from which is derived a pulse per element
position. As will be indicated this clock pulse cycle is 55 pulses are called t1, t2, and t3, and all three occur once
ployed. The reading ofï and recording is continuous dur
used to derive a set of three narrow pulses per element
pulse. A further additional track has a recording at the
per element.
first element position of each storage section.
the elements of a ‘track are “nose-to-tail,” recording be
The above description has already made it clear that
This
ing effected by overprinting on the existing recording, if
track is known as the “marker track,” and has a read
head known as the “marker head” associated with it. 60 any. When a store is empty, i.e. is idle, its elements 19
and 20 are positively energised, i.e. have “ones” recorded
This gives a pulse cycle which defines the commence
ment of each of the storage sections. These two pulse
therein. The remainder of the elements of the R group
are counting the drum revolutions, as will be described
cycles, the clock pulse cycle and the marker pulse cycle,
are used to control all operations.
General Description
The form of intelligence storage equipment described
_may conveniently be termed a memory regenerator. It
hereinbelow.
65
General Arrangement
At this point a brief recapitulation of some of the fore
going description Will be useful. Each track on the drum
consists of a number of individual storage sections, each
1s an electrical impulse regenerator having a number of
stores which are available for use by a number of com 70 storage section consisting of 48 elements. In the pres
ent arrangement two such storage sections form a single
munjcation channels.
dynamic store which can be associated with any one of
The simplest way to associate these communication
a number of communication channels. In the interest of
channels, which are conversational circuits, with the
simplicity of description it is assumed that ten channels
memory regenerator is to provide the latter with the
are
served by the stores of a track. The controlling cir
75
same number of stores as there are channels, each store
3,025,351
5
cuit arrangements have a control circuit common to all
stores of each track.
One single section of the track will be considered sepa
rately. The iirst element of a section is used as a free
or busy indicator, and the next group of elements are
each characteristic of one of the channels to Which the
track section is available. This group of elements forms
an identity-recording storage portion. In the present case,
therefore, elements 2 to 11, designated CCZ to CC11,
6
auxiliary head records a mark in the first element, thus
busying the section. In the arrangement described the
auxiliary recording head functions at time positions T31.
This choice of the position at which this occurs is purely
arbitrary, and is in fact largely a matter of mechanical
convenience. At the end of the excursion (PN1 is still
being considered) time position T48 zeroises the entire
control circuit so that it is available for use by the next
store. As has been indicated, the possibility of con
are assigned to the channels 1 to 10` respectively.
10 fusion is prevented by the nature of the recordings made
The control circuit for the track includes a multi-stable
in PNl. These recordings indicate (a) that the storevis
register F14 which has as many positions as there are
busy and (b) the identity of the channel for which it
channels served. A multi-stable register is fundamentally
has been seized.
similar to an ordinary electronic counter except that it can
At the beginning of the next excursion, represented in
be stopped in any position by associated control means. 15
line PNZ, see FIG. 9-~the iirst element is read oif and
It is controlled by pulses derived from the clock track on
re-recorded as a mark element. Since there are two `track
the drum. These clock pulses, which occur irrespective of
sections per store `this second excursion commences after
whether any recording has occurred in the element con
the drum has turned through half a complete revolu
cerned, are prefixed with the letter T, and letters identify
tion. As before, the multi-stable register starts its cycle,
ing the group of elements, if any to which they belong. 20 but the mark at TCCS is read oif and stops it in its
Hence when no channel requires the services of a dy
fourth position, that for the channel which seized the
namic store, pulses TCC2Í to 11 drive the multi-stable
store. Hence on each excursion the multi-stable register
register through its cycle. It stays at its last position,
may be said to scan until it reaches the position for the
“calling” communication channel. This mark is also re
TCC11 in the present arrangement, until pulse TCCZ for
the next section on that track occurs, when it functions 25 recorded. Thus on each excursion the control circuit
for the next section. At first sight this could lead to con
“reads” the recorded intelligence and sets itself accord
fusion, but the nature of the recordings made on the
ingly. During subsequent excursions, the marks in po
respective track sections are such that this is not so.
sitions 1 and 5 are continually read off and re-recorded.
It has already been stated that to each channel served
However, these excursions are counted in sections 15 to
there is allotted one TCC time position. That channel can 30 19. On Ithe excursion represented by line PNZ, mark
only seize a store for regeneration during its TCC time
is recorded at position 14, and positions 15 to 19 are re
position. During the normal operation, i.e. during scan
corded as spaces. At position 20, “mark” is re-record
ning by the multi-stable register in search of a “calling”
ed, however. Element positions 21 to 47 are recorded as
channel, the section is all at “space” or “zero” except for
spaces, and a control mark is recorded at position 48.
sections 19 and 20, designated R19 and L20. The reasons
The clock pulse T48 causes a control relay to operate
for this will become apparent in the course of the de
to close the forward loop, as Will be explained later.
scription.
At T14 of excursion PNZ the channel was itself busied
by another relay to be explained.
