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Патент USA US3025727

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_ March 20, >1962
H. w. cHRlsTr-:NsoN -
3,025,717
TRANSMISSION
original Filed Deo. '9, 1955
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ATTORNEY
March 20, 1962
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3,025,717
TRANSMISSION
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original Filed Dec. 9, 1955
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PESU/@
VENTCR
BY
ATTORNEY
United States Patent O ” ice
3,025,717
Patented Mar. 20, 1962
2
1
FIGURE 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the control
system.
3,025,717
TRANSMHSSIGN
Howard W. Christenson, Indianapolis, ind., assigner to
General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Mich., a corpo
ration of Delaware
Continuation of application Ser. No. 552,038, Dec. 9,
1955. This application July 8, 1960, Ser. No. 42,462
29 Claims; (Cl. 74--645)
FIGURE 2 is a curve of the pressure regulation ob
tained with one form of the invention.
`
FIGURE 3 is a curve of the regulated pressure with an
other form of the invention.
FIGURE 4 is a curve of the regulated pressure wi-th an
other form of the invention.
FlGURlE 5 is a diagrammatic View of the modified hy
This invention relates to a multiratio transmission and 10 draulic control system in accordance with the invention.
more particularly to a hydraulic control system for a multi
ratio transmission. This is a continuation of the appl-i
cant’s prior application S.N. 552,038, tiled ‘December 9,
1955, now abandoned.
FIGURE 6 shows a curve of the pressure regulation ob
tained >with the system of FIGURE 5.
This invention is intended to be employed with trans
missions of the type providing a plurality of ratios by
ln multiratio transmissions having hydraulic control 15 shifting control elements by means of the servo motors.
It is particularly adapted with multiratio transmission
systems employing hydraulic servo motors to engage and
gearing particularly of the planetary type where a plu
disengage clutches to effect a change in ratio, it is desir
rality of ratio change hydraulic servo motors are employed
able ~to control the rate of engagement and/ or disengage
to engage drive establishing or ratio change devices; such
ment of these hydraulic motors. By controlling the time
of the engagement and/ or disengagement of the hydraulic 20 as, a connecting clutch or reaction gear brake. An ex
ample of the type of transmission is shown in the appli
motor, the time interval of the ratio change may be con
cant’s co-pending application Serial Number 396,272, ñled
trolled to provide smoother shitting. These hydraulic con
trol systems employ a source of pressure such as a pump
which is controlled by a pressure regulator valve.
In
December 4, 1953.
'
The hydraulic control system employs a pump 1.1 which
order to provide smoother shifts the pressure regulator 25 draws fluid from a suitable sump (not shown) through
the intake line 12 and supplies iluid under pressure to the
valve is regulated dur-ing the shift change period to pro
main line 14. The main line 14 is connected through
vide a lower pressure during the ratio change interval.
the upper end of the bore 16 of the pressure regulating
The llow of fluid in the ratio change line through the con
valve unit 1S which has a valve member ‘20 reciprocally
trol valves to the clutch motors is employed as a signal
to regulate the pressure supplied to the clutch motors. 30 in the bore. The valve 2G is urged to »the upper or closed
position shown yby a spring 22 which seats on the recip
The main line pressure is normally maintained by the pres
rocable piston 24 located in the enlarged bore 26. lln the
sure regulator valve at a high lever, however, when the
high pressure position shown in FIGURE 1 the piston 2:4
control valve is actuated to engage a clutch motor for a
is in engagement with the shoulder 28 between bores 26
ratio change, the flow actuates controls for the pressure
regulator valve to reduce the pressure in the main line. 35 and 16. The stem 30 limits downward movement of the
valve 20 so that it will not fully compress spring 2v2. In
This control may also determine the rate of change of the
the closed position illustrated, valve Ztl blocks exhaust
port 32. Exhaust port 34 is open in all positions to prevent
the accumulation of leakage fluid between the valve 2t)
tion of the ratio change. ln this way, the timing of the
shift interval and the pressure at which the clutches are 40 and `the piston 24 which would interfere with the operation
of the valve. Main line 14- is connected through the
disengaged and engaged may ybe controlled to reduce the
valve 13 «and through the oriñce 36 to the ratio change
shock occurring during a ratio change.
tluid pressure to provide a fast or slow reduction in pre-s
sure or a fast or slow increase in pressure at the termina
An object of this invention is to provide in a multiratio
transmission having a hydraulic control system, a pressure
line 33. Ratio change line 3S is connected through a suit
able automatic or manual control valve 40 to one or more
regulator for the fluid being »supplied to the ratio change 45 lines 42 and the ratio change motors 43. The regulator'
motors to regulate the fluid pressure to provide a smooth
shift interval.
Another object of the invention is to provide in a multi
ratio transmission having hydraulic controls, a fluid pres
sure regulator for the fluid supplied to the lratio change
lines to reduce the pressure during the ratio change inter
val.
Another object of the invention is to provide in a
multiratio transmission having a hydraulic control system,
a pressure regulator for the lluid which is supplied to the
ratio change motors operated by the -llow to the ratio
change motors to reduce the pressure during the change in
terval in accordance with the predetermined time and to in
crease the pressure to the original level in the predeter
mined time.
Another object of the invention is to provide in a multi
ratio transmission having a hydraulic control system, a
pressure regulator valve to control the pressure of the fluid
delivered to the ratio change motor in response to the flow
of lluid to the ratio change motors to provide a controlled
reduction of fluid pressure at the initiation of 4the ratio
change and a controlled increase of iluid pressure at the
valve 18 is controlled by a control valve ‘46 having a spool
member 48 with lands a 'and b of equal diameter located
in the bore Sil. :The ends of the bore are closed and at the
lower end a spring 52 engages the end of the bore and
50 land b to hold the valve in the upper or open position.
The main line 14 «is connected at port 54 to the end of
the valve bore 50 to act on the end of land 48a to urge
the control valve down, compressing spring 52 to close
the valve. Mainline 14 is also connected through orifice
55 56 to the port 58 located helow the land a. ‘Port 60 located
above land b is connected by line 62 to the lower end of
bore ‘Z6 to act on piston 24. In the open position, land b
blocks the restricted exhaust 64. The ratio change line 38
is connected at port 59 to the lower end of the bore 50 to
60 act with spring 52 upwardly on spool member 48 to open
the valve.
Operation
During operation of the transmission when a ratio
changepressure
is not to
in the
progress,
main line
the 14pump
and through
1l supplies
orifice 36
65 under
to ratio change line 38, control valves 4t! and lines 42
to the servos engaged to effect the ratio in which the
termination of the ratio change.
transmission is operating.
These and other objects of the invention will be ap
if the pump deliversl an excess amount of fluid the
parent from the following description and drawings of the 70 pressure in main line 14 will act on valve 2t) compressing
preferred embodiment of the invention:
spring Z2 and move the valve down to the open position
3,025,717
3
to permit the exhaust of the excess ñuid through exhaust
32 in order to regulate the pressure in the system. The
pressure will be regulated at a high value since p-iston 24
will be against shoulder 2S as explained below. The main
line is connected through orifice S6, port 58, between the
lands a and b of the spool member 48 and the line 62
like the system shown in FiGURE 1 and described
above. However, it will be noted that the orifice 56
and the restricted exhaust 64 have been replaced by a
free exhaust 65 and orifice 70 in the control line 62.
The orifices, for example, orifice 70, may consist of a
plate with a plurality of apertures to provide an adjustable
orifice. This system will operate in substantially the
to the bore 26 where the pressure acts upon the larger
same manner as the system of IFIGURE 1 except that
area of the piston 24 and holds the piston against the
`the orifice 70 will control the reduction in pressure upon
shoulder 2S. This raises the spring abutment piston 24
against shoulder 2S requiring a higher pressure level to 10 the initiation of the shift and increase in pressure at the
termination of the shift. Thus the rate of change of
Iact upon the valve Ztl vbefore excess pressure is released
pressure will be the same when the pressure decreases on
by exhaust 32.
the initiation of the shift and when the pressure increases
When the manual contro-l valve 40 is actuated to pro~
at the termination of the shift.
vide a ratio change, fiow through the main line 14 and
It will be apparent that the above-described preferred
ratio change line 68 to the motors must pass through 15
embodiments are illustrative of the invention which may
orifice 36. Thus during the ratio change interval when
be employed in many modified forms within the scope of
there is flow in the lines, the pressure in the main line
the appended claims.
14 is higher than the pressure in the ratio change line 38.
l claim:
Since the main line i4 is connected to the top of control
valve 46 -to act on land 48a and the ratio change pressure
l. ln a transmission, `a control system for a multiratio power train, a source of fiuid under pressure,
to the bottom of valve 46 to act on land riëb, the valve
regulator valve means having a spring to control the
will be moved down against the force of spring 52 closing
port 58 to block the flow of fiuid yfrom the main line 14
pressure of the fluid at said source, means to vary the
force of said spring to provide a regulator valve that
through orifice 56 and valve 46 to `line 62 to act on the
piston 24 and exhaust port 64 is opened to connect line 25 controls the pressure of the fiuid at a high pressure and
62 to the restricted exhaust 64 permitting piston 24 to
at a low pressure, an orifice, ratio change control means,
said source being connected through said orifice to said
size of the orifice or restriction in the exhaust 64 will
ratio change control means, ratio change motor means,
means connecting said ratio change control means to said
control the time in which piston 24 recedes and thus con
trol the rate of pressure drop from the high value to the 30 ratio change motor means, and means responsive to a
low value. This is shown in FIGURE 2 by the slope por
pressure differential across said orifice caused by fiow to
said ratio change motor means connected to means to
tion a-b of the curve in FIGURE 2. The size of the
vary the force of said spring to control said regulator
orifice `controls the rate of change of the main line pres~
sure. A smaller orifice will provide a slower decrease in
valve means to reduce the regulated pressure from said
pressure which would be indicated by a more gradual slope 35 high to said low pressure.
of the curve portion a-b while a larger orifice will pro
2. In a transmission, a control system for a multiratio
vide »a fas-ter decrease in pressure which would be indi
power train, a source of fluid under pressure, regulator
valve means having a spring to control the pressure of
cated by a steeper slope of the curve portion a-b. Thus
the orifices may be changed or a variable orifice used to
the fiuid at said source, means to vary the force of said
move down to reduce the force exerted by spring 22. The
change the rate of change of the pressure to meet varying 40 spring to provide a regulator valve that controls the
pressure of the fiuid at a high pressure and at a low pres
requirements of the transmission.
sure, an orifice, ratio change control means, said source
When the flow to the ratio change motor stops, the
being connected through said orifice to said ratio change'
pressure drop across orifice 36 ceases and the pressure in
control means, ratio change motor means, means con'-r
main line 14 and ratio control line 318 equalizes permitting
the spring 52 to return the valve 48 to the open position 45 necting said ratio change control means to said rati@
change motor means, means responsive to a pressure dif'
connecting main line 14 through orifice 56 to line 62
ferential across said orifice caused by flow to said ratio
and the bore 26. Piston 24 is thus moved upwardly to
change motor means connected to means to vary the
increase the pressure to the original value. The rate of
force of said spring to control said regulator valve means
increase is controlled by the orifice 56. As in the case
of the restricted exhaust, the rate of feed is controlled by 50 to change the regulated pressure between said high to
said low pressure, a first timing means to control the
the orifice 56 and a certain orifice will provide a rate
rate of change of pressure from said high to said low
indicated by the portion c-d of the curve in FIGURE 2.