Brief Operational Description
On successive excursions until the first digital pulse is
A brief operational description of the entire inter-con 40
received, this operation continues, i.e. marks are read
necting equipment will iirst be given after which the de.
off and re-recorded in positions 1, 5, 14, Z0 and 48.
tailed operation of the circuits will be explained. It is
therefore to be understood that, Where a statement is
made that a certain operation is performed, the manner
of performing this operation will be set forth in the de
tailed description.
Seizure of a Dynamic Store
It will be assumed that channel No. 4 requires a store
for storage and regeneration purposes.
These excursions are counted in binary code on element
positions 15 to 19 but this count has no effect. The
counting has no effect at this juncture but it does no
45 harm and so there is no point in using extra circuitry
to disable it. The counting is shown in FIG. 10 on the
lines indicated as PNS to PNS. On each excursion the
count is effected by reading all recorded elements of the
counting portion and reversing all up to and including
The “calling”
the first space element, after which re-recording contin
channel applies a condition, which is called a “calling
condition” to the control circuit which causes the multi
ues with no change.
stable register to stop its scanning in the time position
allocated to channel No. 4, that is, at TCCS. This causes
the re-recording in element No. 5 to be effected as a mark
(or one) element. The multi-stable register continues
As can be seen such an operation
adds “one” to a recorded binary number.
As will be
clear, the counting of excursions is really counting the
number of half-revolutions of `the drum.
55
Receipt of First Digit
standing at the position for channel 4 while this section
of the seized store is passing under the reading and re
cording heads. As has been pointed out above, it func
It is assumed that the first digital impulse is received
in `time for the excursion represented by line PN6. On
this excursion the recordings in element positions 14 to
tions for the next store when this passes under the heads.
19 areV deleted, i.e. the re-recording or" these elements oc
60
At the same time that scanning by the multi-stable reg
curs as “spaces” “Spaces” are also recorded in posi
ister is stopped, the “calling” condition on the channel is
tion 2i), positions 2144, 25-30 and 31. The receipt of
disabled. This ensures that the channel does not seize a
the first impulses causes a mark to be recorded at posi
number of stores. The excursion past the heads during
tion 32, position 1 of portion D1 of the section of the
which this occurs leaves the track magnetized, as indi
seized store. This indicates that the first impulse has
65
cated in line PNl-see FIG. 9.
been received. Positions 33 to 47 are re-recorded as
“spaces” and 48 as a mark in a manner to be explained.
It is necessary to ensure that the store which has been
The digital impulses are long compared with individu
seized does not become seized by any of channels 1 to 3
al excursions, so each such impulse will persit for several
on the next excursion, i.e. by channels whose position in
the time cycle is before that of the channel for which 70 such excursions. The excursions during which the iirst
impulse persists are counted in portion R of the track
that section of the seized store has been seized and marked
section, that is in element positions 15 to 19. If the im
with lthe identity of the “calling” channel. For this pur
pose the auxiliary recording head, mentioned above, is
used. It operates at a time position in the cycle after all
the channel element positions.
pulse being received, a break impulse, is too long, this
is indicated by a mark being recorded in position 19,
When it operates this 75 which when read off causes forced release of the circuit
with restoration to normal of the track section. Thus
3,025,351
7
cording so produced in element 19 is read by the control
circuit as an instruction to cause forced release.
mark is recorded in position 31, which position is desig
In this case it is assumed that the impulse has the nor
nated SCM, i.e. “Special Chalk Mark.” This mark per
sists while the impulse is being sent, and its presence is
used to make certain that only “one” is added to D1 for
mal length, the counting of excursions represented on
lines PN7, PN8 and PN9 timing its duration and the
excursion represented on line PN10 being the first ex
cursion which ñnds that the impulse has ended. This
each impulse sent. The addition of “one” is effected in the
usual manner, i.e. by reversing all elements of D1 up t0
causes a mark to be recorded at position 14 and the
and including the ñrst space. During subsequent excur
sions of this impulse, counting continues in S, but no
other change occurs-apart from any recording in D2
for the second digit. This counting is shown in excursions
represented on lines PNZl to 24, FIG. 1l, in which there
is no second digit recording shown.
recordings in positions 15 to 19 to be deleted. On the
excursion represented on 1ine PN11 counting in R re
commences and continues until the second digital im
pulse is received. This count times the make condition
of the channels, for a purpose which will be clear in
due course.
in portion D1 (positions 32-35). This is done by add
This does not need to be de
scribed, however. During the ñrst excursion of the re
generated impulse, a mark is recorded at position 25,
positions 26 to 30 being recorded as spaces.