pressure and a second timing means to control the rate
A smaller orifice will provide a more gradual rate giving
of change of pressure from said low to said high pressure.
the curve portion c-d a more gentle slope while a
3. In a transmission, a control system for a multiratio
larger orifice would provide a more rapid increase in
power train, a source of fiuid under pressure, regulator
pressure giving curve portion c-d a steeper slope.
valve means having a spring to control the pressure of
If the restriction in the exhaust 641 is omitted, the pres~
the fluid at said source, means to vary the force of said
sure in main line 14 will drop substantially instantane
spring to provide a regulator valve that controls the presv
ously when the ratio change is initiated as indicated in
FIGURE 3 by the curve portion a-b. Then during the 60 sure of the fluid at a high pressure and at a low pressure;
an orifice, ratio change control means, said source being'
shift interval, the pressure will remain in the low value
connected through said orifice to said ratio change con
as indicated by the curve portion b-c. When the servo
trol means, ratio change motor means, means connect
motor is filled, pressure will rise gradually as indicated
ing said ratio change control means to said ratio change
by the curve portion c-d under the control of the
motor means, means responsive to a'pressure differential
orifice 56.
65
across said orifice caused by flow to said ratio change
If the orifice S6 is omitted, the pressure change will
motor means connected to said means to vary the force
follow the curves indicated in FlÍGURE 4. On initiation
of said spring to control said regulator valve means to
of the ratio change, the restricted orifice 64 will slow the
decrease lin the pressure as indicated on ya line a~-b to the
change the regulated pressure `between said high to said'.
lower pressure b-~e indicated by the curve portion. When 70 low pressure, and timing means to control the rate ofi
change of pressure between said high and low pressures..
the servo motor is filled and the valve 46 opens and
the
connects
pressure
main
willline
increase
14 without
substantially
restriction
instantaneously
to the line to
the original value as indicatedvby the curve portion c-d.
4. in a transmission, a control system for a multiratio`
power train, a source of fluid under pressure, regulatorY
valve means having a spring to control the pressure of
The modification shown in ‘FlGURE 5 is substantially 75 the fluid at said source, fiuid motor means to vary the
3,025,717
5
6
force of said spring to provide a regulator valve that
having a drive establishing friction device, a source of
controls the pressure of the fluid at a high pressure and
fluid under pressure, regulator valve means to control the
at a low pressure, an orifice, ratio change control means,
pressure of the fluid at said source between and at a pre
conduit means connecting said source through said ori
determined high pressure value and at a predetermined
fice to said ratio change control means, ratio change mo
low pressure value, an orifice, a ratio change control
tor means, means connecting said ratio change control
means, said source being connected through said orifice
means to said ratio change motor means, control valve
to said ratio change control means, ratio change motor
means normally connecting said source to said fluid mo
means operatively connected to said friction engaging
tor means to position said fluid motor for a spring force
device to establish said drive, means connecting said ratio
providing high pressure, and `said control valve means 10 change control means to said ratio change motor means,
having opposed areas connected to Asaid conduit means
means responsive to flow through said orifice to said ratio
on opposite sides of said orifice to close said control
change motor means operatively connected to said regula
valve means in response to a pressure differential across
tor valve means to change the pressure from one predeter-
said orifice caused by flow to said ratio change motor
mined pressure value to the other for the entire duration
of flow through said orifice, a first timing means to control
the time rate of change of pressure from said high to said
means connected to exhaust said fluid motor means to
reduce the force of said spring to control said regulator
valve means to reduce the regulated pressure from said
low pressure, and a second timing means to control the
high to said low pressure.
time rate of change of pressure from said low to said
5. The invention deñned in claim 4 and means to con
high pressure.
trol the rate of change of pressure from said high to said 20
l0. In a transmission, a control system for a power
low pressure.
train having a drive establishing friction device, a source
6. The invention defined in claim 4 and means to con
of fiuid under pressure, regulator valve means to control
trol the rate of change of pressure from said low to said
the pressure of the fluid at said source between and at a
high pressure.
predetermined high pressure value and at a predetermined
7. In a transmission, a control system for a multira
low pressure value, an orifice, a ratio change control
tio power train, a source of fluid under pressure, regu
means, said source being connected through said orifice
lator valve means having a spring to control the pres
to said ratio change control means, ratio change motor
sure of the fiuid at said source, fluid motor means to
means operatively connected to said friction engaging de
vary the force of said spring to provide a regulator valve
vice to establish said drive, means connecting said ratio
that controls the pressure of the fluid at a high pressure 30 change control means to said ratio change motor means,
and at a low pressure, an orifice, ratio change control
means responsive to flow through said orifice to said
means, conduit means connecting said source through
ratio change motor means operatively connected to said
said orifice to said ratio change control means, ratio
regulator valve means to change the pressure from one
change motor means, means connecting `said ratio change
control means to said ratio change motor means, con
trol valve means normally connecting said source to said
fiuid motor means to position said fluid motor for a
spring force providing high pressure, said control valve
predetermined value to the other for the entire duration
35 `of liow through said orifice, a first timing means to c-on
trol the rate of change of pressure from said high to said
low pressure, a second timing means to control the rate
of change of pressure from said low to said high pressure,
means having opposed areas connected to said conduit
and said first and second timing means being operative to
means on opposite sides of said orifice to close said valve 40 provide different rates of change.
means in response to a pressure differential across said
ll. In a transmission, a control system for a power
orifice caused by flow to said ratio change motor means
connected to exhaust said fluid motor means to reduce
the force of said spring to control said regulator valve
means to reduce the regulated pressure from said high
to said low pressure and orifice means in said control
valve means to control the rate of change of pressure
between said high pressure and said low pressure.
8. In a transmission, a control system for a multiratio
power train, a source of fluid under pressure, regulator
valve means having a ‘spring to control the pressure of
the fiuid at said source, fluid motor means to vary the
force of said spring to provide a regulator valve that
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
movable from a disengaged position under a low force
value to a contacting position for soft engagement and
then under an increasing force value and finally a high
force value to provide firmer engagement and finally a
fully engaged position7 a source of iiuid under pressure,
regulator valve means to control the pressure of the fluid
at said source, an orifice, drive establishing control means,
drive establishing motor means operatively connected to
said friction engaging device to move said friction engag
ing device from said disengaged position into said contact
ing position under a low pressure value and then to said
controls the pressure of the fiuid at a high pressure and
fully engaged position by a high pressure value, means
at a low pressure, a first orifice, ratio change control
connecting said source through said orifice and said con~
means, conduit means connecting said source through 55
trol means to said motor means, and means responsive
said first orifice to ysaid ratio change control means, ra
to a pressure differential across said orifice caused by flow
tio change motor means, means connecting said ratio
to said motor means only during movement from said dis
change control means to said ratio change motor means,
engaged position to said contacting position connected to
a second and third orifice, control valve means including
a control valve normally connecting said source through 60 said regulator valve means to reduce the regulated pressure
said second orifice and through said control valve to said
fiuid motor means to position said fluid motor for a
a predetermined constant degree regardless of variations
in the operative rate of flow to a lower value sufficient to
move said friction engaging device into soft engagement
spring force providing a rate of change from low to high
only during the movement of said friction engaging device
pressure controlled by said second orifice, said control
from
said disengaged position into said contacting posi
valve having opposed areas connected to said conduit 65
tion and immediately on contact to increase said regulated
means on opposite sides of said first orifice to close said
valve means in response to a pressure differential across
said first orifice caused by flow to said ratio change mo
tor means connected to exhaust said fluid motor means
pressure to a high value to move said friction engaging
device to said fully engaged position.
f
l2. In a transmission, a control system for a power
through said control valve and said third orifice to re 70 train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
movable from a disengaged position under a low force
duce the force of said spring to control said regulator
value to a contacting position for soft engagement and
valve means to reduce the regulated pressure from said
then under an increasing force value and finally a high
high to said low pressure at a rate of change of pressure
regulated by said third orifice.
force value to provide firmer engagement and finally a
9. In a transmission, a control system for a power train 75 fully engaged position, a source of fluid under pressure,
spasm?
7
a regulator valve including means to control the pressure
of the fluid at said source at a high pressure and a lower
pressure, an orifice, drive establishing control means, drive
establishing motor means operatively connected to said
friction engaging device to move said friction engaging
means, and means responsive to a pressure differential
across said orifice caused by iiow to actuate said motor
means only during movement from said disengaged posi
tion to said contacting position connected to said means
of said regulator valve to change the regulated pressure
device from said disengaged position into said contacting
from one of said pressure values to the other on the initia
position by one of said pressures under a low force value
and then to said fully engaged position by the other of
tion of flow to actuate said motor means to move said fric
means responsive to a pressure differential across said
and finally to said fully engaged position.
tion engaging device from said disengaged position and
to change said regulated pressure to said last mentioned
said pressures under a high force value, means connecting`
said source through said orifice and said drive establishing 10 one pressure value on contact of the friction engaging
device to move said motor means into firmer engagement
control means to said drive establishing motor means, and
orifice caused by flow to actuate said motor means only
l5. In a transmission, a control system for a power
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
contacting position connected to said means of said regu 15 movable from a disengaged position under a low force
value to a contacting position for soft engagement and
lator valve to change the regulated pressure from one of
during movement from said disengaged position to said
then under an increasing force value `and finally a high
force value to provide firmer engagement and finally a
fully engaged position, a sour-ce of fluid under pressure.
device from said disengaged position and to change said
regulated pressure to said last mentioned one pressure on 20 a regulator valve including means to control the pressure
of the fluid at said source at a predetermined high pres
contact of the friction engaging device to move said motor
sure value and a predetermined low pressure value, an
means into firmer engagement and finally to said fully
said pressures to the other on the initiation of flow to
actuate said motor means to move said friction engaging
engaged position.
i3. in a transmission, a control system for a power
orifice, drive establishing control means, drive establishing
motor means operatively connected to said friction en
gaging device to move said friction engaging device from
said disengaged position into said contacting position by
movable from a disengaged position under a low force
one of said pressure values under a low force value and
value to a contacting position for soft engagement and
then to said fully engaged position by the other of said
then under an increasing force value and finally a high
pressure values under. a high force value, means connect
force value to provide firmer engagement and finally a
fully engaged position, a source of ftuid under pressure, a 30 ing said source through said orifice and said control means
to said motor means, and means responsive to a pressure
regulator valve including means to control the pressure
differential across said orifice caused by flow to actuate
of the iiuid at said source at a high pressure and a lower
said motor means only during movement from said dis
pressure, an orifice, drive establishing control means,
engaged position to said contacting position connected to
drive establishing motor means operatively connected to
said friction engaging device to move said friction engag 35 said means of said regulator valve to change the regulated
pressure from one of said pressure values to the other on
ing device from said disengaged position into said con
the initiation of iioW to actuate sai-d motor means to move
tacting position by one of said pressures under a low force
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
value and then to said fully engaged position by the other
lsaid friction engaging device from said disengaged posi
tion and to maintain said pressure at said other value only
necting said source through said orifice and said drive 40 during the movement of said friction engaging device into
said contacting position and to change said regdilated pres
establishing control means to said drive establishing motor
of said pressures under a high force value, means con
means, means responsive to a pressure differential across
sure to said last mentioned one pressure value on contact
said orifice caused by flow to actuate said motor means
of the friction engaging device to move said motor means
only during movement from said disengaged position to
into firmer engagement Iand finally to said fully engaged
said contacting position connected to said means of said
regulator valve to change the regulated pressure from one
16. In a transmission, a control system for a power
position.