To record that impulse retransmission is in progress, a
break is so long that a fault may be presumed, the re
The `second digital impulse is assumed to arrive in the
excursion represented on line PN12, and it is recorded
8
counting in R, as usual.
the duration of the break is timed by counting the num
ber of excursions of the store under the head; if the
At the end of the retransmitted impulse, position 27 is
recorded as a space, and as a result of this, element 31
20 is recorded as a space, element 48 is recorded as a mark,
ing one to the number, “one” in this case, already stored
in that portion. The usual count of excursions for tim
and the impulse is ended at time T48. On the next excur
sion represented on line PN25, the recording in S is
erased, i.e. re-recorded as all spaces.
ing the duration for which a digital impulse persists
The second impulse is retransmitted in the same man
takes place in element positions 1549 during excursions
represented on lines PN13 to PN15. Then the digital 25 ner, one being added to D1 as before. This occurs
during excursions represented on lines PN26 to PN29.
impulse ends, causing operations as before.
During the excursion represented on line PN28, the auxil
In the present example it is assumed that the ñrst dig
iary recorder already mentioned is operated to cause a
mark to be recorded in element position 12, to indicate
timing the period between impulses, which is effected by 30 that the impulse being retransmitted is the last one of a
digit. This occurs when the circuit detects that all of D4
counting the excursions between impulses. This count
is at “mar .” On the next excursion element 13 also
takes place in portion R (element positions 15 to 19)
receives a mark, which is also recorded during the excur
during excursions represented on lines PN16 to PN20.
sion represented on line PN30. S indicates that the im
The inter-digital pause is assumed to be present when a
mark has been recorded in position 17. On the excur 35 pulse duration has elapsed, and this causes element 48 to
be recorded as mark and also causes the impulse to end.
sion during which this happens, marks are recorded in
positions 20 and 21. The control circuit then assumes
Inter-Digital Pause Timing
a condition in which the received digit can be retrans
After a digit has been completely retransmitted, the
mitted on the forward loop.
The stored digit in D1 is re-recorded as its comple 40 inter-digital pause is timed, the excursions during which
it lasts being counted in portion S. The interdigital pause
ment for the purpose of retransmitting it over the for
lasts for at least 36 excursions, and as the record of 4
ward loop, as will be explained, i.e. all binary digits are
for the last digit is left in S the pause ends when S has
reversed. Any digital impulses received after this are
counted up to 40;
now routed by the control circuit to portion D2 (elc
On the first excursion of the inter-digital pause, ele
ment positions D36-D39). After the count as explained
ment position 31 is recorded as a space. From this ex
in the paragraph above which determined that the inter
cursion until the excursion represented on line PNGS all
digital pause had occurred, element positions 15 to 18 are
that occurs is that one more is added to the count in S
re-recorded as “spaces,” (ie. the count is wiped out) but
for each excursion.
19 is recorded as a “mark,” and remains as a mark un
When the “mark” was put in position 28 during the ex
til the next digit is received. This ensures that there are
50 cursion represented on line PN26, a control (G107, FIG.
no spurious operations of the circuit.
6, for F10-2) operated, and a further control (GIII,
On reception of the ñrst impulse of the second digit,
it is 2. Since the equipment cannot “know” in advance
that this is so, it detects the fact that the digit ends by
FIG. 5, for F9) operates when a mark is recorded in posi
“spaces” are recorded throughout R (i.e. in positions 15
tio-n 30. These controls will be explained later, and
to 19). The receipt of the second digit is identical to
together
they show that the correct cycle for that digit has
that of the first, except that it is recorded in D2, as routed
been
completed.
When the excursion represented by line
55
by the control circuit, as will be explained. The third
PN66 occurs, element 12 goes to “space,” and during
digit is recorded in D3, and so on.
the excursion represented by line PN67, element 13 goes
Retransmission of the First Digit
to “space” Position 20 also goes to “space,” which indi
cates that the íirst digit has been sent, while position
Impulse transmission over the forward loop will now
occur in a manner to be explained, and as each impulse is 60 21 goes to “mar .” This indicates to the control circuit
that the next digit to be sent is the second recorded digit.
sent, “one” is added to the number in D1 in a manner
This excursion also erases the count in S.
to be explained, so that, when all elements of D1 are
During the inter-digital pause, as has been indicated,
other digits can be received and stored. The second digit
Each regenerated impulse starts at T48 of an excursion
and lasts for four excursions, which excursions are counted 65 will now be emitted from the store in a similar manner to
the first, being issued under control of D2.
in the usual manner, but in portion S, i.e. in element posi
The routing of the received digits to their places on the
tions 25 to 30. When a digit is sent, its record in portion
section is controlled by counters C1, C2, and C3 in the
L, i.e. positions 20 to 24, is erased.
control circuit controlled by intelligence read oiî the
At T48 of the excursion which starts the regenerated
impulse, i.e. during PN21, the forward loop, shown at 70 L group of elements of the track which effects this by
controlling the recording device. One counter C1 causes
T01 in FIG. l is broken, as will be explained, and ele
“mark,” the digit will have been completely retransmitted.
ment 48 is re-recorded as a space.
This shows that an
routing of received digits to the appropriate portions of
the store, stepping at the end of each digit, a second
counter C2 is used to determine Whether retransmission
stored in portion D2 (element positions 36 to 39), with 75 can occur (i.e. is the digit all in, is the inter-digital pause
impulse is being retransmitted. During succeeding ex
cursions the next digit can be received, its impulses being
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