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
movable from a disengaged position under a low force
value lto a contacting position for soft engagement and
device from said disengaged position and to change said
regulated pressure to said last mentioned one pressure on 50 then under an increasing force value and finally a high
force value to provide firmer engagement and finally a
Contact of the friction engaging device to move said motor
fully engaged position, a source of fiuid under pressure,
means into firmer engagement and finally to said fully
a regulator valve including means to control the pressure
engaged position, and said last mentioned means including
of the fluid at said source at a predetermined high pres
means to change the pressure between the high and the
of said pressures to the other on the initiation of iiow to
actuate said motor means to move said friction engaging
low pressure at a time controlled slow rate of pressure
change.
14. in a transmission, a control system for a power
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
sure value and a predetermined low pressure value, an
orifice, drive establishing control means, drive establish
ing motor means operatively connected to s-aid friction
engaging device to move said friction engaging device
from said disengaged Iposition into said contacting posi
movable from a disengaged position under a low force
value to a contacting position for soft engagement and 60 tion by one of said pressure values under a low force
value and then to said fully engaged position by the other
then under an increasing force value and finally a high
of said pressure values under a high force value, means
force value t-o provide firmer engagement and finally a
connecting said source through said orifice and said con
fully engaged position, a source of fluid under lpressure,
trol means to said motor means, and means responsive to
a regulator valve including means to control the pressure
of the fluid at said source at a predetermined high pres 65 a pressure differential across said orifice caused by flow
to actuate said motor means only during movement from
sure value and a predetermined low pressure value, an
orifice, drive establishing control means, drive establish
ing motor means operatively connected to said friction
engaging device to move said friction engaging device
said disengaged position to said contacting position con
value and then to said fully engaged position by the other
disengaged position and -to maintain said pressure at said
other value only during the movement of said friction
engaging device into said contacting position and to change
said regulated pressure to said last mentioned one pressure
nected to said means of said regulator valve to change
the regulated pressure from one of said pressure values
from said disengaged position into said contacting posi 70 to the other on the initiation of flow to actuate said motor
means to move said friction engaging device from said
tion by one of said pressure values under a low force
of said pressure values under a high force value, means
connecting said source through said orifice and said drive
establishing control‘means to said drive establishing motor
3,025,717
10
9
value at a time controlled slow rate of pressure change
on contact of the friction engaging device to move said
to provide soft initial engagement of said friction engaging
device and on the cessation of said signal at said contact
motor means into firmer engagement and finally to said
ing position to change the regulated pressure from said
fully engaged position.
`another to said last mentioned one pressure value to move
17. In a transmission, a control system for a power
said friction engaging device to said fully engaged posi
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
movable from a disengaged position under a low force
value to a contacting position for soft engagement and
then under an increasing force value and finally a high
force va-lne to provide firmer engagement and finally a 10
fully engaged position, »a source of fluid under pressure,
tion to provide firmer and then -full engagement.
19. The invention defined in claim 18 and said pressure
control means controlling the change in regulated pressure
in at least one direction at a time controlled slow rate of
pressure change.
20. In a transmission, a control system for a power train
having a drive establishing friction engaging device mov
a regulator valve including means to control the pressure
able from a disengaged position under a low force value to
of the fluid of said source at a predetermined high pres
a contacting position for soft engagement and then under
sure value -and `at a predetermined low pressure value,
an orifice, drive establishing control means, drive estab 15 an increasing force value and finally a high force value to
provide firmer engagement and finally a fully engaged
lishing motor means operatively connected to said friction
engaging device to move said friction engaging device
from said disengaged position into said contacting posi
position, fluid motor means operatively connected to said
friction engaging device and operative to move from a
disengaged position in which said friction engaging device
engagement yand then to said fully engaged position under 20 is in said disengaged position to a contacting position in
said high pressure value to provide full non-slipping drive
which said friction engaging device is in said contacting
tion under said low pressure value to provide soft clutch
engagement, means `connecting said source through said
position under one pressure with a low `force value and
orifice and said control means to said motor means, and
to a fully engaged position in which said friction engaging
means normally `acting on said means of said regulator
device is in said fully engaged position under another
valve to control the pressure of the fluid at said source 25 pressure with a high force value to fully engage said
at said predetermined high pressure value and being
friction engaging device to establish said drive, a source of
responsive to a pressure differential across said orifice
fluid under pressure, a regulator Valve including means
caused by any liow operative to move said motor means
only from said disengaged position to said contacting
to control the pressure of the fluid of said source at a high
pressure value and at a low pressure value, both values
position to act on said means of said regulator valve to 30 being predetermined by said regulator valve, control
reduce and maintain the regulated pressure at said pre
means including a passage connecting said regulated source
determined low pressure value only during the movement
of fluid under pressure to said fluid motor means to control
of said friction engaging device from said disengaged posi
the flow of fluid between said source -and said fluid motor
tion into said contacting position under said low pressure
means, said control means being operative to control the
value providing soft engagement of said friction engaging 35 flow of fluid between said source and said fluid motor
device and immediately on contact to increase said
means to engage and disengage said drive in response to
regulated pressure to said predetermined high pressure
the flow of fluid, flow detecting means located in said
value to move said motor means under a pressure increas
passage effective upon detecting any operative degree
ing to said high pressure value to provide firmer engage
of flow of fluid through said control means to said motor
ment and then full engagement of said friction engaging 40 means effective to move said fluid motor means only from
device.
said disengaged position to said contacting position to
18. In a transmission, a control system for a power
provide a signal and to discontinue said signal with the
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
substantial cessation `of flow during movement from
movable from a disengaged position under a low force
said motor means from said contacting position to said
value to a contacting position -for soft engagement and then 45 fully engaged position and means responsive to said signal
under an incre-asing force value and finally a vhigh force
and operative on said regulator valve to change the reg
value to provide firmer engagement and finally a fully
ulated pressure from one to another of said predetermined
engaged position, fluid motor means operatively connect
pressure values to actuate said fluid motor means under a
ed to said friction engaging device operative t-o move from
low force value to provide soft engagement of said friction
a disengaged position to a contacting position under one
engaging device during the initiation of any operative
pressure with a low force and then to a fully engaged
degree of flow indicating initiation of movement of said
position under another pressure with a high force to simi
motor from said disengaged position and to maintain said
larly actuate said friction engaging device, a source of fluid
pressure at said another predetermined pressure Value
under pressure, a regulator valve including means to
during the entire period of said operative degree of flow
control the pressure of the fluid of said source at a high 55 only from said disengaged position to said contacting posi
pressure Value and at a lower pressure value, drive control
tion and on the cessation of flow when said motor reaches
means including a passage connecting said regulated source
said contacting position and said signal indicates contact
of fluid under pressure to said fluid motor means to control
of said friction engaging device to initiate a change of the
the flow of fluid between said source and said fluid motor
regulated pressure from said another to said one pressure
means, said drive control means being operative to control 60 value to actuate said fluid motor means under a high force
the flow of fluid between said source and said fluid motor
value to move said friction engaging device to said fully
means to engage and disengage said drive in response lto the
engaged position to provide firmer and then full engage
flow of fluid, flow detecting means located in said passage
ment.
effective upon detecting the operative degree of flow of
21. In a transmission, a control system for a power train
fluid between said control means and said fluid motor 65 having a drive establishing friction engaging device mov
means effective to move the fluid motor means only from
able from a disengaged position under a low force value
said disengaged position to said contacting position to
to a contacting position for soft engagement and then
provide a signal and to discontinue said signal with the
under an increasing force value and finally a high force
substantial cessation of flow when said fluid motor means
Value to provide firmer engagement and finally a fully
reaches said contacting position and pressure- `control means 70 engaged position, fluid motor means operative to engage
responsive to said signal and operative on said means of
said friction engaging device with a force proportional
said regulator valve to change :the regulated pressure
to the fluid pressure to establish said drive, a source of
from one to another of said pressure values during only
fluid under pressure, a regulator valve including means to
said operative degree of flow effective during movement
control the pressure of the fluid of said source at a high
from said disengaged position to said contacting position 75 pressure value and at a low pressure Value, both values
3,025,717
ll
being predetermined by said regulator valve, .control means
including a passage connecting said regulated source of
fluid under pressure to said motor means to control the
flow of iluid from said source to said motor means, said
control means being operative to ycontrol the ñow ot fluid
from said source to said motor means to engage said drive
in response to the liow of fluid, flow detecting means
located in said passage ellective upon detecting any opera
tive degree of iiow of fluid through said control means
to said iiuid motor means only in a direction to said motor
means suñîcient to move said motor means only from said
disengaged position to said contacting position to provide
a signal and to discontinue said signal with the cessation
chamber, pressure regulating valve means having a mov
able element and biasing means, means to connect said
supply line means to said pressure regulating valve to
supply fluid to urge said movable element to move in
one direction, said biasing means providing a biasing
torce to urge said movable element to move in the op
posite direction having a predetermined normal high bias
ing force and controllable to reduce the biasing force
to a predetermined low biasing force, said regulating valve
having vent means operative in response to movement of
said movable element in said one direction by said fluid
from said supply line means to vent said supply line means
and to movement in said opposite direction by said bias
ing force to close said vent means to normally regu
of said flow to said fluid motor means when said motor
reaches said contacting position and means responsive to 15 late the ñuid pressure in said supply line and said cham
ber at and between predetermined high and low pressure
said signal and operative on said regulator valve to change
the regulated pressure from said high to said low prede
termined pressure value during any operative degree of
iiow to provide soft engagement of said friction engaging
device and on the cessation of said signal to change the
regulated pressure from said low to said high prede
termined pressure value to move said friction engaging
values, and means responsive to the supply of fluid from
said source through said supply line means to said de
vice by said control valve means to provide initially said
predetermined low biasing force to actuate said regulator
valve means to provide a predetermined low regulated
pressure and responsive to a llluid pressure in said sup
ply line proportional to said regulated fluid pressure regu
device to said fully engaged position to provide firmer and
lated by said regulator valve operatively connected to said
then full engagement.
22. In a transmission, a ñuid operated drive engaging 25 biasing means to provide a continuous, gradual slope in
crease of said biasing force from said low biasing force
device having an expansible chamber which expands to
to said normal high biasing force at a predetermined con
actuate said device, a source of fluid under pressure, sup
trolled slow rate of change over an extended period of
ply line means connecting said source to said chamber
time to increase the ñuid pressure in said supply line
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
and proportional under flow conditions to the pressure 30 means and said device from said low initial value at a
gradual slope rate of pressure increase to said high pres
value in said chamber, control valve means to control
sure value regulated by said regulator valve means over
the supply of fluid from said source through said supply
line means to said chamber, pressure regulating valve
said extended period of time to gradually and softly en
sure regulating valve to supply iluid to urge said movable
device having an expansible chamber which expands to
element to move in one direction, said biasing means pro
actuate said device, a source of iluid under pressure, sup
gage said drive engaging device.
means having a movable element and biasing means,
24. In a transmission, a fluid operated drive engaging
means to connect said supply line means to said pres 35
ply line means connecting said source to said chamber
having a pressure value the same under static conditions
predetermined high-biasing force and a predetermined low 4:0 and proportional under ilow conditions to the pressure
value in said chamber, control valve means to control
biasing force, said regulating valve having vent means
the supply of fluid from said source through said supply
operative in response to movement of said movable ele
line means to said chamber, pressure regulating valve
ment in said one direction by said duid from said supply
means having a movable element and biasing means,
line means to vent said supply line means and to move
viding a biasing force to urge said movable element to
move in the opposite direction controllable to provide a
ment in said opposite direction by said biasing force to 45 means to connect said supply line means to said pres
close said vent means to regulate the fluid pressure in said
supply line and said chamber at and between predeter
mined high and low pressure values, and means respon
sive to the supply of »liuid from said source through said
supply line means to said chamber by said control valve
means to change the biasing force from one to another
predetermined biasing force to actuate said regulator valve
means to change from one to another predetermined regu
lated pressure and responsive to a fluid pressure in said
supply line proportional to said regulated ñuid pressure
regulated by said regulator valve operatively connected to
said biasing means to provide a continuous, gradual slope
change of said biasing force between said low biasing
sure regulating valve to supply iluid to urge said mov
able element to move in one direction, said biasing means
providing a biasing force to urge said movable element
to move in the opposite direction controllable to provide
a predetermined high biasing force and a predetermined
low biasing force, said regulating valve having vent means
operative in response to movement of said movable ele
ment in said one direction by said -fluid from said supply
line means to vent said supply line means and to move
ment in said opposite direction by said biasing force to
close said vent means to regulate the iluid pressure in said
supply line and said chamber at and between predeter
mined high and low pressure values, and ñow detecting
means responsive to the flow of fluid from said source
force and said high biasing force at a predetermined con
trolled slow rate of change over an extended period of 60 through said supply line means to said chamber by said
control valve means to control said biasing means to
time to change the liuid pressure in said supply line means
change the biasing force from one to another predeter
and said chamber between said low value and said high
mined biasing force to actuate said regulator valve means
pressure value at a gradual slope rate of pressure change
to change from one to another predetermined regulated
regulated by said regulator valve means over said ex
tended period of time to gradually and softly engage said 65 pressure and responsive to a iluid pressure in said supply
drive engaging device.
23. ln a transmission, a fluid operated drive engaging
device having an expansible chamber which is supplied
with iluid to expand said chamber to engage said drive,
a source of iluid under pressure, supply line means con 70
necting said source to said chamber having a pressure
value the same under static conditions and proportional
under flow conditions to the pressure value in said charn
ber control valve means to control the supply of lluid
from said source through said supply line means to said 75
line proportional to said regulated ñuid- pressure regulated
by said regulator valve operatively connected to said bias
ing means to provide a continuous, gradual slope change
of said biasing force between said low biasing force and
said high biasing force at a predetermined controlled
slow rate of change over an extended period of time to
change the tiuid pressure in said supply line means and
said chamber between said low value and said high pres
sure value ata gradual slope rate of pressure change regu
lated by-said regulator valve means over said extended
3,025,717
13
14
period of time to gradually and softly engage said drive
valve means to change said biasing force from one to
engaging device.
another of said predetermined biasing forces to actuate
25. In a transmission, a fluid operated drive engaging
device having an expandable chamber which is supplied
with fluid to expand said chamber to engage said drive,
said regulator valve means to change from one to an~
a source of fluid under pressure, supply line means con
regulated lluid pressure regulated by said regulator valve
operatively connected to said biasing means to provide
a continuous, gradual slope change of said biasing force
necting said source to said chamber having a pressure
value the same under static conditions and proportional
other predetermined regulated pressure and responsive t0
a lluid pressure in said supply line proportional to said
from one to another biasing force at a controlled prede
under llow conditions to the pressure value in said cham~
ber, control valve means to control the llow of fluid from 10 termined slow rate of change over an extended period of
time to control said regulator valve to provide initially
said source through said supply line means to said cham
one predetermined pressure value and then to change the
ber, pressure regulating valve means having a movable
fluid pressure in said supply line means and said device
element and biasing means, means to connect said supply
from said one pressure at a gradual predetermined slope
line means to said pressure regulating valve to supply
ñuid to urge said movable element to move in one direc 15 rate of pressure increase to said another pressure of said
regulator valve means over said extended period of time
tion, said biasing means providing a biasing force to urge
to gradually and softly engage said drive engaging device.
said movable element to move in the opposite direction
27. In a transmission, a fluid operated drive engaging
having a predetermined normal high biasing force and
device operative on the supply of fluid to said device to
controllable to reduce the biasing force to a predetermined
low biasing force, said regulating valve having vent means 20 engage a drive, a source of fluid under pressure, supply
line means connecting said source to said device having
operative in response to movement of said movable ele
a pressure value the same under static conditions and pro
ment in said one direction by said fluid from said supply
portional under flow conditions to the pressure value in
line means to vent said supply line means and to move
said device, control valve means in said supply line means
ment in said opposite direction by said biasing force to
close said vent means to normally regulate the fluid pres 25 to control the supply of iiuid from said source through
said supply line means to said device to cause on the
sure in said supply line and said device at and between a
initiation of the supply of pressure ñuid to said device, a
predetermined high to low pressure value, and flow de
pressure drop in said supply line means, pressure regu
tecting means responsive to the llow of fluid from said
lating valve means having a movable element, means to
source through said supply line means to said chamber by
said control valve means to control said biasing means 30 connect said supply line means to said pressure regulating
valve to supply iluid to urge said movable element to
to provide initially and for the duration of flow said pre
move in one direction, biasing means providing a biasing
determined low biasing force to actuate said regulator
force to urge said movable element to move in the op
valve means to provide a predetermined low regulated
posite direction having a predetermined normal high
pressure and responsive to a fluid pressure in Said supply
line proportional to said regulated iluid pressure regulated 35 biasing force and controllable to reduce the biasing force
to a predetermined low biasing force, said regulating
by said regulator valve operatively connected to said
valve having vent means connected to said supply line
biasing means to provide a continuous, gradual slope
means both upstream and downstream of said regulator
increase of said biasing force from said low biasing force
valve operative in response to movement of said movable
to said normal high biasing force at a predetermined
controlled slow rate of change over an extended period 40 element in said one direction by said duid from said sup
ply line means to vent said supply line means both up
of time to increase the fluid pressure in said supply line
stream and downstream of said regulator valve and to
means and said chamber from said low initial value at a
movement in said opposite direction by said biasing force
gradual slope rate of pressure increase to said high pres
to close said vent means to regulate the fluid pressure
sure value regulated by said regulator Valve means over
said extended period of time to gradually and softly en 45 in said entire supply line and said device at and between
a predetermined high and low pressure value, and means
gage said drive engaging device.
responsive to the supply of fluid from said source through
26. In a transmission, a fluid operated drive engaging
said supply line means to said device by said control
device, a source of fluid under pressure, supply line means
valve means to provide initially said predetermined low
connecting said source to said device having a pressure
value the same under static conditions and proportional 50 biasing force to actuate said regulator valve means to
provide a predetermined low regulated pressure and re
under ñow conditions to the pressure value in said device,
sponsive to a fluid pressure in said supply line propor
control valve means in said supply line means to control
tional to said regulated fluid pressure regulated by said
regulator valve operatively connected to said biasing
supply of pressure liuid to said device, a pressure drop 55 means to provide a continuous, gradual slope increase of
said biasing force from said low to said normal biasing
in said supply line means, pressure regulating valve means
the supply of fluid from said source through said supply
line means to said device to cause on the initiation of the
force at a controlled predetermined slow rate of change
having a movable element and biasing means, means to
over an extended period of time to control said regulator
connect said supply line means to said pressure regulating
valve to provide initially said predetermined positive low
valve to supply ñuid to urge said movable element to
move in one direction, biasing means providing a biasing 60 pressure value and then to increase the fluid pressure in
said supply line means and said device from said low
force to urge said movable element to move in the op
posite direction having a predetermined high biasing force
and a predetermined low biasing force, said regulating
valve having vent means connected to said supply line
means both upstream and downstream of said regulator
valve operative in response to movement of said movable
element in said one direction by said iiuid from said sup
ply line means to vent said supply line means both up
stream and downstream of said regulator valve and to
initial value at a gradual predetermined slope rate of
pressure increase to said high regulated pressure of said
regulator valve means over said extended period of time
to gradually and softly engage said drive engaging de
vice.
28. In a transmission, a control system for a power
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
movable from a disengaged position under a low force
movement in said opposite direction by said biasing force 70 value and under an increasing force value to provide soft
engagement during the initial stages of engagement and
to close said vent means to regulate the lluid pressure in
said entire supply line and said device at and between
predetermined high and low pressure values, and means
responsive to the supply of fñuid from said source through
said supply line means to said device by said control 75
ñnally a high force value to provide full engagement in the
fully engaged position, a source of fluid under pressure,
regulator valve means including pressure control means
to control the pressure of the fluid at said source at and
3,025,717
15
between a predetermined high pressure value and a pre
determined low pressure value, drive establishing control
means, drive establishing motor means operatively con
nected to said friction engaging device to move said fric
tion engaging device from said disengaged position by
one of said pressure values under a low force value and
then through the engagement stages under a varying pres~
sure to provide an increasing force value and to said fully
engaged position by the other of said pressure values
under a high force value, connecting means connecting
said source through said drive establishing control means
to said drive establishing motor means and having a
point having a pressure proportional to the pressure in
said drive establishing motor means, and means to con
neet said point of said connecting means to said pressure
control means to supply said pressure proportional to
said pressure in said motor means to said pressure con
trol means of said regulator valve to change the regulated
pressure from one of said pressure values to the other at
15
at and between a predetermined high pressure value and
a predetermined low pressure value, drive establishing con
trol means, drive establishing motor means operatively
connected to said friction engaging device to move said
friction engaging device from said disengaged position by
one of said pressure values under a low force value and
then through the engagement stages under a varying pres
sure to provide an increasing force value and to said fully
engaged position by the other of said pressure values
under a high force value, connecting means connecting
said source through said drive establishing control means
to said drive establishing motor means and having a point
having a pressure proportional to the pressure in said
drive establishing motor means, and means responsive to
i'low to actuate said motor means to connect said point
of said connecting means to said pressure control means
to supply said pressure proportional to said pressure in
said motor means to said pressure control means of said
regulator valve to change the regulated pressure from
a predetermined timed rate of pressure change controlled 20 one of said pressure values to the other at a predeter
mined timed rate of pressure change controlled by the
by the pressure supplied to said motor means to gradu
pressure supplied to said motor means to gradually in
ally increase the force value of said motor means actu
crease the force value of said motor means actuating said
ating said friction engaging device at a predetermined
friction engaging device at a predetermined timed rate
timed rate over an extended period of time to provide
over an extended period of time to provide initial soft
initial soft engagement and final rm engagement,
engagement and final ñrrn engagement.
29. In a transmission, a control system for a power
train having a drive establishing friction engaging device
movable from a >disengaged position under a low force
value and under an increasing force value to provide soft
References Cited in the ñle of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
engagement during the initial stages of engagement and 30
iinally a high force value to provide full engagement in
the fully engaged position, a source of fluid under pres~
2,568,528
2,711,656
Welte _______________ __ Sept. 18, 1951
Swirl ________________ __ June 28, 1955
sure, regulator valve means including pressure control
2,720,124
Polomski ____________ __ Oct. 1l, 1955
means to control the pressure of the fluid at said source
2,807,968
Foster ________________ __ Oct. l, 1957
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